In previous studies of nuclear transplantation, most cloned animals were obtained by intraspecies nuclear transfer and are phenotypically identical to their nuclear donors; furthermore, there was no further report on successful fish cloning since the report of cloned zebrafish. Here we report the production of seven cross-genus cloned fish by transferring nuclei from transgenic common carp into enucleated eggs of goldfish. Nuclear genomes of the cloned fish were exclusively derived from the nuclear donor species, common carp, whereas the mitochondrial DNA from the donor carp gradually disappeared during the development of nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. The somite development process and somite number of nuclear transplants were consistent with the recipient species, goldfish, rather than the nuclear donor species, common carp. This resulted in a long-lasting effect on the vertebral numbers of the cloned fish, which belonged to the range of goldfish. These demonstrate that fish egg cytoplasm not only can support the development driven by transplanted nuclei from a distantly related species at the genus scale but also can modulate development of the nuclear transplants.
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