Retinoids have important effects on the development of the reproductive system, where they act via their specific nuclear receptors: retinoic acid receptors (RARα, β, γ) and retinoid X receptors (RXRα, β, γ). The research reported here was conducted in an effort to clone quail RARβ cDNA (qRARβ) and to evaluate the expression of qRARβ mRNAs in different tissues and during the development of gonadotropic organs. Two complete cDNAs of qRARβ1 and qRARβ2 were isolated by a combination of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and 5′- and 3′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends techniques. An RNase protection assay revealed the widespread expression of qRARβ1 and β2 with large tissue-specific variations. The qRARβ1 isoform was predominant in the testis, whereas qRARβ2 was dominant in the other tissues examined with the exception of the brain, where both isoforms were almost equally expressed. In the developing testes, the qRARβ1 mRNA level was high between 30 and 40 days of age, the period during which the testes grew rapidly. The level declined thereafter to its initial level. In contrast, qRARβ2 mRNA did not exhibit obvious changes. In the developing oviducts, both qRARβ1 and β2 mRNAs reached their peak levels by 30 days of age, just before the rapid development of the oviduct occurred, and then decreased to almost undetectable levels when the oviduct developed to the laying stage (over 2.88 g in weight). Similar expression patterns of qRARβ1 and β2 were also observed in the developing follicles from the prehierarchical (<2-mm diameter) to the largest preovulatory follicle. In contrast, neither qRARβ1 nor β2 mRNA exhibited developmental changes in the brain. These results suggest that RARβ may play an important role in the development of the reproductive systems of birds.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.