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12 January 2022 The placenta as a target of opioid drugs
Cheryl S. Rosenfeld
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

Opioid drugs are analgesics increasingly being prescribed to control pain associated with a wide range of causes. Usage of pregnant women has dramatically increased in the past decades. Neonates born to these women are at risk for neonatal abstinence syndrome (also referred to as neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome). Negative birth outcomes linked with maternal opioid use disorder include compromised fetal growth, premature birth, reduced birthweight, and congenital defects. Such infants require lengthier hospital stays necessitating rising health care costs, and they are at greater risk for neurobehavioral and other diseases. Thus, it is essential to understand the genesis of such disorders. As the primary communication organ between mother and conceptus, the placenta itself is susceptible to opioid effects but may be key to understanding how these drugs affect long-term offspring health and potential avenue to prevent later diseases. In this review, we will consider the evidence that placental responses are regulated through an endogenous opioid system. However, maternal consumption of opioid drugs can also bind and act through opioid receptors express by trophoblast cells of the placenta. Thus, we will also discuss the current human and rodent studies that have examined the effects of opioids on the placenta. These drugs might affect placental hormones associated with maternal recognition of pregnancy, including placental lactogens and human chorionic gonadotropin in rodents and humans, respectively. A further understanding of how such drugs affect the placenta may open up new avenues for early diagnostic and remediation approaches.

Summary Sentence Opioid usage among pregnant women have risen dramatically, and such drugs can affect placental function by affecting endogenous opioid receptors that regulate production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), placental lactogens, and other genes.

Graphical Abstract

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© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
Cheryl S. Rosenfeld "The placenta as a target of opioid drugs," Biology of Reproduction 106(4), 676-686, (12 January 2022). https://doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioac003
Received: 2 November 2021; Accepted: 15 January 2022; Published: 12 January 2022
KEYWORDS
gestation
in utero
morphine
oxycodone
placenta–brain axis
trophoblast
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