Expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9), an apparent regulator of follicular development, reportedly differs between compartments of the rodent (oocytes) and human (oocytes and granulosa cells) ovary. To further characterize GDF-9 expression and action in the primate periovulatory follicle, adult female rhesus monkeys received recombinant human gonadotropins to promote multiple follicular development. Whole ovaries or follicular aspirates were obtained before and at various times after administration of an ovulatory dose of hCG; time points for tissue collection spanned the 40-h periovulatory interval. GDF-9 mRNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay in each oocyte and every granulosa cell sample examined, but granulosa cell GDF-9 mRNA levels did not change across the periovulatory interval. GDF-9 was also detected in follicular fluid using Western blotting; GDF-9 protein concentration in follicular fluid did not change across the periovulatory interval. Immunocytochemical staining for GDF-9 indicated that oocytes of both small and large antral follicles were positive for GDF-9. GDF-9 immunoreactivity was also present in cumulus granulosa cells and mural granulosa cells near the cumulus stalk. When granulosa cells from preovulatory follicles were exposed to recombinant GDF-9 in culture, GDF-9 increased vascular endothelial growth factor levels in culture medium. These data demonstrate that the cells of the primate periovulatory follicle both produce and respond to GDF-9. However, GDF-9 expression and action differ between rodent and primate follicles, suggesting a possible regulatory role for GDF-9 that is unique to the primate follicle.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.