As an evolutionarily conserved process, the bouquet stage during meiosis was discovered over a century ago, and active research on this important stage continues. Since the discovery of the first bouquet-related protein Taz1p in 1998, several bouquet formation-related proteins have been identified in various eukaryotes. These proteins are involved in the interaction between telomeres and the inner nuclear membrane (INM), and once these interactions are disrupted, meiotic progression is arrested, leading to infertility. Recent studies have provided significant insights into the relationships and interactions among bouquet formation-related proteins. In this review, we summarize the components involved in telomere-INM interactions and focus on their roles in bouquet formation and telomere homeostasis maintenance. In addition, we examined bouquet-related proteins in different species from an evolutionary viewpoint, highlighting the potential interactions among them.
Telomere-INM interaction components that facilitate bouquet formation and telomere homeostasis are essential for meiotic progression in most eukaryotes.