Ovarian tissue cryopreservation by vitrification is an effective technique, but there are still many unresolved issues related to the procedure. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal culture time of postwarmed ovarian tissues and their viability before ovarian tissue transplantation. The bovine ovarian tissues were used to evaluate the effect of postwarming culture periods (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 24 h) in the levels of residual cryoprotectant, LDH release, ROS generation, gene and protein abundance, and follicle viability and its mitochondrial membrane potential. Residual cryoprotectant concentration decreased significantly after 1 h of culture. The warmed ovarian tissues that underwent between 0 and 2 h of culture time showed similar LDH and ROS levels compared with fresh nonfrozen tissues. The anti-Mullerian hormone transcript abundance did not differ in any of the groups. No increase in the relative transcript abundance and protein level of Caspase 3 and Cleaved-Caspase 3, respectively, in the first 2 h of culture after warming. On the other hand, an increased protein level of double stranded DNA breaks (gamma-H2AX) was observed in postwarmed tissues disregarding the length of culture time, and a temporary reduction in pan-AKT was detected in postwarming tissues between 0 and 0.25 h of culture time. Prolonged culture time lowered the percentage of viable follicles in warmed tissues, but it did not seem to affect the follicular mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, 1–2 h of culture time would be optimal for vitrified-warmed tissues before transplantation.
For ovarian tissue cryopreservation by vitrification, the recommended culture time following warming is between 1 and 2 h before ovarian tissue transplantation.