Our previous studies showed that the prototypical testicular toxic phthalate monoester, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), suppresses Sertoli cell TIMP2 levels and allows for the activation of MMP2 in seminiferous epithelium. Activation of MMP2 is important for triggering germ cell apoptosis and instigating germ cell detachment from Sertoli cells. These novel findings led us to examine the transcriptional regulation of the Timp2 gene that accounts for the decrease in Sertoli cell TIMP2 levels following MEHP exposure. Sequential deletion of the Timp2 5′-upstream activating sequence (1200 bp) was used to survey transcriptional activation in the Timp2 promoter region in response to MEHP. Results indicate that under control conditions in rat Sertoli cells, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA) acts as a transactivator to initiate Timp2 gene transcription, and its action is deactivated by exposure to MEHP. By contrast, MYC protein acts as an inhibitor of Timp2 gene transcription, and its activity is increased after MEHP treatment. Addition of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to cells causes translocation of CEBPA into the Sertoli cell nucleus and rescues MEHP-suppressed TIMP2 levels. Down-regulation of TIMP2 expression by MEHP exposure is blocked by forskolin (a cAMP-elevating agent), suggesting that the decrease in Sertoli cell TIMP2 expression following MEHP exposure is cAMP-dependent. Taken together, these data indicate that MEHP both disrupts the FSH-stimulated cAMP signaling pathway and activates the inhibitory signaling mediated by MYC protein, to ultimately account for the cellular mechanism underlying the decreased expression of TIMP2 in Sertoli cells.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 85 • No. 6