This goal of this study was to examine immunohistochemical distribution of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), LIF receptor (LIFR), and glycoprotein (gp) 130 in rhesus monkey uterus during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. Pregnancy rate was significantly reduced in the control group from 66.7% (12 of 18) to 22.2% (4 of 18) with an injection of goat anti-human recombinant LIF immunoglobulin G into the uterine lumen on Day 8 of pregnancy. LIF was mainly localized in glandular and luminal epithelium. LIF immunostaining during the luteal phase was stronger than it was during the proliferative phase. LIF staining gradually increased from Day 3 of pregnancy and reached its highest level on Day 9. LIFR was mainly localized in the glandular and luminal epithelium. LIFR staining during the luteal phase was stronger than it was during the proliferative phase. LIFR staining began to increase from Day 3 of pregnancy and reached a high level on Days 9 and 11. Gp130, a signal-transducing receptor component of LIF, was mainly localized in the glandular epithelium. A high level of gp130 was found on Days 16 and 20 of menstrual cycle, and from Days 5 to 11 of pregnancy. These results suggest that LIF may play an important role in monkey implantation, as it does in mice.
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