This study aimed at collecting background knowledge for chimeric pig production. We analyzed the genetic sex of the chimeric pigs in relation to phenotypic sex as well as to functional germ cell formation. Chimeric pigs were produced by injecting Day 6 or Day 7 inner cell mass (ICM) cells into Day 6 blastocysts. Approximately 20% of the piglets born from the injected blastocysts showed overt coat color chimerism regardless of the embryonic stage of donor cells. The male:female sex ratio was 7:2 and 6:1 in the chimeras derived from Day 6 and Day 7 ICM cells, respectively, showing an obvious bias toward males. When XX donor cells were injected into XY blastocysts at the same embryonic stage, the phenotypic sex of the resulting chimera was male with no germ-line cells formed from the donor cell lineage. On the other hand, when the donor was XY and the recipient blastocyst was XX, the phenotypic sex of the chimera was male, and germ-line cells were derived only from the donor cells. The combination of XY donor cells and XY blastocysts produced some chimeras in which the donor cell lineage did not contribute to germ-line formation even when it appeared in coat color. When the embryonic stage of the donor was advanced by 1 day in the XY-XY combination, 100% of the germ-line cells of the chimeras were derived from the donor cell lineage. These data showed that characteristics of sex differentiation and germ cell formation in chimeric pigs are similar to those in chimeric mice.
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