Not only essential for scientific research, but also in the analysis of male fertility and for animal husbandry, sperm tracking and characterization techniques have been greatly benefiting from computational imaging. Digital image sensors, in combination with optical microscopy tools and powerful computers, have enabled the use of advanced detection and tracking algorithms that automatically map sperm trajectories and calculate various motility parameters across large data sets. Computational techniques are driving the field even further, facilitating the development of unconventional sperm imaging and tracking methods that do not rely on standard optical microscopes and objective lenses, which limit the field of view and volume of the semen sample that can be imaged. As an example, a holographic on-chip sperm imaging platform, only composed of a light-emitting diode and an opto-electronic image sensor, has emerged as a high-throughput, lowcost and portable alternative to lens-based traditional sperm imaging and tracking methods. In this approach, the sample is placed very close to the image sensor chip, which captures lensfree holograms generated by the interference of the background illumination with the light scattered from sperm cells. These holographic patterns are then digitally processed to extract both the amplitude and phase information of the spermatozoa, effectively replacing the microscope objective lens with computation. This platform has further enabled high-throughput 3D imaging of spermatozoa with submicron 3D positioning accuracy in large sample volumes, revealing various rare locomotion patterns. We believe that computational chip-scale sperm imaging and 3D tracking techniques will find numerous opportunities in both sperm related research and commercial applications.
Computational techniques are facilitating the development of unconventional sperm imaging and locomotion tracking methods that do not rely on standard opticalmicroscopes and objective lenses.