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Although there are several known inhibitors and stimulators of angiogenesis, the exact choreography of this multi-step process remains unknown. The interaction and implications of increased hydrocortisone concentration during this process is also unknown. This study aimed to examine the effects of different hydrocortisone concentrations on angiogenesis. The hypothesis of this study was that increased concentrations of hydrocortisone would lead to a greater degree of angiogenesis. A co-culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was used to analyze the process of angiogenesis. Three levels of hydrocortisone were applied to the cells to determine the extent of angiogenesis: a mid-range physiologic level, an upper-range physiologic level, and an elevated level. The increased levels of hydrocortisone did not inhibit or stimulate angiogenesis to a greater degree than the mid-range physiologic level.
The disturbing prevalence and increasing incidence of nosocomial infections and community-acquired infections, compounded with bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents, dictates the need for effective and varied means with which to cleanse hands and work surfaces. Lye Soap, Dial Antibacterial, Cinthol and Dettol bar soaps were evaluated in vitro for their effectiveness as antimicrobial agents against eleven selected genera of bacteria that have been implicated in nosocomial infections and are part of the resident or transient flora of the skin. Trichlorocarban, the active ingredient in Dial Antibacterial, Cinthol and Dettol soaps, and Lye soap were assessed for their antibacterial activity. The null hypothesis was that there would not be a significant difference in antimicrobial efficacy when compared with the non-antibacterial soap Irish Spring used as a control based on zone of inhibition analysis. The alternative hypothesis, which was accepted for all of the soaps except Lye soap, stated that the rejection of the null hypothesis is indicative of significant bacterial inhibition (p<0.001). Statistical analysis of the data by the Kruskal Wallis test demonstrated that there was a significant difference between the inhibitory capacity of all of the soaps tested, excluding Lye soap, when compared with the Irish Spring control (p<0.001 for each) for three of the four tested concentrations validating the rejection of null hypothesis. It was also determined that there was no significant inhibition of Gram negative bacteria by any of the tested soaps (p<0.001).