The current study aimed to define the plasma profile of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in heifers during postnatal life until achieving puberty, as defined by plasma progesterone (P4) profile, to demonstrate a relationship between AMH and age of puberty onset. Blood samples collected from 11 Japanese Black female calves within 1 week after birth (W 0) and then biweekly until the sixth week after puberty (WP 6) were assayed for AMH, FSH, and P4. The heifers were classified into two groups based on age of puberty onset: ≤42 weeks (early puberty group; EP, n = 4) and ≥44 weeks (late puberty group; LP, n = 7). Minimal plasma AMH concentration occurring at W 0 gradually increased to its peak level by W 10 (fourfold higher than W 0; P < 0.01) before gradually declining to a steady plateau 6 weeks before puberty (WP -6). The AMH peak was preceded by a significant rise in plasma FSH at W 4, W 6, and W 8 compared with W0. Plasma AMH atW16 positively correlated withWP 4 andWP 6 (r = 0.69 and 0.71, respectively; P < 0.05). Overall plasma AMH and FSH was significantly higher and lower in EP compared with LP, respectively. In conclusion, heifers exhibit a characteristic plasma AMH profile during postnatal life, such that plasma AMH at an early prepubertal age could be a biomarker for precocious puberty and postpubertal AMH levels.
Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) follows a characteristic profile in heifers during the postnatal period until puberty. Quantifying plasma AMH at early prepubertal age could be a useful biomarker for precocious puberty and postpubertal AMH levels.