Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is an autocrine trophic/survival factor for the preimplantation embryo. PAF induced an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2 ]i) in the 2-cell embryo that had an absolute requirement for external calcium. L-type calcium channel blockers (diltiazem, verapamil, and nimodipine) significantly inhibited PAF-induced Ca2 transients, but inhibitors of P/Q type (ω-agatoxin; ω-conotoxin MVIIC), N-type (ω-conotoxin GVIA), T-type (pimozide), and store-operated channels (SKF 96365 and econazole) did not block the transient. mRNA and protein for the α1-C subunit of L-type channels was expressed in the 2-cell embryo. The L-type calcium channel agonist (±) BAY K 8644 induced [Ca2 ]i transients and, PAF and BAY K 8644 each caused mutual heterologous desensitization of each other's responses. Depolarization of the embryo (75 mM KCl) induced a [Ca2 ]i transient that was inhibited by diltiazem and verapamil. Whole-cell patch-clamp measurements detected a voltage-gated channel (blocked by diltiazem, verapamil, and nifedipine) that was desensitized by prior responses of embryos to exogenous or embryo-derived PAF. Replacement of media Ca2 with Mn2 allowed Mn2 influx to be observed directly; activation of a diltiazem-sensitive influx channel was an early response to PAF. The activation of a voltage-gated L-type calcium channel in the 2-cell embryo is required for normal signal transduction to an embryonic trophic factor.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.