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1 October 2002 Fifty Years of Anticoccidial Vaccines for Poultry (1952–2002)
R. B. Williams
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Although earlier investigators experimented with anticoccidial vaccines, the world's first commercially successful product was developed by Prof. S. A. Edgar of Auburn University, Auburn, AL. This product contained live, nonattenuated Eimeria tenella oocysts and was first marketed by Dorn and Mitchell, Inc., in 1952. Under the trade names of DM® Cecal Coccidiosis Vaccine, Coxine®, NObiCOX®, and CocciVac®, it went through several formulations containing various Eimeria species that parasitize chickens, and a further product containing turkey Eimeria species was also developed. After many product and company changes, one turkey and two chicken formulations of CocciVac® are still marketed worldwide by Schering-Plough Animal Health, Inc. Chicken and turkey formulations of Immucox®, a similar type of vaccine, were developed by Dr. E.-H. Lee and first marketed in 1985 in Canada by Vetech Laboratories, Inc.

In 1974, Dr. T. K. Jeffers of Hess and Clark, Inc., Ashland, OH, published his discovery of precocious lines of coccidia, which facilitated the development of the first attenuated anticoccidial vaccine. For commercial reasons, Jeffers was unable to do this himself, but this first attenuated vaccine was designed by Dr. M. W. Shirley and colleagues at the Houghton Poultry Research Station (HPRS) in the United Kingdom. The vaccine was commercially developed under license in the United Kingdom by Glaxo Animal Health Ltd. and then Pitman-Moore, Inc., and launched in The Netherlands during 1989 under the trade name Paracox®. After further changes in company ownership, two formulations for chickens are now marketed worldwide by Schering-Plough Animal Health, Inc.

Attenuation of coccidia by embryo adaptation was reported in 1972 in the United Kingdom by Dr. P. L. Long, who originally worked at the HPRS and later became a professor at the University of Georgia, Athens, GA. An embryo-adapted line of E. tenella was included with precocious lines of other species in a series of three attenuated vaccines for chickens under the trade name Livacox®, developed by Dr. P. Bedrník and launched in the Czech Republic in 1992 by Biopharm. The formulations of all other commercially available live anticoccidial vaccines for poultry are currently based upon the scientific principles established for the CocciVac®, Paracox® or Livacox® vaccines.

R. B. Williams "Fifty Years of Anticoccidial Vaccines for Poultry (1952–2002)," Avian Diseases 46(4), 775-802, (1 October 2002).[0775:FYOAVF]2.0.CO;2
Published: 1 October 2002
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