As part of ongoing ecological studies of Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) at Punta San Juan, Ica Department, Peru, health surveys were conducted in November 1992, 1993, and 1994. In the three surveys, 98 birds in total were handled for examination, and blood was collected for laboratory analysis from 90 of these birds. All birds seemed to be in good condition. Body weights of females were significantly lower in 1994 than in the other years. Fleas (Parapsyllus humboldti) and ticks (Ornithodoros amblus) were found on the penguins and in their nests. Females had significantly higher plasma calcium and phosphorus levels, and they had lower weights than males. No other differences were found between the sexes. Hematology, plasma chemistries, and plasma mineral levels varied between years. Positive antibody titers for Chlamydophila psittaci (62%), avian adenovirus (7%; 1994 only), paramyxovirus-2 (7%; 1993 only), and Salmonella Pullorum (7%) were found. Plasma chemistry and mineral levels differed between individuals testing positive vs. negative on serologic tests for avian adenovirus and Salmonella Pullorum. Serologic tests for antibodies to avian influenza A virus, avian encephalomyelitis virus, infectious bronchitis virus, avian reovirus, duck viral enteritis virus, equine encephalitis (eastern, western, and Venezuelan) viruses, infectious bursal disease virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, Aspergillus sp., and paramyxovirus-1 and -3 were negative. All chlorinated pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl analyses were below detectable limits.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.