This paper expands on a previous report about coronaviruses in quail. After surveillance carried out in 2009 and 2010, some farmers started vaccinating quail with the Massachusetts avian infectious bronchitis virus serotype. The samples for this study were collected in 2013 from São Paulo state in southeastern Brazil. Pools of trachea, lungs, reproductive tract, kidneys, and enteric contents from quail and laying hens kept in the same farms and from quail-only farms as well as from both healthy birds and those showing infectious bronchitis–like symptoms were sampled in this study. The samples were screened using nested RT-PCR targeting the 3′-untranslated region of the Gammacoronavirus genus. Based on the DNA sequence for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, the strains isolated from quail clustered within either the Gammacoronavirus or Deltacoronavirus genus, and sequences from both genera were found in one quail sample. The phylogeny based on the partial S1 subunit sequence showed that the gammacoronaviruses detected in quail and layers belonged to the Brazil type. These results suggest that quail are susceptible to Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus viruses and indicate that the Massachusetts vaccination was not controlling IBV in quail or chickens.
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Vol. 60 • No. 3