In the austral summer of 2011, in the rural area of Villarrica county, southern Chile (39°16′S, 72°19′W), seven black-faced ibis juveniles (approximately 4 mo old) were observed in the field with weakness; they were unable to follow the group and struggling to take flight. Three of these birds were euthanatized, and complete necropsies were performed. Gross examination showed severe infestation with Colpocephalum trispinum and Ardeicola melanopis lice, moderate emaciation, pale musculature, bursal atrophy, and severe hemorrhagic enteritis due to a heavy proventricular and intestinal infection with Porrocaecum heteropterum nematodes. Fungal pneumonia and severe lymphoid depletion on thymus, spleen, and bursa were diagnosed by microscopic examination. Bursal lesions included apoptosis and necrosis of lymphoid cells, and several cystic follicles. The presence of severe lymphoid depletion associated with fungal pneumonia and severe external and internal parasite infections suggest the presence of an immunosuppressive syndrome in these birds that caused the death of several black-faced ibis juveniles in southern Chile during the summer of 2011.
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