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12 June 2014 Spatial and Temporal Epidemiology of Infectious Laryngotracheitis in Central California: 2000–2012
Maurice Pitesky, R. P. Chin, S. Carnaccini, C. G. Sentíes–Cué, B. Charlton, P. R. Woolcock, H. L. Shivaprasad
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In October of 2005 an outbreak of a vaccine-like strain of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), indistinguishable from the chicken embryo origin (CEO)-like vaccine strains, was detected by routine passive surveillance in the Central Valley of California, U. S. A. In response, a highly coordinated industry effort by two companies led to a significant decrease in the incidence of ILT over the same geographic region between 2008–2012. In order to understand the geographic and temporal spread of ILT in California before and after the outbreak, Global Information Systems (GIS) mapping coupled with spatial, temporal, and spatial-temporal statistics were used to identify retrospective and prospective low-rate clustering (i.e., less ILT than statistically expected) and high-rate clustering (i.e., more ILT than statistically expected) of ILT spatially and temporally. Results showed two high-rate retrospective spatial-temporal clusters and one low-rate prospective spatial-temporal cluster which were all statistically significant (P < 0.05). Overall, spatial-temporal clustering accounted for 36.9% of the positive ILT cases, while temporal clustering and spatial clustering done separately each accounted for 0% of the ILT cases, respectively. This demonstrates the utility of combining spatial and temporal clustering for ILT surveillance. Due to the risk of reversion to virulence and spread to immunologically naive broilers, future application of the CEO-based vaccine in the identified high rate spatial-temporal clusters should be avoided and other vaccine alternatives considered in order to avoid repeat outbreaks in those areas. This should especially be followed during the winter months of December, January, and February, which were found to have the highest prevalence of ILT (P < 0.05). Analysis of GIS data within the high-rate clusters showed that wind direction and farm density were minor factors in the spread of ILT. Shared roads may have played a role in the spread of ILT in one of the two high rate spatial-temporal clusters.

Epidemiología espacial y temporal de laringotraqueitis infecciosa en el centro de California: 2000–2012.

En octubre del 2005 un brote de una cepa similar a la vacuna contra la laringotraqueítis infecciosa (ILT), indistinguible de las cepas vacunales originadas en embrión de pollo (CEO), fue detectada mediante vigilancia pasiva de rutina en el Valle Central de California, en los Estados Unidos. En respuesta, un esfuerzo altamente coordinado de la industria por dos empresas dio lugar a una disminución significativa en la incidencia de laringotraqueítis durante la misma región geográfica entre los años 2008–2012. A fin de comprender la distribución geográfica y temporal de la laringotraqueítis en California antes y después del brote, se utilizaron Sistemas de Información Global (GIS), junto con las estadísticas espaciales, temporales y espacio-temporales para identificar la agrupación espacial y temporal de tasa baja retrospectiva y prospectiva (es decir, menor que la tasa esperada estadísticamente para la laringotraqueítis) y de agrupamiento de tasa alta (es decir, mayor que la tasa esperada estadísticamente para laringotraqueítis) para laringotraqueítis. Los resultados mostraron dos agrupamientos espaciales-temporales retrospectivos de tasa alta y una agrupación espacial-temporal prospectiva de tasa baja que fueron estadísticamente significativas (P <0.05). En general, la agrupación espacio-temporal representó el 36.9% de los casos positivos de laringotraqueítis, mientras que la agrupación temporal y la agrupación espacial por separado representó el 0% de los casos de laringotraqueítis, respectivamente. Esto demuestra la utilidad de la combinación de la agrupación espacial y temporal para la vigilancia de laringotraqueítis. Debido al riesgo de reversión a la virulencia y la diseminación a los pollos de engorde inmunológicam

American Association of Avian Pathologists
Maurice Pitesky, R. P. Chin, S. Carnaccini, C. G. Sentíes–Cué, B. Charlton, P. R. Woolcock, and H. L. Shivaprasad "Spatial and Temporal Epidemiology of Infectious Laryngotracheitis in Central California: 2000–2012," Avian Diseases 58(4), 558-565, (12 June 2014).
Received: 20 December 2013; Accepted: 1 June 2014; Published: 12 June 2014

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