Leptin, one of the adipokines that controls energy metabolism via the central nervous system, also has pleiotropic peripheral effects, acting as a proinflammatory cytokine. Leptin is also produced by trophoblastic cells in the placenta, where leptin seems to function as a trophic autocrine hormone. Leptin expression is regulated by various tissue-specific factors, such as insulin, in the adipocyte. However, the complete regulation of leptin production in the placenta is still poorly understood. That is why we investigated the regulation of leptin expression by insulin in JEG-3 trophoblastic cells and human placental explants from normal pregnancies. Western blot analysis and quantitative real time RT-PCR was performed to determine the leptin expression level after treatment of cells or trophoblast explants with different concentrations of insulin (0.1–100 nM). Leptin promoter activity was evaluated by transient transfection with a plasmid construct containing different promoter regions and the reporter luciferase gene. We found a stimulatory, dose-dependent effect of insulin on endogenous leptin expression in human placental explants. Maximal effect was achieved at 10 nM insulin, and this effect can be totally prevented both by blocking phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) pathways and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Moreover, insulin treatment significantly enhanced leptin promoter activity up to 40% in JEG-3 trophoblastic cells. Deletion analysis demonstrated that a minimal promoter region between −1951 and −1546 bp is necessary to achieve insulin effects. In conclusion, we provide evidence suggesting that insulin induces leptin expression in trophoblastic cells, enhancing the activity of leptin promoter region between −1951 and −1546 bp, via both PI3K- and MAPK-signaling pathways.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 89 • No. 1