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22 February 2012 In Vitro Transformation of Mouse Testis Cells by Oncogene Transfection
Hiroko Morimoto, Jiyoung Lee, Takashi Tanaka, Kei Ishii, Shinya Toyokuni, Mito Kanatsu-Shinohara, Takashi Shinohara
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Abstract

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are unique in that they exhibit diverse biological characteristics and pathological features. Although several in vivo GCT models are available, studies on GCTs are hampered because in vivo development of GCTs is time consuming and prevents a detailed molecular analysis of the transformation process. Here we developed a novel strategy to transform mouse testis cells in vitro. Lentivirus-mediated transfection of dominant negative Trp53, Myc, and activated Hras1 into a CD9-expressing testis cells caused tumorigenic conversion in vitro. Although these cells resembled embryonic stem (ES) cells, they were aneuploid and lacked Nanog expression, which is involved in the maintenance of the undifferentiated state in ES cells. Euploid ES-like cells were produced by transfecting the Yamanaka factors (Pou5f1, Myc, Klf4, and Sox2) into the same cell population. Although these cells expressed Nanog, they were distinct from ES cells in that they expressed CD44, a cancer stem cell antigen. Both treatments induced similar changes in the DNA methylation patterns in differentially methylated regions of imprinted genes. Moreover, despite the differences in their phenotype and karyotype, both cell types similarly produced mixed GCTs on transplantation, which were composed of teratomas, seminomas, and embryonal carcinomas. Thus, in vitro testis cell transformation facilitates an analysis of the GCT formation process, and our results also suggest the close similarity between GCT formation and reprogramming.

© 2012 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.
Hiroko Morimoto, Jiyoung Lee, Takashi Tanaka, Kei Ishii, Shinya Toyokuni, Mito Kanatsu-Shinohara, and Takashi Shinohara "In Vitro Transformation of Mouse Testis Cells by Oncogene Transfection," Biology of Reproduction 86(5), (22 February 2012). https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.111.095307
Received: 3 August 2011; Accepted: 1 February 2012; Published: 22 February 2012
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