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28 January 2019 Commercial Vaccines and Vaccination Strategies Against Infectious Laryngotracheitis: What We Have Learned and Knowledge Gaps That Remain
Maricarmen García, Guillermo Zavala
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Abstract

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an upper respiratory disease of chickens, pheasants, and peafowl caused by the alphaherpesvirus Gallid alpha herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1), commonly known as infectious laryngotracheitis virus. ILT is an acute respiratory disease characterized by clinical signs of conjunctivitis, nasal discharge, dyspnea, and lethargy. In severe forms of the disease, hemorrhagic tracheitis together with gasping, coughing, and expectoration of bloody mucus are common. The morbidity and mortality rates of the disease vary depending on the virulence of the strain circulating, the level of virus circulating in the field, and the presence of other respiratory infections. Since the identification of the disease in the 1920s, ILT continues to affect the poultry industry negatively across the globe. The disease is primarily controlled by a combination of biosecurity and vaccination. The first commercial vaccines, introduced in the late 1950s and early 1960s, were the chicken embryo origin live attenuated vaccines. The tissue culture origin vaccine was introduced in late 1970s. Recombinant viral vector ILT vaccines were first introduced in the United States in the 2000s, and now they are being used worldwide, alone or in combination with live attenuated vaccines. This review article provides a synopsis of what we have learned about vaccines and vaccination strategies used around the world and addresses knowledge gaps about the virus and host interactions that remain unknown.

Maricarmen García and Guillermo Zavala "Commercial Vaccines and Vaccination Strategies Against Infectious Laryngotracheitis: What We Have Learned and Knowledge Gaps That Remain," Avian Diseases 63(2), 325-334, (28 January 2019). https://doi.org/10.1637/11967-090218-Review.1
Received: 5 September 2018; Accepted: 24 January 2019; Published: 28 January 2019
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KEYWORDS
CEO
ILTV
rFPV-LT
rHVT-LT
TCO
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