Embryonic implantation is a temporally and spatially restricted process that involves a precise cross talk between the embryo and the receptive maternal endometrium. Underlying the complex changes in the uterus during implantation is the alteration in gene expression pattern, which is not fully understood for the primates. In the present study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed to screen genes that were differentially expressed in the implantation site of the pregnant rhesus monkey, and a subtractive cDNA library was constructed. Furthermore, with dot blot analysis, reverse Northern blot analysis, and semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, 76 of 376 clones randomly selected from the library were proven to be differentially expressed in the implantation site. With DNA sequencing and BLAST analysis against the GenBank/EMBL database, it was demonstrated that the cDNA fragments carried by 73 clones shared high homology with 31 human genes. Among them, 15 positive clones represented the S100A10 gene and 10 positive ones corresponded with the secreted frizzled-related protein 4 gene. The other two clones shared homology with one human EST. There was one clone homologous to a human DNA sequence, which indicated that it might be a novel gene. To our knowledge, this is the first report to determine genes involved in the early implantation stage in the rhesus monkey with high throughput technology.
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