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17 February 2017 Three-dimensional testicular organoid: a novel tool for the study of human spermatogenesis and gonadotoxicity in vitro
Samuel S. Pendergraft, Hooman Sadri-Ardekani, Anthony Atala, Colin E. Bishop
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Existing methods for evaluating the potential gonadotoxicity of environmental agents and pharmaceutical compounds rely heavily on animal studies. The current gold standard in vivo functional assays in animals are limited in their human predictive capacity. In addition, existing human twodimensional in vitro models of testicular toxicity do not accurately reflect the in vivo situation. A more reliable testicular in vitro model system is needed to better assess the gonadotoxic potential of drugs prior to progression into clinical trials. The overall goal of this study was to develop a three-dimensional (3D) in vitro human testis organoid culture system for use as both a predictive first tier drug-screening tool and as a model of human testicular function. Multicellular human testicular organoids composed of Spermatogonial Stem Cells, Sertoli, Leydig and peritubular cells were created and evaluated over time for morphology, viability, androgen production and ability to support germ cell differentiation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measurements confirmed that the organoids produced testosterone continuously with and without hCG stimulation. Upregulation of postmeiotic genes including PRM1 and Acrosin, detected by quantitative-PCR, digital PCR and Immunofluorescence, indicated the transition of a small percentage of diploid to haploid germ cells. As a novel screening tool for reproductive toxicity, 3D organoids were exposed to four chemotherapeutic drugs, and they responded in a dose-dependent manner and maintained IC50 values significantly higher than 2D cultures. This 3D human testis organoid system has the potential to be used as a novel testicular toxicity-screening tool and in vitro model for human spermatogenesis.

Summary Sentence

Human testicular organoid produces testosterone and provides a niche for germ cell differentiation.

© The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
Samuel S. Pendergraft, Hooman Sadri-Ardekani, Anthony Atala, and Colin E. Bishop "Three-dimensional testicular organoid: a novel tool for the study of human spermatogenesis and gonadotoxicity in vitro," Biology of Reproduction 96(3), 720-732, (17 February 2017).
Received: 11 July 2016; Accepted: 2 February 2017; Published: 17 February 2017
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