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This 2006 study looked into the health of reef communities on the western and northern coasts of Dominica (Lesser Antilles) to observe the recovery and current condition of stony corals and Millepora spp. Using the AGRRA v. 4.0 protocol and utilizing comparisons with a 2005 AGRRA implementation, old mortality decreased 21.0 m2 in surface area (p=0.12); while recent mortality increased in surface area to 14.40 m2 (p=0.01). Bleaching symptoms decreased by 68% (p<0.001) and disease prevalence increased from 8 to 41 colonies (p<0.05) for the diseases of highest occurrence between both study years. The 2006 patterns of increased recent mortality and numerically higher disease infected colonies suggest that the 2005 bleaching caused the weakening of corals, increased susceptibility to disease, and partial and/or complete mortality in 2006. The effect of elevated sea surface temperatures of the 2005 Caribbean bleaching event is likely a big contributor to the degraded health of the 2006 coral communities.
Nitrogenous pollutants are commonly found in freshwater ecosystems due to fertilizer and chemical runoff from farm land and industrial waste. Nitrogenous compounds can result in toxic effects on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ammonium nitrate, urea, and sodium nitrate on mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) survivorship. Ammonium nitrate had a significant negative effect on survivorship, but urea and sodium nitrate had no effect on survivorship. This suggests that mosquitofish may be susceptible to ammonia pollution, but probably can tolerate most environmentally relevant exposures to urea and nitrate.
The knowledge and attitudes of health care professionals toward traumatic grief was evaluated, and compared to the hospice caregivers' relationship with families experiencing traumatic grief. The study explored the care given to the families during bereavement and investigated the instruction given to the healthcare providers on how to assess families. The investigation consisted of informal interviews of health care professionals at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center and Hospice of Louisiana, a part of the Willis-Knighton Health System. The health care providers evaluated were Family Physicians, Nurses, Social Workers, and Chaplains. The health care professionals from Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center were knowledgeable on traumatic grief, and the Chaplain of LSUHSC was the most knowledgeable of the other health care professionals who were interviewed. The health care providers at Willis-Knighton Hospice were knowledgeable on traumatic grief, but their focus for bereavement care is for families whose loved ones are dying from a terminal illness. The attitudes of health care professionals at LSUHSC were to refer the families experiencing traumatic grief to grief groups, and pastoral care. The health care professionals also recommended exercise regimens and medication if the symptoms lasted longer than six months. The attitudes of the health care professionals at Willis-Knighton Hospice were for the families experiencing traumatic grief to attend grief groups, seek spiritual care, and exercise regularly. Most physicians, nurses, and social workers are not too involved in assessing families coping with traumatic grief. Most of the attitudes of the health care professionals were to refer the families to pastoral care. Many physicians suggested that there should be Continuing Medical Education on traumatic grief to educate and to train physicians on the emotional and stressful subject.