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30 September 2019 Extrafloral nectaries in Leguminosae: phylogenetic distribution, morphological diversity and evolution
Brigitte Marazzi, Ana Maria Gonzalez, Alfonso Delgado-Salinas, Melissa A. Luckow, Jens J. Ringelberg, Colin E. Hughes
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Abstract

Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) mediating ecologically important ant–plant protection mutualisms are especially common and unusually diverse in the Leguminosae. We present the first comprehensively curated list of legume genera with EFNs, detailing and illustrating their systematic and phylogenetic distributions, locations on the plant, morphology and anatomy, on the basis of a unified classification of EFN categories and a time-calibrated phylogeny, incorporating 710 of the 768 genera. This new synthesis, the first since Mckey (1989)’s seminal paper, increases the number of genera with EFNs to 153 (20% of legumes), distributed across subfamilies Cercidoideae (1), Detarioideae (19), Caesalpinioideae (87) and Papilionoideae (46). EFNs occur at nine locations, and are most prevalent on vegetative plant parts, especially leaves (74%) and inflorescence axes (26%). Four main categories (with eight subcategories) are recognised and include the following: formless, trichomatic (exposed, hollow), parenchymatic (embedded, pit, flat, elevated) and abscission zone EFNs (non-differentiated, swollen scars). Phylogenetic reconstruction of EFNs suggests independent evolutionary trajectories of different EFN types, with elevated EFNs restricted almost exclusively to Caesalpinioideae (where they underwent spectacular morphological disparification), flat EFNs in Detarioideae, swollen scar EFNs in Papilionoideae, and Cercidoideae is the only subfamily bearing intrastipular EFNs. We discuss the complex evolutionary history of EFNs and highlight future research directions.

Journal Compilation © CSIRO 2019 Open Access CC BY-NC-ND
Brigitte Marazzi, Ana Maria Gonzalez, Alfonso Delgado-Salinas, Melissa A. Luckow, Jens J. Ringelberg, and Colin E. Hughes "Extrafloral nectaries in Leguminosae: phylogenetic distribution, morphological diversity and evolution," Australian Systematic Botany 32(5-6), 409-458, (30 September 2019). https://doi.org/10.1071/SB19012
Received: 1 February 2019; Accepted: 28 May 2019; Published: 30 September 2019
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