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1 September 2012 Morphological anomalies as indicators of chytrid infection in Bufo marinus from Trinidad, West Indies
Yogi A. Patel, Jessica N. Cavin, Michael K. Moore
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Many amphibian species worldwide have exhibited significant population declines due to exposure to the emerging infectious disease (EID), Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Previous PCR analyses revealed the presence of this fungus in species of Mannophyrne trinitatis sampled in Trinidad and Tobago in 2007. Tadpoles of Bufo marinus collected in Trinidad in 2003 were examined for the presence of chytrid infection. In all, we examined 645 tadpoles of 13Gosner developmental stages (29-42) for morphological anomalies commonly associated with chytrid infection. Oral deformities were common in this sample. The number of deformities ranged from 0 (in Gosner 29, 30 and 42) up to 83 percent (in Gosner 37), with most stages showing greater than 50% with abnormalities. Patterns exhibited show that the number of deformities increased as the development proceeded (from Gosner 29 - 41). These data also show that the posterior mouthparts of infected tissues are more likely to be deformed than non-infected. Comparable data from the literature show that B. marinus is more susceptible to the infection than species of the anuran families Ranidae and Hylidae. Histological examinations of oral tissues confirmed the presence of chytrid infection in this sample. This work pushes the time of appearance of the chytrid fungus on Trinidad back to at least 2003.

Yogi A. Patel, Jessica N. Cavin, and Michael K. Moore "Morphological anomalies as indicators of chytrid infection in Bufo marinus from Trinidad, West Indies," BIOS 83(3), 75-80, (1 September 2012).
Received: 25 September 2010; Accepted: 1 July 2011; Published: 1 September 2012

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