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The genus Jania J.V.Lamour. (Corallinaceae, Corallinophycidae, Rhodophyta) is represented by five species (one with two varieties) in south-eastern Australia. Descriptions and detailed morphoanatomical accounts of these taxa are provided, along with keys, information on distribution, nomenclature and habitat, and brief biogeographic comparisons within Australia. Relevant type material is illustrated in detail. A list of 79 morphoanatomical characters and character states used by previous authors (since 1928) to delimit or identify species of Jania was compiled. Of these, nine were useful for delimiting species occurring in south-eastern Australia. Most can be delimited using a single diagnostic character, but Jania pedunculata J.V.Lamour. is highly variable and is distinguished from J. crassa J.V.Lamour. by using several overlapping characters. Twelve additional names have been recorded for south-eastern Australia. The types of seven of these were examined during the present study or in recent publications. Types of five entities could not be examined, because type material had not been designated or was not available for examination or the name was not validly published. Information on misidentified specimens, heterotypic synonyms, rejected names and unverified records for the region is also provided.
The Utricularia dichotoma Labill. complex is a morphologically and ecologically variable group of closely related taxa with a mostly temperate distribution across New Zealand, New Caledonia and Australia. Taxonomic boundaries within the complex have been the subject of speculation, with several previously recognised species being synonymised after a nomenclatural revision. We sampled 296 populations representing all known taxa; 223 accessions were used in the full phylogenetic analysis based on two non-coding chloroplast regions (rps16, trnD–T) and two nuclear ribosomal spacers (external transcribed spacer, ETS; internal transcribed spacer-1, ITS-1), whereas the remaining accessions were identified by using ITS-1 barcodes. We found strong support for a paraphyletic U. dichotoma, with accessions matching the type material of that name grouped within a polytomy that includes clades containing accessions of U. monanthos Hook.f and U. novae-zelandiae Hook.f. Specific statuses for five recently described species previously included in U. dichotoma s.l. do not fall within this polytomy, nor do the two species U. oppositiflora R.Br. and U. speciosa R.Br. resurrected from synonymy of U. dichotoma. All sampled accessions from New Zealand form a single clade within U. dichotoma as recognised here. We here propose that seven clades recovered here be recognised as subspecies, and describe eight new subspecies, including two new combinations. We also propose that the monophyletic clade sister to U. beaugleholei Gassin be assigned to subspecies rank under that name.
A molecular phylogeny to test the monophyly of Nephelolejeunea by using previously published nrITS, rbcL and trnL–F sequence data demonstrated that Nephelolejeunea is paraphyletic with respect to Siphonolejeunea. Nephelolejeunea and Siphonolejeunea are, therefore, merged and, as the latter name has priority, new combinations in Siphonolejeunea are made for 10 species. The valid publication of the name Austrolejeunea is re-evaluated and we conclude that both Siphonolejeunea subgenus Austrolejeunea and Siphonolejeunea olgae were validly published in 1963. Siphonolejeunea bidentata is reported as new for New Zealand on the basis of a collection from the Wairarapa, a new species, Siphonolejeunea raharahanehemiae, is described on the basis of recent collections from Te Paki, where it grows on the twigs of Metrosideros bartlettii (Myrtaceae), and we provide a revised key to species of Siphonolejeunea. The significant conflict in signal between nrITS and chloroplast markers associated with the relationships of Cololejeunea angustiflora, which chloroplast sequence data suggest may not be grouped with the rest of Cololejeunea, is another interesting result from the phylogeny. The relationships of Cololejeunea angustiflora and its allies warrant further investigation.