Infertility affects 8–12% of couples globally, and the male factor is a primary cause in ∼50% of couples. Male infertility is a multifactorial reproductive disorder, which can be caused by paracrine and autocrine factors, hormones, genes, and epigenetic changes. Recent studies in rodents and most notably in humans using multiomics approach have yielded important insights into understanding the biology of spermatogenesis. Nonetheless, the etiology and pathogenesis of male infertility are still largely unknown. In this review, we summarized and critically evaluated findings based on the use of advanced technologies to compare normal and obstructive azoospermic versus nonobstructive azoospermic men, including whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, single-cell RNA-seq, whole-exome sequencing, and transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing. It is obvious that the multiomics approach is the method of choice for basic research and clinical studies including clinical diagnosis of male infertility.
This review summarizes findings of the past 20 years published in literature listed in PubMed including our laboratory, utilizing multiomics approach to study the etiology and pathogenesis of male infertility.