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20 December 2017 Gestational restricted- and over-feeding promote maternal and offspring inflammatory responses that are distinct and dependent on diet in sheep
Amanda K. Jones, Maria L. Hoffman, Sambhu M. Pillai, Katelyn K. McFadden, Kristen E. Govoni, Steven A. Zinn, Sarah A. Reed
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Abstract

Inflammation may be a mechanism of maternal programming because it has the capacity to alter the maternal environment and can persist postnatally in offspring tissues. This study evaluated the effects of restricted- and over-feeding on maternal and offspring inflammatory gene expression using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR arrays. Pregnant ewes were fed 60% (Restricted), 100% (Control), or 140% (Over) of National Research Council requirements beginning on day 30.2 ± 0.2 of gestation. Maternal (n = 8–9 ewes per diet) circulating nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and expression of 84 inflammatory genes were evaluated at five stages during gestation. Offspring (n = 6 per diet per age) inflammatory gene expression was evaluated in the circulation and liver at day 135 of gestation and birth. Throughout gestation, circulating NEFA increased in Restricted mothers but not Over. Expression of different proinflammatory mediators increased in Over and Restricted mothers, but was diet-dependent. Maternal diet altered offspring systemic and hepatic expression of genes involved in chemotaxis at late gestation and cytokine production at birth, but the offspring response was distinct from the maternal. In the perinatal offspring, maternal nutrient restriction increased hepatic chemokine (CC motif) ligand 16 and tumor necrosis factor expression. Alternately, maternal overnutrition increased offspring systemic expression of factors induced by hypoxia, whereas expression of factors regulating hepatocyte proliferation and differentiation were altered in the liver. Maternal nutrient restriction and overnutrition may differentially predispose offspring to liver dysfunction through an altered hepatic inflammatory microenvironment that contributes to immune and metabolic disturbances postnatally.

Summary Sentence

Restricted- and over-feeding differentially alter maternal inflammation and metabolism and indirectly promote systemic and hepatic inflammation in the perinatal offspring, which may contribute to liver dysfunction postnatally.

© The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
Amanda K. Jones, Maria L. Hoffman, Sambhu M. Pillai, Katelyn K. McFadden, Kristen E. Govoni, Steven A. Zinn, and Sarah A. Reed "Gestational restricted- and over-feeding promote maternal and offspring inflammatory responses that are distinct and dependent on diet in sheep," Biology of Reproduction 98(2), 184-196, (20 December 2017). https://doi.org/10.1093/biolre/iox174
Received: 14 June 2017; Accepted: 18 December 2017; Published: 20 December 2017
JOURNAL ARTICLE
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KEYWORDS
cytokines
domestic animal reproduction
fetal development
ovine/sheep
pregnancy
ruminants
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