Feeding-related metabolic factors exert regulatory influences on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an anorexigenic hormone synthesized from the ileum in response to food intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the direct effect of GLP-1 on hypothalamic kisspeptin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression using the rat clonal hypothalamic cell line rHypoE-8. GLP-1 significantly increased Kiss-1 mRNA expression in rHypoE-8 cells up to 1.94 ± 0.22-fold. This effect of GLP-1 on Kiss-1 gene expression was also observed in GT1–7 GnRH-producing neurons and in primary cultures of fetal rat brain. GLP-1 increased cAMP-mediated signaling, as determined by cAMP response element activity assays, but failed to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways. Another anorexigenic factor, leptin, similarly increased Kiss-1 mRNA levels up to 1.34 ± 0.08-fold in rHypoE-8 cells. However, combined treatment with GLP-1 and leptin failed to potentiate their individual effects on Kiss-1 mRNA expression. Gnrh mRNA expression was not significantly increased by GLP-1 stimulation in rHypoE-8, but kisspeptin significantly stimulated the expression of Gnrh mRNA in these cells. Our current observations suggest that the anorexigenic peptide GLP-1 directly regulates Kiss-1 mRNA expression in these hypothalamic cell lines and in neuronal cells of fetal rat brain and affects the expression of Gnrh mRNA.
Anorexigenic peptide GLP-1 directly regulates Kiss-1 mRNA expression in thypothalamic cell lines and affects the expression of Gnrh mRNA.