The a2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase (ATP6V0A2 referred to as a2V) plays a pivotal role in successful pregnancy and provides a microenvironment to maintain the delicate immunological balance at the feto-maternal interaction. We studied the expression of a2V mRNA in embryos and placenta of abortion-prone (female CBA × male DBA) murine matings or LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-treated mice. The expression of a2V was significantly higher in the placentas of nonabortion-prone (female BALB/c × male BALB/c and female CBA × male BALB/c) matings compared with the abortion-prone (female CBA × male DBA) mating. The expression of a2V was significantly decreased in the placentas treated with LPS in both female CBA × male DBA and female BALB/c × male BALB/c mating combinations with increased Lif, Il1b, and Tnf expression in the placenta. Decreased expression of a2V in the placenta is directly correlated with high percentages of pregnancy loss in abortion-prone mating (female CBA × male DBA) as well as in LPS-treated animals. The normal expression of placental a2V on Day 16 in the nonabortion-prone matings correlated with higher Mcp1 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1) gene expression, markedly higher infiltration of M1 and M2 macrophages, and no significant polarization patterns (M1/M2 = 1.2–1.6). However, in the abortion-prone mating, decreased placental a2V expression correlated with significantly lower Mcp1 gene expression with less infiltration of M1 and M2 macrophages and with polarization patterns skewed to M1 phenotypes (M1/M2 = 3.9–4.2). These data indicate that the higher expression of placental a2V is associated with dynamic infiltration of M1 and M2 macrophages through the induction of Mcp1 expression. This strengthens our hypothesis that a2V regulates the delicate cytokine and chemokine networks that coordinate the recruitment of macrophages for successful placental development and growth at the feto-maternal interface.
Placental a2V-ATPase regulates the delicate cytokine and chemokine networks that coordinate the recruitment of macrophages for successful placental development and growth at the feto-maternal interface.