Junctional adhesion molecule 3 (JAM3) is involved in epithelial cell junction, cell polarity, and motility. The molecular mechanisms underlying the role of JAM3 in placental dysfunction remain unclear. We hypothesized that JAM3 expression regulates trophoblast fusion, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Our results revealed that JAM3 was expressed in the cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts of first-trimester and term placental villi. JAM3 expression in cell–cell junctions decreased with the formation of syncytiotrophoblasts. Using trophoblasts as an in vitro model, we observed that forskolin and JAM3 knockdown significantly reduced JAM3 expression and increased syncytium formation. JAM3 knockdown additionally inhibited trophoblast proliferation and increased the number of trophoblasts in the sub-G1 and G2/M phases, indicating cell-cycle disturbance and apoptosis. Cell-cycle arrest was associated with the engagement of checkpoint kinase 2-cell division cycle 25C-cyclin-dependent kinase 1/cyclin B1 signaling. Increased expression of BIM, NOXA, XAF1, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3 further indicated trophoblast apoptosis. Overexpression of JAM3 or recombinant JAM3 protein enhanced trophoblast adhesion and migration, which were inhibited by JAM3 knockdown. JAM3 knockdown induced reactive oxygen species and syncytin 2 expression in trophoblasts. Furthermore, H2O2-induced oxidative stress reduced JAM3 expression in trophoblasts and cell culture supernatants. H2O2 simultaneously induced trophoblast apoptosis. JAM3 expression was significantly decreased in the plasmas and placentas of patients with early-onset severe preeclampsia. Thus, our results show that JAM3 may not only be a structural component of trophoblast cell junctions but also regulates trophoblast fusion, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and motility. Dysregulated trophoblast JAM3 expression is crucial in preeclampsia development.