To determine whether chemotherapeutic compounds available for use in domestic poultry are effective at controlling coccidiosis in northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), we tested 13 chemotherapeutic anticoccidials including amprolium (250 parts per million [ppm]), clopidol (125 ppm), diclazuril (1 ppm and 2 ppm), decoquinate (30 ppm), lasalocid (120 ppm), monensin (90 ppm), narasin/nicarbazin (36/36 ppm), robenidine (33 ppm), roxarsone (50 ppm), sulfadimethoxine/ormetoprin (125/75 ppm), salinomycin (60 ppm), semduramicin (25 ppm), and zoalene (125 ppm and 150 ppm). Three tests were conducted using two replicates of 10 birds each: Infected, unmedicated controls and medicated birds were challenged with 1 × 106 oocysts of a field isolate consisting primarily of Eimeria lettyae. Subsequently, we tested clopidol, lasalocid, salinomycin, diclazuril (1 ppm), and monensin against mixed-species field isolates containing E. lettyae, E. dispersa, E. colini, or all. Weight gain, gross intestinal lesions, severity of diarrhea, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) 6 days postinfection were recorded. Lesion score, as previously reported, was unreliable as a measure of severity of infection in comparison with weight gain, fecal scores, and FCR. Excellent to good efficacy was found in clopidol, decoquinate, diclazuril (1 ppm and 2 ppm), and in lasalocid, narasin and nicarbazin, robenidine, sulfadimethoxine/ormetoprin, and zoalene (150 ppm). Marginal protection was found using monensin, salinomycin, semduramicin, or a roxarsone/semduramicin combination. Amprolium, roxarsone, and zoalene (125 ppm) were ineffective at controlling coccidia. Two of the six isolates tested against diclazuril 1 ppm and clopidol demonstrated a high degree of resistance, but none of the six isolates was resistant to lasalocid. Four of the eight isolates showed mild to moderate, and moderate to high, resistance against monensin and salinomycin, respectively. These findings indicate that several available compounds are effective at controlling coccidiosis in bobwhites.
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Vol. 55 • No. 1