A critical function of cells is the maintenance of their genomic integrity. A family of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-related protein kinases, which includes ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) kinases, play key roles in sensing DNA damage. ATM and ATR were demonstrated in the cleavage stages of mouse embryo development. Genotoxic stress was imposed by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (causes DNA strand breaks) or cisplatin (causes strand cross-links). UV irradiation or cisplatin treatment of 2-cell embryos in the G2 phase of the cell cycle caused DNA damage as defined by increased phosphorylation of the H2A histone family, member X (H2AFX; previously H2AX) variant. UV irradiation caused a stable G2-M arrest, and cisplatin treatment allowed progression through mitosis followed by activation of a G1-S checkpoint. Both checkpoints were transformation-related protein 53-independent. Caffeine (inhibits both ATM and ATR), but not KU55933 (ATM-selective inhibitor), reversed the G2-M block induced by UV, inferring a primary role for ATR in sensing this form of DNA damage. Caffeine and KU55933 were equally effective in reversing the cisplatin-induced G1-S block, implicating ATM as the primary sensing enzyme. Breaching of either checkpoint by treatment with caffeine or KU55933 allowed embryos to progress through several further cell cycles, yet none developed to blastocysts. The results show, to our knowledge for the first time, that the G2-M and G1-S cell-cycle checkpoints in the early embryo are differentially regulated by ATM and ATR in response to genotoxic stress and that they act as an initial point for containment of genomic damage. Under conditions of extensive or persistent DNA damage, the demise of the embryo is the ultimate method of protecting genomic integrity.
Genotoxic stress to the 2-cell mouse embryo causes activation of ATM- and ATR-kinase-dependent cell-cycle blocks: a potential mechanism for preserving genomic integrity.