Effects of adenosine and pGlu-Glu-ProNH2 (FPP) on the function and in vitro penetration of boar spermatozoa were examined. First, the effects of dibutyryl cAMP or agonists and antagonists of adenosine receptors (inhibitory adenosine receptors, A1AdR; stimulatory adenosine receptors, A2AdR) on freshly ejaculated spermatozoa were determined by chlortetracycline fluorescence assessment. Capacitation of spermatozoa was stimulated when they were cultured in a medium with dibutyryl cAMP, adenosine, A2AdR agonist, and adenosine plus A1AdR antagonist (CPT). However, acrosome reaction was inhibited only by adenosine. A1AdR agonist did not affect intact spermatozoa. A2AdR antagonist (DMPX) neutralized all of the effects of adenosine. Second, interaction of adenosine and FPP was examined. Gln-FPP, a competitive inhibitor of FPP, and DMPX inhibited the effects of adenosine and FPP, and CPT neutralized the inhibitory effect of FPP on acrosome reaction. Last, the effects of adenosine, FPP, and caffeine on the rate of sperm penetration were examined using frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Adenosine, FPP, and caffeine significantly enhanced the rate of sperm penetration as compared with the case of no additions. Caffeine treatment resulted in a high rate of polyspermic fertilization. In contrast, adenosine and FPP treatments resulted in an increased proportion of normal fertilization in in vitro-matured oocytes. These results suggest that boar spermatozoa can be modulated by the adenylyl cyclase/cAMP pathway via A2AdR in intact cells to induce capacitation and A1AdR in capacitated cells to inhibit spontaneous acrosome loss and that FPP receptors interact with A2AdR in intact cells and with A1AdR in capacitated cells. Furthermore, adenosine and FPP seem to be useful in reducing the incidence of polyspermic penetration.
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