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6 August 2018 Efficacy of Two Licensed Avian Influenza H5 Vaccines Against Challenge with a 2015 U.S. H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Domestic Ducks
Mary J. Pantin-Jackwood, Eric DeJesus, Mar Costa-Hurtado, Diane Smith, Klaudia Chrzastek, Darrell R. Kapczynski, David L. Suarez
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Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) clade 2.3.4.4 viruses from the H5 goose/Guangdong lineage caused a major outbreak in poultry in the United States in 2015. Although the outbreak was controlled, vaccines were considered as an alternative control method, and new vaccines were approved and purchased by the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Veterinary Stockpile for emergency use. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of two of these vaccines in protecting Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica) against challenge with a H5N2 HPAI poultry isolate. A recombinant alphavirus–based vaccine and an inactivated adjuvanted reverse genetics vaccine, both expressing the hemagglutinin gene of a U.S. H5 clade 2.3.4.4 isolate (A/Gyrfalcon/Washington/41088-6/2014 H5N8), were used to immunize the ducks. The vaccines were given either as single vaccination at 2 days of age or in a prime-boost strategy at 2 and 15 days of age. At 32 days of age, all ducks were challenged with A/turkey/Minnesota/12582/15 H5N2 HPAI virus clade 2.3.4.4. All ducks from the nonvaccinated challenge control group became infected and shed virus; one duck in this group presented mild ataxia, and a second duck died. No mortality or clinical signs were observed in vaccinated and challenged ducks, with the exception of one duck presenting with mild ataxia. Both vaccines, regardless of the vaccination strategy used, were immunogenic in ducks and reduced or prevented virus shedding after challenge. In conclusion, good protection against H5Nx infection was achieved in ducks vaccinated with the vaccines examined, which were homologous to the challenge virus, with prime-boost strategies conferring the best protection against infection.

Mary J. Pantin-Jackwood, Eric DeJesus, Mar Costa-Hurtado, Diane Smith, Klaudia Chrzastek, Darrell R. Kapczynski, and David L. Suarez "Efficacy of Two Licensed Avian Influenza H5 Vaccines Against Challenge with a 2015 U.S. H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Domestic Ducks," Avian Diseases 63(1), 90-96, (6 August 2018). https://doi.org/10.1637/11895-050918-Reg.1
Received: 10 May 2018; Accepted: 3 August 2018; Published: 6 August 2018
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