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5 June 2001 CATALOG OF RECENT TYPE SPECIMENS IN THE DIVISION OF INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY, AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. V. MOLLUSCA, PART 2 (CLASS GASTROPODA [EXCLUSIVE OF OPISTHOBRANCHIA AND PULMONATA], WITH SUPPLEMENTS TO GASTROPODA [OPISTHOBRANCHIA], AND BIVALVIA)
CHRISTOPHER B. BOYKO, JAMES R. CORDEIRO
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

A complete, annotated listing of all primary and secondary type specimens of gastropod mollusks (exclusive of opisthobranchs and pulmonates) in the collection of the Division of Invertebrate Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) (as of December 31, 1999) is presented. Supplementary listings for bivalves and opisthobranch gastropods (previously covered in Part 1) are also given. This catalog includes 1309 type lots, 18 lectotype designations, and illustrations for 12 previously inadequately illustrated type specimens and five species never before illustrated. New synonymy information is given for nine species, one species is shown to be a valid name, one new replacement name is introduced, and one neotype is suppressed with rediscovery of type material. An appendix of AMNH specimens previously incorrectly cited as types is also given. An index of genera and species is included for each class and subclass.

INTRODUCTION

The Division of Invertebrate Zoology (formerly the Department of Invertebrates, in part) at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) currently houses a collection of over 300,000 cataloged lots (3.5 million specimens) of Recent mollusks. Per ICZN Recommendation 72F (ICZN, 1999: 79), all of the types are housed separately from the main body of the collection. This allows for a greater level of security than can be maintained in a large, general collection area.

This catalog is the fifth in a series of comprehensive listings of all the type material in the Division's collection and is the second listing of Mollusca. It is also an update and expansion of Richards and Old's (1969, in part) unpublished but widely distributed list, which contained many inaccuracies and omissions. Included in this catalog are all AMNH holotype, lectotype, neotype, paratype, paralectotype, and syntype specimens of Gastropoda (exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata). A total of 938 species with valid types in AMNH are treated herein, with listings for 143 holotype, 56 lectotype, 2 neotype, 949 paratype, 84 paralectotype, and 75 syntype AMNH lots. Appendices containing taxa described subsequent to publication of Part 1 (Boyko and Sage, 1996) are included for Opisthobranchia (1 species) and Bivalvia (2 species). An additional appendix lists specimens previously considered types, but which are either invalid types (4 species) or exemplars of infrasubspecific taxa (9 species).

The value of a published catalog is apparent when the number of type specimens that have been transferred to this institution from other sources is considered. Very often no published record of these transfers is ever made, especially for species coming from private collections such as those listed below. In the case of several lots, types were published as having been given to the American Museum, but subsequent investigation indicated that the specimens were never deposited. Other members of type series with representatives in the AMNH have been subject to transfer between institutions over time; for these, the most recent known repositories are listed as well as the most recent catalog numbers used to identify type lots in other institutions.

The majority of the type specimens included in this catalog come from a few key sources. The two most important pre-1900 collections are those of John C. Jay (38 lots) and William A. Haines (22 lots). The Jay Collection, purchased for $10,000 in 1874 by Catherine L. Wolfe, was donated to the AMNH; it contains type specimens of species described by Jay and others, such as C. B. Adams, from whom Jay traded or purchased specimens. There has been some difficulty in identifying Jay's type specimens, because he renumbered all the species listed in his publications as well as his type specimens between 1839 and 1850; this can be seen in the entries for Jay's taxa herein. The Haines Collection, in part, was donated by Haines; the remainder was purchased from his son in 1895. Haines described very few species himself but had many type specimens from others, such as, again, C. B. Adams. For more information on these and other large collections that have been incorporated into the AMNH Recent mollusk collection, see Richards and Old (1969).

More recent sources of type material included in this catalog are the AMNH Belgian Congo Expedition of 1909–1915, with many new species collected by Herbert Lang and James Chapin and described by Pilsbry (1919) and Pilsbry and Bequaert (1927) (52 lots); the Crawford and Jean Cate Collection (86 lots, mostly ovulids, triviids, and cowries); the Helen DuShane Collection (80 lots, mostly epitoniids); significant donations by A. J. da Motta (43 lots, primarily cone shells), James McLean (48 lots), and Emilio Rolán (175 lots, cones and micromollusks); and the Gordon Nowell-Usticke Collection (129 lots), which has been discussed in detail by M. J. Faber (1988, 1995). Numerous type specimens (93 lots) have also been placed in the AMNH collection through the research of William K. Emerson, Curator of Mollusks from 1955 to 1995, and now Curator Emeritus.

The AMNH collection of Recent noninsect invertebrates is organized by phylum and “superphylum” (Protozoa). Each taxonomic grouping is given a separate series of catalog numbers. As a result of this system of numbering, a muricid may have the same catalog number as a decapod crustacean, but the specimens cannot be confused because of the taxonomic distinction between phyla.

Each potential type lot was compared with the original description and figures to verify type status, confirm locality and collection data, and remove any specimens from the type collection that are not types. The publication of this catalog fulfills ICZN Recommendation 72F.4, which states that all museums holding type specimens have the responsibility of making a published catalog of these types available to the scientific community (ICZN, 1999: 79).

This catalog is arranged in alphabetical order by genus and species within the subclass. An index is provided that gives a genus and species-level list within each subclass. This catalog largely follows the format of Boyko and Sage (1996) in including detailed information on current synonymy and generic placement of all species listed. A systematic list of current familial placement for all taxa (by original genus) is also included as appendix 4 and follows Vaught (1989) with few modifications.

One critical area addressed in this catalog is the ambiguous type designations and other type concept problems introduced by Gordon Nowell-Usticke in his papers. Usticke used the terms variety (“var.”), form, and subspecies essentially interchangeably and, as pointed out by Faber (1988: 68), because of this it cannot be said that Usticke expressly proposed names for most of his taxa as “varieties” or “forms.” A very few of Usticke's taxa were clearly described infrasubspecifically, and these are listed in the gastropod appendix herein. In his first paper, Usticke (1959) unambiguously designated the “pictured” specimen for each new species or subspecies as holotype. However, Usticke's subsequent works (1968, 1969) did not include any holotype designations and, therefore, all specimens from those papers are syntypes. Usticke (1971) published measurements of all of his holotypes, which, in most cases, correspond to the figured specimens. The figure caption numbers used by Usticke in his 1968, 1969, and 1971 (but not 1959) publications correspond to his catalog numbers. Because of the difficulties in recognizing virtually all of Usticke's species and correctly applying type designations to individual specimens, we have chosen to designate lectotypes for most of the Usticke taxa that have not been so treated to date (17 species). We use “Usticke” rather than “Nowell-Usticke” to refer to this author because the former appellation is what he used to refer to himself in his own papers.

Various problems encountered during this research led to other taxonomic decisions regarding type designations. In the case of Somatogyrus crassilabris Walker, 1915, we designate a USNM specimen as lectotype in order to resolve the synonymy and homonymy of this taxon with S. crassilabris Hinckley, 1915. The rediscovery of type material for Cypraea semiplota Mighels, 1845, allows us to suppress the “neoholotype” designated for that species by Johnson (1949). The species-level name Chondropoma (Chondropomium) clenchi Pilsbry, 1933, is found to be a junior homonym of C. (Chondropomedes) ernesti clenchi Aguayo, 1932, and a replacement name is introduced. We reexamine the status of Conus ustickei Miller in Usticke, 1959, and conclude that it is the valid name for the taxon known previously as C. bifasciatus Sowerby III, 1857–1858. We also present new synonymy information for nine species: Anachis guildingii teres Usticke, 1969; A. mcgintyi Usticke, 1959; A. subcostulata subcincta Usticke, 1969; Bursa corrugata lineata Usticke, 1959; B. cubaniana intermedia Usticke, 1959; Pyrene (Columbella) nodulosa Usticke, 1959; Terebra hertleini Bratcher and Burch, 1970; T. jacquelinae Bratcher and Burch, 1970; and the infrasubspecific Turbo petholatus var. humerosus Smith, 1907. Eighteen specimens are figured, including 12 previously inadequately illustrated by line drawings (e.g., Dolium melanostomum Jay, 1839) and five that appear never to have been illustrated (e.g., Helicina chionea Pilsbry, 1949).

Several species are included for which type (or possible type) specimens should exist at the AMNH, but which cannot be traced in the collection or the records. Most of the specimens were either stated, or implied, to be in collections later transferred to the AMNH, primarily those of Jay and Haines. Some species in this category (e.g., Scaphella macginnorum García and Emerson, 1987) were expressly cited as having been sent to AMNH but were never deposited. Because there is no record of these specimens having arrived here, and they have not been located at other major institutions, it is suspected that they are lost.

Each type listing contains four or five categories of data. Within each genus, specific names are followed by authorship data (author, year description was published, and page and figure numbers). The next category indicates the specific kind of type(s) in the collection, as well as AMNH catalog number(s), the number of specimens in each lot, and whether a lot is alcohol preserved. The locality category contains all pertinent collection data, including county names for U.S. locations when that information can be determined. The collector category indicates the name(s) of the collector(s) of the specimen(s) and the date(s) of collection, if those data are known. The remarks category contains information as to provenance of specimens, location of other types in the series (all of the members of each type series are listed insofar as they could be located), current synonymy and/or generic placement, and additional comments.

Institutional Abbreviations

  1. AHF Allan Hancock Foundation, University of Southern California [collections transferred to LACM] (Los Angeles, California, USA)

  2. AIM Auckland Institute and Museum (= AMNZ)

  3. AM Australian Museum (= AMS)

  4. AMNH American Museum of Natural History (New York, New York, USA)

  5. AMNZ Auckland Institute and Museum (Auckland, New Zealand)

  6. AMS Australian Museum (Sydney, Australia)

  7. ANSP Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA)

  8. BBM Bernice P. Bishop Museum of Natural History (see BPBM)

  9. BMNH British Museum (Natural History) (now NHM)

  10. BPBM Bernice P. Bishop Museum of Natural History (Honolulu, Hawaii, USA)

  11. CAS California Academy of Sciences (San Francisco, California, USA)

  12. CASIZ California Academy of Sciences Invertebrate Zoology Collection (at CAS)

  13. CDRS Charles Darwin Research Station (Puerto Ayora, Ecuador)

  14. CMNZ Canterbury Museum (Christchurch, New Zealand)

  15. CUMZ Cambridge University Museum of Zoology (= UMZC)

  16. CZL Centro de Zoologia do Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical de Lisboa (Lisbon, Portugal)

  17. DBUA Departamento de Biología, Universidad Autónoma (Madrid, Spain)

  18. DM Dominion Museum (now NMNZ)

  19. DMNH Delaware Museum of Natural History (Wilmington, Delaware, USA)

  20. DSIR-GG New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (= IGNS)

  21. EPMU Estación de Puerto Morelos, Universidade Nacional Autónome de Mexico (at UNAM)

  22. FLMNH Florida Museum of Natural History (Gainesville, Florida, USA)

  23. FMNH The Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago, Illinois, USA)

  24. FSBC Florida Department of Natural Resources Marine Research Laboratory (St. Petersburg, Florida, USA)

  25. FSCB Florida Department of Natural Resources Marine Research Laboratory (= FSBC)

  26. FSM Florida State Museum (now FLMNH)

  27. HBOM Harbor Branch Oceanographic Museum (Ft. Pierce, Florida, USA)

  28. HMNS Houston Museum of Natural Science (Houston, Texas, USA)

  29. HSU Humboldt State University (Arcata, California, USA)

  30. HUJ Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Jerusalem, Israel)

  31. IBUFRJ Coleção Malacològica do Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

  32. IES Instituto de Ecología y Sistemática de La Habana (Havana, Cuba)

  33. IGNS Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (Lower Hutt, New Zealand)

  34. IICT Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical de Lisboa (= CZL)

  35. IIMC Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (Santa Marta, Columbia)

  36. IIT Instituto de Investigacão Tropical (Centro de Zoologia) (Lisbon, Portugal)

  37. IMT Institute of Malacology of Tokyo (Tokyo, Japan)

  38. INHS Illinois Natural History Survey (Champaign, Illinois, USA)

  39. IRSNB Institute Royal de Sciences Naturelles (Brussels, Belgium)

  40. KBIN Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen (= IRSNB)

  41. LABOMAR Laboratorió de Ciências do Mar da Universidade Federal do Ceará Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil)

  42. LACM Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County (Los Angeles, California, USA)

  43. MCNM Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (= MNCN)

  44. MCSNM Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano (= MSNM)

  45. MCZ Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University (Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA)

  46. MIST Museo Insular of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain)

  47. MHNG Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle (Geneva, Switzerland)

  48. MHNM Museo Nacional de História Natural de Montevideo (Montevideo, Uruguay)

  49. MM Manchester Museum (Manchester, England)

  50. MMBS Mukaishima Marine Biological Station of Hiroshima University (Hiroshima, Japan)

  51. MML University of Miami Marine Laboratory (= UMML)

  52. MN Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio Janeiro (= MNRJ)

  53. MNCN Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (Madrid, Spain)

  54. MNHN Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris, France)

  55. MNHNM Museo Nacional de História Natural de Montevideo (= MHNM)

  56. MNHNP Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle (= MNHN)

  57. MNHP Museum of Natural History, Piacenza (Piacenza, Italy)

  58. MNRJ Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

  59. MNUFRJ Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (= MNRJ)

  60. MONA Musée Océanographique de Monaco (Monaco-Ville, Monaco)

  61. MONZ Museum of New Zealand (Wellington, New Zealand)

  62. MORG Museu Oceanográfico Fundaçao Universidade do Rio Grande (Rio Grande, Brazil)

  63. MP Museo “Felipe Poey” de la Universidad de la Habana (= MPUH)

  64. MPMP National Museum of the Philippines (Manila, Philippines)

  65. MPUH Museo “Felipe Poey” de la Universidad de la Habana (Havana, Cuba)

  66. MSNM Museo Civico di Storia Naturale (Milan, Italy)

  67. MSNS Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg (= SMF)

  68. MZSP Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (= MZUSP)

  69. MZUSP Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil)

  70. NHM The Natural History Museum (London, England)

  71. NHM(ONHM) Natural History Museum [Oman] (= ONHM)

  72. NHMO Natural History Museum, Oman (= ONHM)

  73. NHMUI Natural History Museum, University of Illinois (= UIMNH)

  74. NHMV Natural History Museum, Vienna (Vienna, Austria)

  75. NM Natal Museum, South Africa (= NMSA)

  76. NMB Naturhistorisches Museum Basel (Basel, Switzerland)

  77. NMC Naturkunde-Museum (= NMCL)

  78. NMCL Naturkunde-Museum (Coburg, Germany)

  79. NMM National Museum of the Philippines (= MPMP)

  80. NMNZ National Museum of New Zealand (now MONZ)

  81. NMP National Museum of the Philippines (= MPMP)

  82. NMSA Natal Museum, South Africa (Pietermaritzburg, South Africa)

  83. NMV National Museum of Victoria (Victoria, Australia)

  84. NMW National Museum of Wales (Cardiff, Wales)

  85. NNM Nationaal Natuurhistorische Museum (= RMNH)

  86. NSMT National Science Museum (Tokyo, Japan)

  87. NZGS New Zealand Geological Survey (now IGNS)

  88. NZNM New Zealand National Museum (now MONZ)

  89. NZOIT New Zealand Oceanographic Institute (now National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Sciences, Wellington, New Zealand)

  90. NZSI National Zoological Survey of India (= ZSI)

  91. ONHM Oman Natural History Museum (Oman)

  92. RM Redpath Museum, McGill University (Montréal, Québec, Canada)

  93. RMNH Nationaal Natuurhistorische Museum (“Naturalis”) [formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie] (Leiden, Netherlands)

  94. RMS Royal Museums of Scotland (now RSM)

  95. RSM National Museum of Scotland (Edinburgh, Scotland)

  96. SAM South Australian Museum (Adelaide, Australia)

  97. SAM(SAMC) South African Museum (= SAMC)

  98. SAMC South African Museum (Cape Town, South Africa)

  99. SBMNH Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History (Santa Barbara, California, USA)

  100. SBNHM Santa Barbara Natural History Museum (= SBMNH)

  101. SDMNH San Diego Museum of Natural History (= SDNHM)

  102. SDNHM San Diego Natural History Museum (San Diego, California, USA)

  103. SDSNH San Diego Society of Natural History [collections transferred to SDNHM] (San Diego, California, USA)

  104. SMDV Spencer Museum, University of British Columbia (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada)

  105. SMF Forschungsinstut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg (Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany)

  106. SMFD Forschungsinstut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg (= SMF)

  107. SMNH Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet (Swedish Museum of Natural History) (Stockholm, Sweden)

  108. SMNS Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde (Stuttgart, Germany)

  109. SU Stanford University [collections transferred to CASIZ] (Stanford, California, USA)

  110. TAUI Tel Aviv University (Tel Aviv, Israel)

  111. TM Tulane University Museum of Natural History (= TU)

  112. TU Tulane University Museum of Natural History (Belle Chasse, Louisiana, USA)

  113. UAN Universidade Agostinho Neto (Faculdade de Ciências, Dep. Biologia) (Luanda, Angola)

  114. UCMP University of California Museum of Paleontology (Berkeley, California, U.S.A)

  115. UCR Universidad de Costa Rica Museo de Zoologia (San Jose, Costa Rica)

  116. UF University of Florida Museum (now FLMNH)

  117. UIMNH University of Illinois Museum of Natural History [collections transferred to INHS] (Champaign, Illinois, USA)

  118. UMML University of Miami Marine Laboratory, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (Miami, Florida, USA)

  119. UMNH University of Utah Museum of Natural History (Salt Lake City, Utah, USA)

  120. UMZC University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge (Cambridge, England)

  121. UNAM Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Estación de Puerto Morelos, Universidade Nacional Autónoma de Mexico (Mexico City, D.F., Mexico)

  122. USNM National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C., USA)

  123. UUMNH University of Utah Museum of Natural History (= UMNH)

  124. WAM Western Australian Museum (Perth, Australia)

  125. WAMP Western Australian Museum (= WAM)

  126. YPM Yale Peabody Museum (New Haven, Connecticut, USA)

  127. ZIL Russian Academy of Sciences (= ZIN)

  128. ZIN Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg, Russia)

  129. ZMA Zoölogisch Museum Amsterdam (Amsterdam, Netherlands)

  130. ZMB Zoologisches Museum (Berlin, Germany)

  131. ZMC Zoological Museum of the University of Copenhagen (= ZMUC)

  132. ZMUC Zoological Museum of the University of Copenhagen (Copenhagen, Denmark)

  133. ZSI Zoological Survey of India, National Zoological Collection (Calcutta, India)

  134. ZSM Zoologischen Staatssammlung München (Munich, Germany)

Aclophora sagei Rolán and Fernández-Garcés, 1995: 15, figs. 33–35

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226500 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 20–56 m, Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/17223, and additional paratypes are in IES, ZMA, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés and E. Rolán (Rolán and Fernández-Garcés, 1995: 15).

Aesopus aliciae Marincovich, 1973: 35, figs. 74, 85

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 172413 (5 specimens).

  2. Locality: 20°13′S, 70°10′W, Iquique, Chile, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: L. Marincovich, Aug. 1964.

  4. Remarks: ex LACM 64–16. The holotype is LACM 1593, and additional paratypes are LACM 1594 and in ANSP, CASIZ, SDNHM, and USNM (Marincovich, 1973: 35).

Agathotoma finalis Rolán and Fernandes, 1992: 142–143, figs. 5–7

  1. Paratype: AMNH 264677 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 7 m, Esprainha, São Tomé Island, São Tomé and Principe, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/2680, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IRSNB, MNHN, NMSA, ZMUC, and the collections of F. Fernandes and E. Rolán (Rolán and Fernandes, 1992: 142).

Agathotoma (Vitricythara) klasmidia Shasky, 1971: 71, fig. 8

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 164917 (2 specimens), 169123 (2 specimens), 222024 (45 specimens).

  2. Locality: 16–20 m, 23°11′45″N, 106°27′W, approx. 1 mi offshore, Olas Altas Bay, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Shasky, Dec. 23, 1962.

  4. Remarks: ex DuShane Collection (AMNH 169123, 222024). The holotype is LACM 1576, and additional paratypes are LACM 1577 and in AIM, ANSP, CASIZ, SDMNH, SU, USNM, and the collection of D. Shasky (Shasky, 1971: 71). This taxon is placed in the genus Pyrgocythara Woodring, 1928 (Abbott, 1974: 284).

Agathotoma (Vitricythara) secalis Shasky, 1971: 71–72, fig. 9

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 164916 (1 specimen), 169122 (1 specimen), 222023 (4 specimens).

  2. Locality: 16–22 m, 23°11′45″N, 106°27′W, approx. 1 mi offshore, Olas Altas Bay, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Shasky, Dec. 23, 1962.

  4. Remarks: ex DuShane Collection (AMNH 169122, 222023). The holotype is LACM 1578, and additional paratypes are in SDMNH, SU, and the collection of D. Shasky (Shasky, 1971: 72). This taxon is a synonym of Pyrgocythara klasmidia (Shasky, 1971) (Abbott, 1974: 284).

Agathotoma temporaria Rolán and Otero-Schmitt, 1999: 20, figs. 63–67

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226546 (1 specimen), AMNH 297641 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 100 m, off Luanda, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Fernandez and E. Rolán, February 1993 (AMNH 226546).

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/6954, and additional paratypes are in IRSNB, MNHN, and the collections of E. Rolán and P. Ryall (Rolán and Otero-Schmitt, 1999: 20).

Agatrix deroyae Petit, 1970: 85, pl. 1, figs. 3a–b

  1. Holotype: AMNH 154676.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 222561 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: 150 m, south of Academy Bay, Isla Santa Cruz (AMNH 154676), 75–100 m, near Isabel Island (AMNH 222561), Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  4. Collector: J. DeRoy, Jan. 27 (AMNH 222561), May 26 (AMNH 154676), 1968.

  5. Remarks: ex Petit Collection (AMNH 222561). Additional paratypes are USNM 679537 and in the collection of D. Petit (Petit, 1970: 85). This taxon is placed in the genus Admetula Cossmann, 1889 (Finet, 1994: 71).

Agladrillia badia McLean and Poorman, 1971: 94, fig. 11

  1. Paratype: AMNH 164611 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 170–200 m, 00°47′S, 90°21′W, off southern coast of Isla Santa Cruz, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: A. and J. DeRoy, July 26–29 or Dec. 5, 1969.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is LACM 1481, and additional paratypes are ANSP 323531, LACM 1482, USNM 706953, and in CASIZ, SBMNH, SDNHM, and SU (McLean and Poorman, 1971: 94; Finet, 1994: 79).

Agladrillia flucticulus McLean and Poorman, 1971: 94, fig. 12

  1. Paratype: AMNH 164915 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 35 fathoms, 14°24′N, 92°34′W, Gulf of Tehuantepec, off Porto Madero, Chiapas, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Shasky, July 11, 1963.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is LACM 1483, and additional paratypes are LACM 1484 and in ANSP, CASIZ, SDNHM, SU, and USNM (McLean and Poorman, 1971: 95).

Alcadia delmonteana Pilsbry, 1932: 132, pl. 7, figs. 9, 9a, 10, 10a

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 95466 (2 specimens), 95475 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: St. 81, 1775–3200 ft, coffee plantation (AMNH 95475), St. 88, 1500 ft, grassy hill 1–2 mi southeast of Del Monte's (AMNH 95466), Dominican Republic.

  3. Collector: D. Pease, Aug. 2 (AMNH 95475), Aug. 5 (AMNH 95466), 1932.

  4. Remarks: ex Pease Collection. The holotype is ANSP 160984 (Pilsbry, 1932: 132), and additional paratypes are ANSP 160985 (formerly ANSP 160984) (Robertson et al., 1986: 61).

Alcithoe aillaudorum Bouchet and Poppe, 1988: 16–18, figs. 1–5, 17

  1. Paratype: AMNH 241568 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Cruise BIOCAL Sta. DW46, 570–610 m, 22°53′S, 167°17′E, off New Caledonia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: P. Bouchet, B. Métivier, and B. Richer de Forges on N. O. “Jean-Charcot,” Aug. 30, 1985.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is in MNHN, and additional paratypes are in AMS, BMNH, MNHN, NMNZ, and NMSA (Bouchet and Poppe, 1988: 16).

Alvania (Simulamerelina) bermudensis Faber and Moolenbeek, 1987: 69–70, figs. 1–4

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 241565 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: Gibbons Bay, Bermuda, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: A. T. Guest, April 1985.

  4. Remarks: ex ZMA. The holotype is ZMA 387010, and additional paratypes are ZMA 387011 and in AM, LACM, MNHN, NZNM, and USNM (Faber and Moolenbeek, 1987: 69).

Alvania (Flemellia) guesti Faber and Moolenbeek, 1987: 70, figs. 5–8

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 241566 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Gibbons Bay, Bermuda, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: A. T. Guest, April 1985.

  4. Remarks: ex ZMA. The holotype is ZMA 387012, and additional paratypes are ZMA 387013 and in AM, LACM, MNHN, NZNM, and USNM (Faber and Moolenbeek, 1987: 70).

Amaea (Scalina) deroyae DuShane, 1970a: 330, pl. 51, fig. 2

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 152604 (2 specimens), 152605 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 75–100 m, near Tagus Cove, Isabella Island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. DeRoy, Jan. 27 (AMNH 152604) and 30 (AMNH 152605), 1968.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is LACM 1236, and additional paratypes are LACM 1239–1243 and in the collection of J. DeRoy (DuShane, 1970a: 330).

Amaea (Scalina) tehuanarum DuShane and McLean, 1968: 4, figs. 4–5

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 221950 (10 specimens), 275620 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 59–68 m, 15°58′N, 95°00′W, Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Shasky and X. Mendoza, July 1963.

  4. Remarks: ex DuShane Collection. The holotype is LACM 1161, and additional paratypes are LACM 1162 and in CASIZ, SAM (1 specimen ex AMNH 221950), SBMNH, SU, USNM, and the collection of D. Shasky (DuShane and McLean, 1968: 4). DuShane and McLean (1968: 4) cited only 13 specimens in the type lot, but at least 18 specimens were distributed as paratypes by DuShane. Either the number of specimens collected was incorrectly cited by DuShane and McLean (1968) or some of the specimens distributed to museums are not paratypes.

Amalda (Gracilispira) albanyensis Ninomiya, 1987b: 141–142, pl. 1, figs. 9–11, text fig. 4

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 217426 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 3 m, Albany, Western Australia, Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is NSMT-Mo 64212a, and additional paratypes are NSMT-Mo 64212b and in the collection of T. Ninomiya (Ninomiya, 1987b: 142). The former subgenus Gracilispira Olsson, 1956, has been raised to the genus level (Wilson, 1994: 131).

Amalda jenneri Kilburn, 1977: 18–19, figs. 6, 8

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 238172 (15 specimens).

  2. Locality: Agulhas Bank, in Cape St. Blaize area, Mossel Bay, South Africa, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: R. le Maître, July 1975.

  4. Remarks: ex Jenner Collection (paratypes #28–36). The holotype is NM A5175/T2066, and additional paratypes are NM A5176/T2067 and in BMNH, MNHN, SAM (SAMC), USNM, and the collection of R. le Maître (Kilburn, 1977: 19). AMNH 238172 contains 6 additional specimens not cited from the Jenner Collection nor the original specimen label. It is unclear which numbered paratypes these extra specimens represent.

Amalda lemaitrei Kilburn, 1977: 16–17, figs. 5, 7

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 238155 (4 specimens).

  2. Locality: 155 m, 35°16′S, 22°26.7′E, off Cape St. Blaize, Mossel Bay, South Africa, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: R. le Maître, June 1975.

  4. Remarks: ex Jenner Collection (paratypes #38–41). The holotype is NM A5177/T2068, and additional paratypes are NM A5178/T2069, NM A5179/T2072, and in the collection of R. le Maître (Kilburn, 1977: 18).

Amalda (Baryspira) utopica Ninomiya, 1987b: 138–139, pl. 1, figs. 1–4, text fig. 2

  1. Paratype: AMNH 222019 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 150 m, Osumi Straits, off Cape of Sata, Kyushu Japan, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is NSMT-Mo 64211, and additional paratypes are in the Ninomiya Collection (Ninomiya, 1987b: 139).

Amalda (Alcospira) zeigleri Ninomiya, 1987b: 139–140, pl. 1, figs. 5–8

  1. Paratype: AMNH 206078 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 125 fathoms, 17°17′N, 87°59′W, southeast end of Turneffe Island, Gulf of Honduras, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is NSMT-Mo 64210, and additional paratypes are in the Ninomiya Collection (Ninomiya, 1987b: 140–141).

Ammonicera albospeciosa Rolán, 1992b: 44, figs. 17, 19, 21

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226446 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 4 m, Baracoa, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/6796, and additional paratypes are BMNH 1992099, ZMA 3.92.047, and in IES and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán, 1992b: 44). Rolán (1992b: 44) listed the AMNH specimen as collected from Cayo Martias, south of Cuba, at 20 m depth; however, his personal label deposited with the specimen in AMNH indicates that this specimen is from the locality cited above.

Ammonicera burnayi Rolán, 1991c: 112–114, figs. 13–14

  1. Paratype: AMNH 225310 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Santa Antao Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is in IICT, and additional paratypes are MNCN 15.05/2891 and in the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán, 1991c: 112).

Ammonicera circumcincta Rolán, 1992b: 45, figs. 23, 26, 28

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226447 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 4 m, Baracoa, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/6798, and additional paratypes are in IES, MNHN, and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán, 1992b: 45).

Ammonicera familiaris Rolán, 1992b: 42–44, figs. 16, 18, 20

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 226448 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 4 m, Baracoa, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/6795, and additional paratypes are BMNH 1992100, ZMA 3.92.046, and in IES, MNHN, and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán, 1992b: 42).

Ammonicera lineofuscata Rolán, 1992b: 44–45, figs. 22, 24, 25, 27

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226449 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 4 m, Baracoa, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/6797, and additional paratypes are BMNH 1992101, ZMA 3.92.048, and in IES, MNHN, and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán, 1992b: 44).

Ammonicera minortalis Rolán, 1992b: 40–42, figs. 10–13, 15

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 226450 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: 4 m, Baracoa, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/6794, and additional paratypes are BMNH 1992102, ZMA 3.92.045, and in IES, MNHN, and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán, 1992b: 40).

Ammonicera oteroi Rolán, 1991c: 110–112, figs. 10–12

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 225230 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 4 m, Mordeira, Sal Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán, 1981.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/2890, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IICT, MNHN, and the collections of J. Otero-Schmitt and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1991c: 110).

Ammonicera sculpturata Rolán, 1992b: 40, figs. 9, 12, 14

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 226451 (4 specimens).

  2. Locality: 4 m, Baracoa, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/6793, and additional paratypes are BMNH 1992103, ZMA 3.92.043, and in IES, MNHN, and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán, 1992b: 40).

Amnicola brandi Drake, 1953: 27, figs. 1–6

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 72856 (9 specimens), 128728 (3 specimens), 143534 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: Warm springs, Las Palomas, Distrito Galeana, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  3. Collector: R. J. Drake and C. C. Hoff, April 15, 1949.

  4. Remarks: ex collections of H. Feinberg (AMNH 128728) and M. Jacobson (AMNH 143534). The holotype is USNM 601494, and additional paratypes are USNM 601495 and as cited by Drake (1953: 27–28). Over 200 paratypes were collected and distributed to 23 institutions (Drake, 1953: 27–28). The catalog number of one AMNH lot was cited incorrectly by Drake (1953: 28) as “72857.”

Amnicola ciliata Gould, 1850: 193–198

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 71067 (1 specimen).

  2. Paralectotypes: AMNH 71067A (52 specimens).

  3. Locality: On muddy margins of Deea [Gbea or Mano] River, Liberia.

  4. Collector: G. Perkins.

  5. Remarks: ex Jay Collection #6580. The lectotype was designated and figured by Johnson (1964: 54, pl. 45, fig. 4). Seven additional “paratypes” (= paralectotypes) are MCZ 225214 (ex Jay 6580) (Johnson, 1964: 54).

Amnicola cincta Gould, 1846: 100

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 65006.

  2. Paralectotype: AMNH 65006a (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: River Tenasserim, Burma.

  4. Collector: F. Mason.

  5. Remarks: ex Jay Collection #6582. The lectotype was designated and figured by Johnson (1964: 55, pl. 35, fig. 1). An additional “paratype” (= paralectotype) is MCZ 225210 (ex Jay 6582) (Johnson, 1964: 55).

Amoria dampieria Weaver, 1960: 3, figs. 6–7

  1. Paralectotype: AMNH 110169 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 32 fathoms, Legendre Island, Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia, Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Hawaiian–Western Australian Expedition on R/V “Davina,” June 1960.

  4. Remarks: ex Weaver Collection (“paratype #7”). The type series consists of “over a dozen living specimens” collected by the Hawaiian–Western Australian Expedition in May and June 1960 (Weaver, 1963: 28), although only a single specimen was explicitly cited by Weaver (1960: 3). Weaver (1963: 31) stated that BPBM 205554 was the holotype. Because Weaver (1960: 3) did not designate a holotype, Weaver's (1963) action constituted a lectotype designation. Additional paralectotypes are AM C.64020, C.64028, BPBM 205557–205559, WAM 16–61, 5855, and in the collection of C. Weaver (Weaver, 1963: 30).

Amphicyclotulus (Amphicyclotulus) dominicensis Bartsch, 1942: 57–58, pl. 10, figs. 9–11.

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 124327 (9 specimens), 124328 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Dominican Republic.

  3. Collector: R. W. Miner, June 23, 1911.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 535857 (Bartsch, 1942: 58).

Amphicyclotulus (Amphicyclotulus) mineri Bartsch, 1942: 55, pl. 10, figs. 15–17

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 124324 (4 specimens), 124325 (5 specimens), 124326 (37 specimens).

  2. Locality: Laudat, Dominican Republic.

  3. Collector: R. W. Miner, June 12 (AMNH 124324), 18 (AMNH 124326), and 21 (AMNH 124325), 1911.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 535856 (Bartsch, 1942: 55).

Amphithalamus albus Rolán, 1991b: 134–136, figs. 7, 12, 14b, 15b

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 264679 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Baracoa, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is in MNCN, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IES, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1991b: 136).

Amphithalamus niger Rolán, 1991b: 136–140, figs. 8–9, 13, 15c

  1. Paratype: AMNH 264680 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Baracoa, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is in MNCN, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IES, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1991b: 139).

Amphithalamus rauli Rolán, 1991b: 133–134, figs. 3–6, 11, 14c–e, 15a

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 264678 (5 specimens).

  2. Locality: 23°03′N, 82°34′W, Playa de Baracoa, near La Habana, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is in MNCN, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IES, MNCN, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1991b: 133).

Ampullaria angulata Jay, 1836: explanation of pl. 3 [p. 85], fig. 7

  1. Syntype: AMNH 56108.

  2. Locality: “Mexico” (Jay, 1836).

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Jay Collection #2030a (Jay, 1839) and #6740 (Jay, 1850). AMNH 56108 is labeled as “fig d. pl. 3, fig. 7” in Jay's handwriting (fig. 1 herein). The whereabouts of other syntype specimens (if any) are unknown. This taxon is a synonym of A. scalaris d'Orbigny, 1835 (Jay, 1839: 116).

Ampullaria brownii Jay, 1839: 112, pl. 1, fig. 4

  1. Syntype: AMNH 56107.

  2. Locality: “River Amazon” [Brazil] (Jay, 1839).

  3. Collector: Capt. Brown.

  4. Remarks: ex Jay Collection #6686 (Jay, 1850). AMNH 56107 is labeled as “fig d. type” in Jay's handwriting (fig. 2 herein). The whereabouts of other syntype specimens (if any) are unknown. Although Pain (1960: 430) stated that “I have been able to examine the type of A. brownii Jay,” this statement is not specific as to the specimen examined and thus does not constitute an inadvertent lectotype designation. This species is a synonym of Pomacea (Limnopomus) crassa (Swainson, 1823) (Pain, 1960: 429).

Ampullaria ochracea Jay, 1836: explanation of pl. 3 [p. 85], fig. 8

  1. Syntypes: AMNH 56106 (1 specimen), 56106A (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: “Spanish Maine” (Jay, 1836: 85).

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Jay Collection #2131a (Jay, 1839) and #6731 (Jay, 1850). AMNH 56106 is labeled as “fig d. type” in Jay's handwriting (fig. 3 herein). The whereabouts of other 6 syntypes (fide Jay, 1839: 116) are unknown. This species is a synonym of A. (P.) ampullacea (Linnaeus, 1758) (Sowerby, 1910: 56).

Ampullaria storeria Jay, 1839: 112, pl. 1, fig. 5

  1. ?Syntype: AMNH 56110 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: “River Amazon” [Brazil] (Jay, 1839: 112).

  3. Collector: Capt. Brown.

  4. Remarks: ex Jay Collection #6736 (Jay, 1850). AMNH 56107 is labeled as “fig d. type” in Jay's handwriting, but Jay (1850) cited #6737 for his specimen(s) of A. storeria. Because of this discrepancy, the AMNH specimen is considered a probable syntype. The whereabouts of other syntype specimens (if any) are unknown.

Anachis berryi Shasky, 1970: 190, fig. 5

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 179304 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 3–4 m, 23°26′N, 109°25′W, El Pulmo Reef, Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Shasky, April 23–25, 1965.

  4. Remarks: ex Shasky Collection. The holotype is LACM 1413, and additional paratypes are LACM 1414 and in ANSP, CASIZ, SDNHM, SU, USNM, and the collection of D. Shasky (Shasky, 1970: 190).

Anachis (?Costoanachis) fayae Keen, 1971: 579, fig. 1178

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 164911 (2 specimens), 222025 (2 specimens), 275867 (6 specimens).

  2. Locality: Playa Caracol, Nuevo Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. B. Howard, Feb. 1967.

  4. Remarks: ex Howard Collection (AMNH 164911), DuShane Collection (AMNH 222025), and SBMNH (AMNH 275867). The holotype is SBMNH 12658, and additional paratypes are SU 10044 (Keen, 1971: 953) and MCZ 279521.

Anachis guildingii “form” teres Usticke, 1969: 16, pl. 3, fig. 754

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195432.

  2. Locality: Christiansted Harbor, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #754. Although Usticke (1969: 16) cited this taxon as a “form,” he listed it subspecifically in the index and called it “Anachis teres” in the figure caption. We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described. AMNH 195432 is the holotype by monotypy. This taxon is a synonym of Costoanachis hotessieriana (d'Orbigny, 1842) (de Maintenon, personal commun.; new synonymy).

Anachis helenae Costa, 1983: 95–96, figs. 1–3

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213573 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 56 m, Amapa Territory, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rios, May 1, 1968.

  4. Remarks: ex MORG 14.810. The holotype is Coleçao de Moluscos da Universidade Santa Ursula 215, and additional paratypes are Coleçao de Moluscos da Universidade Santa Ursula 237, 238, MORG 14.810a–l, and in the collection of F. Costa (Costa, 1983: 96, 98).

Anachis mcgintyi Usticke, 1959: 67, pl. 3, fig. 15

  1. Holotype: AMNH 198493.

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 198493a (1 specimen), 294359 (2 specimens).

  3. Locality: Altona Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: G. W. N. Usticke.

  5. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #752 and #753 (AMNH 198493, 198493a) and Schwartz Collection (AMNH 294359). Usticke (1959: pl. 3, fig. 15) figured both specimens, which contradicted his own statement (1959: vi) that the “holotypes…are pictured.” However, Usticke (1959: 67) explicitly stated, “I designate the darker shell to be the holotype, the lighter a paratype.” Faber (1988: 84) is therefore incorrect in his statement that the type designations are subsequent and invalid. This taxon is a synonym of Costoanachis hotessieriana (d'Orbigny, 1842) (de Maintenon, personal commun.; new synonymy).

Anachis multicostata Usticke, 1969: 16, pl. 3, fig. 755

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195431.

  2. Locality: Ham Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #755. Although Usticke (1969: 16) gave only a single measurement for this taxon, he indicated that it had been collected in two localities. Later (1971: 13), he indicated that the “holotype” was 6.0 mm long and that the size range for the taxon was “6.0–7.0 mm.” Both of these facts suggest that Usticke inadvertently omitted the lower limit of the size range for the species in his 1969 paper and that he had more than one specimen at the time of description. Usticke (1971: 13) stated that this specimen (now AMNH 195431) was the holotype. Because Usticke (1969: 16) did not designate a holotype, Usticke's (1971) action constituted a lectotype designation. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1971: 13) given size range for the taxon of 6–7 mm length. This taxon is a synonym of Zafrona pulchella (Blainville, 1829) (Faber, 1988: 85; de Maintenon, personal commun.).

Anachis raysutana Smythe, 1985: 29–30, pl. 4, figs. b–c, text figs. 3, 6, 9

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 220729 (1 specimen), 220730 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 20°41′N, 58°54′E, North Point (AMNH 220729), 20°27′N, 58°48′E, Umm Rusays (AMNH 220730), Masirah Island, Oman, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: K. Smythe and M. Gallagher, Feb. 1982 (AMNH 220729), K. R. Smythe, Jan. 1984 (AMNH 220730).

  4. Remarks: The holotype is BMNH 1984079, and additional paratypes are BMNH 1984080, NMW 1984.047.1–2, ONHM 1984/69/B, and in MNHN, USNM, ZMA, and the collections of D. Bosch and K. Smythe (Smythe, 1985: 30).

Anachis subcostulata “var.” subcincta Usticke, 1969: 16, pl. 3, fig. 744

  1. Lectotype: lost.

  2. Paralectotypes: AMNH 193399 (10 specimens), 193400 (1 specimen), 193401 (2 specimens), 193423 (27 specimens).

  3. Locality: Antigua, Antigua and Barbuda (AMNH 193399), Saint Martins (AMNH 193400), Grenada (AMNH 193401), Krause's Reef, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (AMNH 193423), Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection. Although Usticke (1969: 16) cited this taxon as a “var.,” he listed it as a “n[ew] s[ub] sp[ecies]” (1969: 16), treated it subspecifically in the index, and called it “Anachis subcincta” in the figure caption. We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described. The specimen figured by Usticke (1969: pl. 3, fig. 744) cannot be located in AMNH and is most likely lost. In the interest of stability, we designate Usticke's figured specimen as lectotype, in order to fix the identity of this poorly defined taxon. The repository of additional paralectotypes (if any) is unknown. This taxon is a synonym of Zafrona pulchella (Blainville, 1829) (de Maintenon, personal commun.; new synonymy).

Ancilla boschi Kilburn, 1980: 168–169, fig. 1

  1. Paratype: AMNH 238001 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Masirah Island, Oman, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Bosch, July 16, 1977.

  4. Remarks: ex NM G9275/T2415. The holotype is NM H9707/T2413, and additional paratypes are in BMNH and NM (Kilburn, 1980: 169). This taxon is placed in the subgenus Sparella Gray, 1857 (Bosch et al., 1995: 145).

Angaria poppei Monsecour and Monsecour, 1999: 63–65, 67–69, pls. 1–2

  1. Paratype: AMNH 294294 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Northern side of Caubian Plateau, north of Bohol, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown, 1996.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is in KBIN, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, NMW, and the collections of A. Delsaerdt, K. Fraussen, D. Monsecour, G. Poppe, and J. Senders (Monsecour and Monsecour, 1999: 63–64).

Annulobalcis aurisflamma Simone and Martins, 1995: 224–233, figs. 1–25

  1. Paratype: AMNH 292171 (1 specimen, alcohol).

  2. Locality: 23°29′S, 45°05′W, Enseada Beach, Ubatuba City, São Paulo, Brazil, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: L. R. L. Simone, C. M. Martins, Nov. 8–10, 1991.

  4. Remarks: ex MZUSP 27938. The holotype is MZUSP 27905, and additional paratypes are MNRJ 6374, 6375, MORG 29681, 29682, MZUSP 27906–27910, 27938, 27939, 26974, SMNH 4511, and USNM 860590 (Simone and Martins, 1995: 224).

Anticlimax decorata Rolán, Fernández-Garcés, and Rubio, 1997: 31–34, figs. 1–2

  1. Paratype: AMNH 295744 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Rancho de Luna, Cienfuegos, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/27420, and additional paratypes are in BMNH and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés, E. Rolán, and F. Rubio (Rolán et al., 1997: 32).

Arene adusta McLean, 1970b: 123, figs. 24–25

  1. Paratype: AMNH 160259 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 24°25′N, 110°25′W, cove adjoining the west sides of Isla Partida and Espiritu Santo Islands, Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. H. McLean and P. M. Orringer on R/V “Sea Quest,” April 10, 1966.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is LACM 1391, and additional paratypes are LACM 1392, MCZ 277819, and in ANSP, CASIZ, SBMNH, SDNHM, SU, and USNM (McLean, 1970b: 123).

Arene echinata McLean, 1970a: 311, pl. 46, figs. 3–4

  1. Holotype: AMNH 154626.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 154627 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: 00°16′S, 91°27′W, Espinosa Point, Fernandina Island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  4. Collector: J. DeRoy, Jan. 30, 1968.

  5. Remarks: ex DeRoy Collection. The additional 2 paratypes are LACM 1277 (McLean, 1970a: 311).

Arene guttata McLean, 1970a: 310, pl. 46, figs. 1–2

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 154685 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: 00°45′S, 90°20′W, Academy Bay, Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. DeRoy, May 30, 1969.

  4. Remarks: ex LACM. The holotype is LACM 1275, and additional paratypes are CASIZ 13273, LACM 1276, SDNHM 51302, SU 9986, USNM 679554 (McLean, 1970a: 310), and MCZ 271947. An additional 53 paratypes are in the collection of J. McLean (McLean, 1970a: 310).

Arielia mitriformis Shasky, 1961: 20, pl. 4, figs. 7–9

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 221882 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 45–90 fathoms, 24°32′N, 110°26′W, west side of Espiritu Santo Island, Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Ariel Expedition, Aug. 30, 1960.

  4. Remarks: ex DuShane Collection. The holotype is SU 8621, and additional paratypes are in CASIZ and the collections of G. Campbell, D. Shasky, and G. Sphon (Shasky, 1961: 20–21). This taxon is placed in the genus Mitrolumna Bucquoy, Dautzenberg, and Dollfus, 1852 (Abbott, 1974: 269).

Aspella (Favartia) angermeyerae Emerson and D'Attilio, 1965b: pl. 1, figs. 1–5

  1. Holotype: AMNH 113526.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 111856 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: Academy Bay, Santa Cruz Island (AMNH 113526), 10 fathoms off Rabida Island (AMNH 111856), Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  4. Collector: C. Angermeyer, Sept. 1964.

  5. Remarks: This taxon is placed in the genus Maxwellia Baily, 1950 (Keen, 1971: 529).

Aspella (?Dermomurex) myrakeenae Emerson and D'Attilio, 1970b: 89–90, figs. “1–11” [figs. 1–2, 4–6]

  1. Holotype: AMNH 153298.

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 155887 (8 specimens), 155904 (1 specimen), 222054 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: 20°44′N, 105°29′W, Banderas Bay, Nayarit, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  4. Collector: J. and H. DuShane, Jan. 12–18, 1969.

  5. Remarks: ex H. DuShane (AMNH 222054). Additional paratypes are in CASIZ, LACM, SDNHM, SU, and TU (Emerson and D'Attilio, 1970b: 90). It is not known if additional paratypes are still in the collection of J. and H. DuShane (Emerson and D'Attilio, 1970b: 90) or if AMNH 222054 represents all the paratypes from that collection. Although AMNH 153298 was cited by Emerson and D'Attilio (1970b: 90) as containing 9 specimens, the specimen figured by them (fig. 6) has been split from that lot (now AMNH 155904). The species was figured by Emerson and D'Attilio (1970b) in figs. 1–2, 4–6, not figs. 1–11 as stated on p. 89.

Aspella paupercula “var.” varians Usticke, 1969: 15, pl. 3, fig. 692 [?sic]

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 186114.

  2. Paralectotype: AMNH 186115.

  3. Locality: Maid Island, Antigua, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #695. Usticke (1969: 15) gave “695” as his catalog number for this taxon, but listed “692” in the figure caption; he later (1971: 12) changed his number (or made another error) for this taxon to “#690.” Although Usticke (1969: 15) cited this taxon as a “var.,” he listed it as a “n[ew] s[ub] sp[ecies]” (1969: 15), treated it subspecifically in the index, and called it “Aspella varians” in the figure caption. We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described. We herein select the specimen figured by Usticke (1969, pl. 3, fig. 692 [?sic]) as lectotype, to permanently fix the identity of this poorly defined taxon. The repository of additional paralectotypes (if any) is unknown. This taxon is a synonym of Dermomurex (D.) alabastrum (A. Adams, 1864) (Vokes, 1992: 64).

Asperiscala goldsmithi DuShane, 1988: 269, figs. 3–4

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 225994 (2 specimens), 275631 (5 specimens).

  2. Locality: 19°44′N, 155°03′W, Puhi Bay, Hilo, Hawaii, United States, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: M. Goldsmith, 1983.

  4. Remarks: ex DuShane Collection (AMNH 275631). The holotype is LACM 2304, and additional paratypes are LACM 2305 (DuShane, 1988: 269). This taxon is placed in the genus Epitonium Röding, 1798, and subgenus Asperiscala de Boury, 1909 (Weil et al., 1999: 90).

Astraea aspinosa Usticke, 1971: 4, pl. 1, fig. 172

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195408.

  2. Locality: 12–15 ft, Christiansted Harbor, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #172. The repository of paratypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1971: 4) given size range for the taxon of 25–41 mm length.

Babelomurex deroyorum D'Attilio and Myers, 1984a: 84–85, figs. 10–14

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 213802a (1 specimen), 213802b (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 75–100 m, off Isla Isabella (Albemarle Island), Tagus Cove, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: A. DeRoy, Jan. 1969.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SDNHM 81613, and additional paratypes are SDNHM 81616a–c and USNM 819633a–b (D'Attilio and Myers, 1984a: 85).

Babelomurex gilli Kosuge, 1990: 147–148, pl. 55, figs. 1–6, text fig. 1

  1. Holotype: AMNH 225169.

  2. Locality: 80–90 m, off Western Sahara, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Fisherman.

  4. Remarks: The paratypes are IMT 90–24 and in the collection of M. Gill (Kosuge, 1990: 148).

Bailya milleri Usticke, 1959: 67–68, pl. 2, fig. 21

  1. Holotype: AMNH 193772.

  2. Locality: Outer Reefs, Christiansted Harbor, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: G. W. N. Usticke and J. Miller.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #779. Although this species was illustrated by Usticke (1959: pl. 2, fig. 21) with a particularly poor pencil drawing rather than a photograph, there is no confusion as to which specimen is represented, as he had only a single specimen of this taxon at the time of description. AMNH 193772 is therefore the holotype by monotypy and is illustrated with a photograph herein (fig. 4).

Barleeia mexicana Rolán and Crúz-Ábrego, 1998: 3–4, figs. 5–8, 13, 14

  1. Paratype: AMNH 294299 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, Yucatan, Mexico, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/27465, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, EPMU, MNHN, ZMA, and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán and Crúz-Ábrego, 1998: 3).

Bathytoma tremperiana Dall, 1911: 109–110

  1. Syntype: AMNH 206515 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Off San Pedro, Los Angeles Co., California, United States, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Tremper Collection. The species was figured by Dall (1921: 68, pl. 12, fig. 5, as Cryptoconus tremperianus). Additional syntypes are probably in USNM (see Dall, 1927). This taxon is a synonym of Megasurcula carpenteriana Gabb, 1865 (Abbott and Dance, 1982: 241).

Belgrandia mariatheresiae Giusti and Pezzoli, 1972: 203–208, figs. 1–12

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 225192 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: Fonte di San Cassiano, Fabriano, Marche, Italy.

  3. Collector: E. Pezzoli, Aug. 10, 1968.

  4. Remarks: ex Taviani Collection. The holotype is in MCSNM, and additional paratypes are MSNS 225954/74 and in the collections of F. Giusti and E. Pezzoli (Giusti and Pezzoli, 1972: 208).

Belgrandiella lucensis Rolán, 1992a: 105–108, pl. 1, figs. 7–8; pl. 2, figs. 5–6; pl. 4, fig. 4; pl. 5, figs. 1–9; pl. 6, figs. 4–5

  1. Paratype: AMNH 264681 (1 specimen, alcohol).

  2. Locality: Carrozo de Villaboa, Iberian Peninsula, Spain, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/1117, and additional paratypes are in the Museu Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain) and the collections of H. Boeters and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1992a: 108).

Belgrandiella montana Rolán, 1992a: 111–114, pl. 1, fig. 4; pl. 3, fig. 2; pl. 4, figs. 6, 8–9; pl. 6, figs. 7–8

  1. Paratype: AMNH 264683 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Las Fraguas, Cantabria, Iberian Peninsula, Spain, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is in MNCN, and additional paratypes are in the Museu de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain) and the collections of H. Boeters and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1992a: 111).

Belgrandiella ovetensis Rolán, 1992a: 108–111, pl. 1, figs. 5–6; pl. 3, fig. 1; pl. 4, fig. 5; pl. 5, figs. 10–19; pl. 6, fig. 6

  1. Paratype: AMNH 264682 (1 specimen, alcohol).

  2. Locality: Carrozo de Villaboa, Iberian Peninsula, Spain, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/1118, and additional paratypes are in the Museu de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain) and the collections of H. Boeters and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1992a: 109–110).

Bellaspira acclivicosta McLean and Poorman, 1970: 6–7, figs. 9–11

  1. Paratype: AMNH 147999 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 15–20 fathoms, 27°56′N, 111°03′W, 1 km south of the east point at the entrance to Bahia San Carlos, Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. and R. Poorman, Dec. 1965–April 1967.

  4. Remarks: ex Poorman Collection. The holotype is LACM 1193, and additional paratypes are ANSP 315788, CASIZ 13159, SDNHM 50000, SU 9964, USNM 679183, and in the Poorman Collection (McLean and Poorman, 1970: 7).

Benthovoluta claydoni Harasewych, 1987: 173–176, figs. 10–18, 23–26

  1. Paratype: AMNH 221361 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 450 m, off Port Hedland, Western Australia, Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Commercial prawn fishermen.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is WAM 3252–83, and additional paratypes are in USNM and WAM (Harasewych, 1987: 176).

Bistolida (Blasicrura) pallidula summersi F. Schilder, 1958: 85–87, fig. 6

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 186628 (1 specimen), 186629 (1 specimen), 203879 (1 specimen), 213467 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Nukualofa, Tongatabu, Tonga, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. M. Ostergaard, July 1926.

  4. Remarks: ex Summers Collection (AMNH 186628, 186629, 213467) and Cate Collection #2755 (AMNH 203879). The holotype was Schilder Collection #8861 and an additional paratype was Schilder Collection #8862 (current repository unknown) (F. Schilder, 1958: 85). Additional paratypes are or were in BPBM and the collections of J. Ostergaard and R. Summers (F. Schilder, 1958: 85). This taxon is considered a full species in the genus Blasicrura Iredale, 1930 (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 161).

Bittiolum cerithioides “form” warmkeana Usticke, 1969: 12

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195416.

  2. Locality: Altona Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #373A. Although Usticke (1969: 12) cited this taxon as a “form,” he listed it as a “new s[ub] s[pecies]” (1969: 12) and treated it subspecifically in the index (as Bittium [sic] cerithioides warmkeana). We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described. Usticke (1971: 7) stated that this specimen (now AMNH 195416) was the holotype. Because Usticke (1969: 12) did not designate a holotype, Usticke's (1971) action constituted a lectotype designation. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 12) given size range for the taxon of 3–4 mm length. This taxon was figured by Usticke (1971: pl. 1, fig. 373) and is a synonym of Finella dubia (d'Orbigny, 1842) (Faber, 1988: 93).

Bittium varium “form” turricula Usticke, 1969: 11, pl. 2, fig. 370A

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 198491 (lost).

  2. Locality: Water Island, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #370A. Although Usticke (1969: 11) cited this taxon as a “form,” he listed it as a “new s[ub] sp[ecies]” (1969: 11), treated it specifically in the index, and called it “Bittium turricula” in the figure caption. We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described. Usticke (1969; 1971) never designated a specimen as holotype or lectotype. Although the specimen figured by Usticke (1969: pl. 2, fig. 370A) was “subsequently lost in a loan” (Faber, 1988: 91), in the interest of stability, and because of difficulties in establishing the breadth of the type series (see below), we designate Usticke's (1969: pl. 2, fig. 370A) figured specimen as lectotype. The lots of “possible syntypes” [= possible paralectotypes] cited by Faber (1988: 91; 1995: 65) are labeled “Bittium turriculum” (AMNH 192874, 192875), “Alabinaturricula (AMNH 193137), and “Cerithiodes turricula” (AMNH 193146). Because Usticke often added material to his type lots and kept very poor collection data, it is impossible to definitely assign any of these lots to the type series. The repository of the additional paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 11) given size range for the taxon of 1.5–3 mm length. Faber (1988: 91) suggested that this taxon name may not be applicable to the figured shell and conspecific specimens. This conclusion is incorrect, because these are the type specimens of the species and must be referred to by this name or that of a valid senior synonym. This taxon is placed in the genus Ittibittium Houbrick, 1993, as I. turriculum (Faber, 1995: 64).

Bizetiella shaskyi Radwin and D'Attilio, 1972: 347–350, figs. 1d–e, 24

  1. Paratype: AMNH 179302 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 3–8 ft, 00°22′20″S, 90°34′30″W, Sombrero Chino Island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Ameripagos Expedition, March 22–24, 1971.

  4. Remarks: ex LACM. The holotype is SDSNM 56119, and additional paratypes are LACM 65–11, 65–12, 65–13, 65–15, SDSNH 34688, USNM 709237, and in the collection of D. Shasky (Radwin and D'Attilio, 1972: 348–349; Finet, 1994: 48).

Blandiella reclusa Guppy, 1871: 309, pl. 17, figs. 7–8

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 16698 (4 specimens).

  2. Locality: Oropuche Mountains, Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago.

  3. Collector: R. Guppy.

  4. Remarks: ex Guppy via Crooke Collection. This taxon is the type of the genus Blandiella Guppy, 1871, by monotypy (Guppy, 1871: 309). The lectotype (MCZ 175606) was selected and figured by Clench and Turner (1948c: 170, pl. 23, fig. 9). The lectotype is MCZ 175606 (Clench and Turner, 1948c: 183, pl. 23, fig. 9).

Blasicrura coxeni hesperina F. Schilder and Summers, 1963b: 68–69, pls. 8–9, figs. d–f

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 96803 (2 specimens), 105502 (1 specimen), 162520 (1 specimen), 186632 (1 specimen), 186633 (1 specimen), 213443 (1 specimen), 220727 (4 specimens).

  2. Locality: Talasea, New Britain, Papua New Guinea, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. H. Schlosser, Aug. 1961.

  4. Remarks: ex Katsaras Collection (AMNH 96803), Summers Collection (AMNH 105502, 186633, 213443, 220727), Deynzer Collection (AMNH 162520), and Gray Collection (AMNH 186632). The holotype was in the collection of F. A. Schilder #14616 (current repository unknown), and an unspecified number of paratypes were in the collections of “Burgess, Cernohorsky, Gray, Kuroba, Schilder and Summers” (current repository unknown) (Schilder and Summers, 1963b: 69). The figured shells (Schilder and Summers, 1963b: 69, pls. VI–VII, figs. F–G) are also paratypes. A paratype (ex Summers Collection) may be in CASIZ.

Blasicrura (Derstolida) kieneri schneideri F. and M. Schilder, 1938b: 166

  1. Syntypes: AMNH 186640 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Mope, northeast New Britain, Papua New Guinea, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Schilder Collection via Summers Collection. These specimens are probably from the type lot, but because of F. and M. Schilder's (1938b: 166) descriptive brevity and minimal data, this is not completely certain. The repository of additional syntypes is unknown. This taxon is a synonym of Bistolida kieneri depriesteri (Schilder, 1933) (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 168).

Blasicrura (Derstolida) ursellus amoeba F. and M. Schilder, 1938b: 167

  1. Syntypes: AMNH 186639 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Mope, northeast New Britain, Papua New Guinea, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Schilder Collection via Summers Collection. These specimens are probably from the type lot, but because of F. and M. Schilder's (1938b: 167) descriptive brevity and minimal data, this is not completely certain. The repository of additional syntypes is unknown. This taxon is a synonym of Bistolida ursellus (Gmelin, 1791) (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 171).

Borsonia brasiliana Tippett, 1983: 136–137, figs. 1–5

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 213805 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Sta. 4226, 150 fathoms, 00°18′N, 04°17′W, 200 mi north of São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: R/V “Oregon,” March 9, 1963.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 810567, and additional paratypes are MCZ 294225 and in AIM, ANSP, BMNH, CASIZ, DMNH, LACM, MNHN, MORG, and ZMUC (Tippett, 1983: 137).

Bothropoma rubrostriatum Rolán, Rubio, and Fernández-Garcés, 1997: 19–23, figs. 1–14

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 292118 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: Faro do los Colorados, Cienfuegos, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: R. Fernández-Garcés.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/20547, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IES, MNCN, MNHN, ZMA, ZSM, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés, E. Rolán, and F. Rubio (Rolán et al., 1997: 19–20).

Brachycythara [sic] barbarae Lyons, 1972: 4, figs. 3–4

  1. Paratype: AMNH 167029 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Sta. D, 55 m, 27°37′N, 83°58′W, off Egmont Key, Hillsborough Co., Florida, United States, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Project Hourglass, Feb. 28, 1967.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 707003, and additional paratypes are MCZ 278869 and in ANSP, DMNH, FSCB, LACM, USNM, and the collection of D. Steger (Lyons, 1972: 4). The genus is correctly cited as Brachycithara Woodring, 1928.

Brachycythara [sic] stegeri Usticke, 1959: 83, pl. 4, fig. 14

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195466.

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 195466a (1 specimen), 294367 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: Altona Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1172 (AMNH 195466, 195466a) and Schwartz Collection (AMNH 294367). AMNH 195466 is the specimen figured by Usticke in 1959 and 1969 (Usticke, 1959: pl. 4, fig. 14; 1969: pl. 6, fig. 1172) but not in 1971 (Usticke, 1971: pl. 4, fig. 1172), contrary to the statement of Faber (1988: 90); this specimen is the holotype. AMNH 195466a is the specimen figured by Usticke in 1971 (pl. 4, fig. 1172). The repository of additional paratypes (if any) is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1959: 83) given size range for the taxon of 5–6.5 mm length. The genus is correctly cited as Brachycithara Woodring, 1928.

Buccinum lugubre C. B. Adams, 1852: 69–70

  1. Paralectotype: AMNH 79829 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Panama, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: C. B. Adams, Nov. 1850.

  4. Remarks: ex MCZ. The lectotype was selected as MCZ 186388 and illustrated by Turner (1956: 102, pl. 5, fig. 7). This species is placed in the genus Morula Schumacher, 1817, and subgenus Morurella Emerson and Hertlein, 1964, as M. (M.) lugubris (Emerson and Hertlein, 1964: 361).

Buccinum tanquaryi Baker, 1919: 511–512, pl. 26, figs. 1–2; pl. 27, fig. 3

  1. Holotype: AMNH 2508.

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 2501 (4 specimens), 2503 (3 specimens).

  3. Locality: Etah and Peeawahto Point, Greenland, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: W. Eckblaw and M. Tanquary (Crocker Land Expedition).

  5. Remarks: Additional paratypes are UIMNH Z10869 (Baker, 1919: 512).

Bufonaria (Bufonaria) cristinae Parth, 1989b: 51–53, pl. on p. 53

  1. Paratype: AMNH 246026 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Parth Collection (paratype #5). The holotype is in BMNH (Parth, 1991: 21). The repository of the additional 4 paratypes is unknown. The right-hand portion of the plate on p. 53 in Parth (1989b) is reversed so that the specimens all appear sinistral.

Bullia perryi Jay, 1856: 295, pl. 5, figs. 13–15

  1. Holotype: AMNH 56084.

  2. Locality: “Bay of Yedo,” [Japan] (Jay, 1856: 295).

  3. Collector: Perry Japan Expedition, 1852–1854.

  4. Remarks: ex Jay Collection #11906. AMNH 56084 is labeled with the type locality data and is clearly the specimen figured by Jay (1856: pl. 5, figs. 13–15); it is the holotype by monotypy (fig. 5 herein). This species is placed in the genus Volutharpa Fischer, 1856, as a subspecies of V. ampullacea (Middendorf, 1848) (Higo and Goto, 1993: 236).

Bullia rogersi Smythe in Smythe and Chatfield, 1981: 376, pl. 17, figs. g–i

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 245762 (11 specimens).

  2. Locality: East coast beaches, Masirah Island, Oman, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Bosch and family.

  4. Remarks: ex Bosch Collection. The holotype is BMNH 198095, and additional paratypes are BMNH 198096/1–4, NMW acc. 1980.140.1, and in USNM and ZMA (Smythe in Smythe and Chatfield, 1981: 376).

Buridrillia deroyorum Emerson and McLean, 1992: 39–41, figs. 1–14

  1. Holotype: AMNH 232163.

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 232164 (3 specimens), 232165 (4 specimens).

  3. Locality: 310 m, 01°14′S, 90°26′W, north of Isla Floreana [= Santa Maria Island and Charles Island], Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  4. Collector: A. and J. DeRoy, April 15, 1979.

  5. Remarks: Additional paratypes are LACM 2461 (Emerson and McLean, 1992: 41).

Bursa barcellosi Matthews, Rios, and Coelho, 1973: 52–53, figs. 1–5

  1. Paratype: AMNH 181194 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 100 m, off Albardão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: L. Pontes on “Kosei Maru.”

  4. Remarks: ex MORG 18001. The holotype is MORG 17755, and additional paratypes are LABOMAR 512, MN 3647, MNHNM 8779, MORG 17747, and in USNM and the collection of B. Barcellos (Matthews et al., 1973: 53–54). This taxon is a subspecies of Ranella olearium (Linnaeus, 1758) (Rios, 1994: 86).

Bursa corrugata “var.” lineata Usticke, 1959: 61–62, pl. 3, fig. 12

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195427.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 294357 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: Krause's Lagoon, north of Fredericksted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #632 (AMNH 195427) and Schwartz Collection (AMNH 294357). Although Usticke cited this taxon as a “var.” (= variety) (1959: 61) and as a “form” (1959: 62), he first listed it (1959: vi) as “Bursa corrugata lineata” under the heading “new species and subspecies.” We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described and the holotype to be valid. The repository of additional paratypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1959: 61) given size range for the taxon of 28–35 mm length. Faber (1988: 83) placed this taxon as a synonym of B. corrugata (Perry, 1811), but the holotype and paratype are actually small specimens of B. granularis cubaniana (d'Orbigny, 1842) (new synonymy).

Bursa cubaniana “var.” intermedia Usticke, 1959: 61–62, pl. 3, fig. 13

  1. Holotype: lost.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 294355 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: North of Fredericksted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: ex Schwartz Collection (AMNH 294355). Although Usticke cited this taxon as a “var.” (= variety) (1959: 61) and subspecifically (1959: 62), he first listed it (1959: vi) as “Bursa cubaniana intermedia” under the heading “new species and subspecies.” We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described and the holotype to be valid. However, the holotype cannot be located in AMNH and is considered lost. There is a specimen (AMNH 198478; labeled “neotype”) that closely resembles the holotype, but it is too small to belong to Usticke's (1959) type series and has no standing as a neotype. The repository of additional paratypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1959: 61) given size range for the taxon of 35–45 mm length. Based on the only known paratype, this taxon is a synonym of B. granularis cubaniana (d'Orbigny, 1842) (new synonymy).

Bursa (Bursa) davidboschi Beu, 1986: 318–319, figs. 165–175

  1. Paratype: AMNH 220519 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Medina, Misamis Province, Mindanao, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Abbey Specimen Shells. The holotype is USNM 849006, and additional paratypes are NZGS WM13260, WM13972, WM14096, USNM 849007, and in the collections of K. Smythe and Abbey Specimen Shells (Beu, 1986: 321).

Bursa (Bursa) lucaensis Parth, 1991: 20–21, 2 unnumbered figs

  1. Holotype: AMNH 232182.

  2. Locality: Cebu, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Parth. AMNH 232182 is the holotype by monotypy.

Bursa (Bursa) pacamoni Matthews and Coelho, 1971: 2–5, figs. 1–4

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 163333 (10 specimens).

  2. Locality: ex pisces, 15–30 fathoms, off Mucuripe, Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Fishermen, 1964–1970.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNRJ 3538, and additional paratypes are in LABOMAR, MNHN, MNRJ, and MORG (Matthews and Coelho, 1971: 6). This taxon is a synonym of B. grayana (Dunker, 1868) (Rios, 1994: 92).

Bursa (Colubrellina) quirihorai Beu, 1986: 321–324, figs. 182–192

  1. Paratype: AMNH 220520 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 150–200 fathoms, off Balicasag Island, south of Panglac, Bohol, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Q. Hora, 1984.

  4. Remarks: ex Abbey Specimen Shells via K. Vaught. The holotype is USNM 849004, and additional paratypes are NZGS WM14093, WM14442, SBNHM 33909, and in MNHN and the collection of Abbey Specimen Shells (Beu, 1986: 324).

Busycon laeostomum Kent, 1982: 101, figs. 1–5, 7, 10

  1. Paratype: AMNH 206091 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 10–15 m, off Stone Harbor, Cape May Co., New Jersey, United States, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown, Jan. 1979.

  4. Remarks: ex M. G. Harasewych Collection. The holotype is USNM 806849, and additional paratypes are USNM 678850, 679720, 806850, 806851, and in the collections of M. Harasewych, B. Kent, T. Pope, and G. Vermeij (Kent, 1982: 101).

Caducifer (Monostiolum) weberi Watters, 1983: 125–128, figs. 1–6, 11

  1. Paratype: AMNH 206077 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: La Chorrera, Havana, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is ANSP 355365, and additional paratypes are USNM 617392 (Watters, 1983: 126). This taxon is the type of the subgenus Parabailya Watters and Finlay, 1989, and is placed in the genus Bailya Smith, 1944 (Watters and Finlay, 1989: 55).

Caecum insularum Moore, 1970: 369, figs. 1a–b.

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 147965 (10 specimens), 198498 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1.5 m, Lesser Lameshur Bay, St. John's, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. R. Moore and R. B. Manning, June 7, 1961.

  4. Remarks: ex Moore Collection via G. W. Nowell-Usticke Collection (AMNH 198498). The holotype is USNM 679178, and additional paratypes are ANSP 315477, MCZ 271305, UMML 30:3203, USNM 679179, and in the collections of D. Moore and G. Warmke (Moore, 1970: 370–371).

Caecum (Micranellum) limnetes Long, 1972: 291, figs. 1–2

  1. Paratype: AMNH 162063 (1 specimen, fragmented).

  2. Locality: 31°20′30″N, 113°36′30″W, Estero Choya, Sonora, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: G. E. Long, Oct. 23, 1970.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is CASIZ 13617, and additional paratypes are BMNH 197012, CASIZ 13618, FMNH 172334, LACM 1446, SDMNH 55551, and in the collection of G. Long (Long, 1972: 292). AMNH 162063 was mounted by Long in balsam on a microscope slide. Due to the extreme crystallization of the mounting medium, the balsam was removed with solvent in Dec. 1998. Unfortunately, deterioration of the mounting medium had caused the shell to fragment. The 3 small pieces that are recognizable as parts of the paratype are now preserved in a shell vial.

Calliclava jaliscoensis McLean and Poorman, 1971: 90, fig. 1

  1. Paratype: AMNH 164606 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 20–40 fathoms, 19°17′N, 104°50′W, Tenacatita Bay, Jalísco, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: G. Willett, Feb. 18, 1938.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is LACM 1465, and additional paratypes are LACM 1466 and in ANSP, CASIZ, SDNHM, SU, and USNM (McLean and Poorman, 1971: 90).

Calliostoma barbouri Clench and Aguayo, 1946: 89–90, text fig

  1. Paratype: AMNH 295277 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 3–15 fathoms, Arenas de la Chorrera, Santa Fe, near Havana, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. Finlay.

  4. Remarks: ex Eddison Collection. The holotype is MCZ 178128, and additional paratypes are MPUH 11.602 and in the collection of M. Jaume (Clench and Aguayo, 1946: 90).

Calliostoma mcleani Shasky and Campbell, 1964: 117, pl. 22, figs. 21, 24

  1. Paratype: AMNH 127468 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 2–15 m, first shallow cove northwest of Bahía Saladita, midway between Punta Colorada and Punta Lobos, Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Shasky, July 4–5, 1962.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SU 9742, and additional paratypes are in the collections of T. Bratcher, B. Campbell, J. McLean, and D. Shasky (Shasky and Campbell, 1964: 117).

Calliostoma (Kombologion) rosewateri Clench and Turner, 1960: 41–42, pl. 6, fig. 3; pl. 10, fig. 2; pl. 26

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 105562 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Sta. 1985, 150 fathoms, 09°04′N, 59°47′W, approx. 85 mi SE of Galeota Point, Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: H. Bullis on R/V “Oregon,” March 11, 1957.

  4. Remarks: ex Bullis Collection. The holotype is USNM 612704, and additional paratypes are in the collection of H. Bullis (Clench and Turner, 1960: 42). This taxon is a subspecies of C. bairdii Verrill and Smith, 1880 (Abbott, 1974: 44).

Calliostoma scalenum Quinn, 1992: 92–93, figs. 43–44, 110–111

  1. Paratype: AMNH 225980 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 21–27 m, 28°09′54″N, 94°18′00″W, Stetson Bank, southeast of Galveston, Galveston Co., Texas, United States, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: North West Gulf Survey, Aug. 1971.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 859356, and additional paratypes are ANSP 338470, 367152, FSBC 32315, HMNS 15022, 15850, LACM 2292, MCZ 297051, UF 110222, and USNM 859357 (Quinn, 1992: 92–93).

Calliotropis globosa Quinn, 1991: 168–169, figs. 7–8

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 232160 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Sta. P-1262, 805–1089 m, 17°21.4′N, 77°34.8′W, south of Jamaica, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: R/V “John Elliott Pilsbury,” July 15, 1970.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 859419, and additional paratypes are ANSP 383289, FSBC I 39515, MCZ 302452, UF 169956, UMML 30.8358, and USNM 859420 (Quinn, 1991: 169).

Calotrophon andrewsi Vokes, 1976: 110–111, pl. 6, figs. 3–6

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 182710 (1 specimen), 183197 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 77 fathoms, off Egmont Key (AMNH 182710), 4 fathoms, Shark River (AMNH 183197), Hillsborough Co., Florida, United States, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. Moore, 1962 (AMNH 182710) and Oct. 1966 (AMNH 182710).

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 711111, and additional paratypes are USNM 711112, 711113, and in TU and the collection of B. Steger (Vokes, 1976: 111).

Cancellaria balboae Pilsbry, 1931: 439–440, pl. 41, figs. 7–8

  1. Holotype: AMNH 269087.

  2. Locality: Mouth of Rio Grande, in mud, 10–40 ft, 1 mi from mainland near La Boca, Panama Bay, Panama, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. MacDonald, 1907.

  4. Remarks: ex Columbia University Collection #22122. The paratype is ANSP 107154 (Pilsbry, 1931: 439). This taxon is placed in the subgenus Euclia H. and A. Adams, 1854 (Keen, 1971: 651).

Cancellaria darwini Petit, 1970: 85–86, pl. 1, figs. 4a–c

  1. Holotype: AMNH 154677.

  2. Locality: 170–200 m, south of Academy Bay, Isla Santa Cruz, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. DeRoy, July 26, 1969.

  4. Remarks: The paratypes are in SU, USNM, and the collection of R. Petit (Petit, 1970: 86).

Cancellaria (Euclia) laurettae Petit and Harasewych, 1998: 113–116, figs. 1–4

  1. Paratype: AMNH 292527 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 270–360 m, off Isla Montuosa, west of Punta Hermosa, Isla de Coiba, Golfo de Chiriqui, Panama, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 880277, and additional paratypes are ANSP 401180, LACM 2815, USNM 880278, and in the collections of J. Ernest, E. Garcia, and R. Petit (Petit and Harasewych, 1998: 115–116).

Cantharus (Gemophos) berryi McLean, 1970a: 314, pl. 46, figs. 13–14

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 154689 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: 10–15 fathoms, 20°45′N, 105°30′W, off La Cruz, Banderas Bay, Jalísco, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. H. McLean and M. Keen on “Sea Quest,” March 20–24, 1965.

  4. Remarks: ex LACM. The holotype is LACM 1286, and additional paratypes are CASIZ 13275, LACM 1287, SDNHM 51306, SU 9990, MCZ 271948, and in USNM (McLean, 1970a: 314). An additional (approximate) 48 paratypes are in the collection of J. McLean (McLean, 1970a: 314).

Cantharus karinae Usticke, 1959: 69, pl. 4, fig. 4

  1. Holotype: AMNH 193771.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 294356 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: North of Fredericksted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #798 (AMNH 193771) and Schwartz Collection (AMNH 294356). The repository of additional paratypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1959: 69) given size range for the taxon of 18–23 mm length.

Cantharus multangulus grandanus Abbott, 1986: 120, figs. 1–2

  1. Paratype: AMNH 222560 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 2–4 ft, ¼ mi east of Black Isle, Saint Joseph Bay, off Port St. Joe, Gulf Co., Florida, United States, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: R. Granda, March 13, 1982.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 859096, and additional paratypes are MCZ 301601 and in ANSP and FSM (Abbott, 1986: 120).

Carinodrillia buccooensis Usticke, 1971: 23, pl. 4, fig. 1104

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195460.

  2. Locality: Buccoo Reef, Tobago, British Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1104. AMNH 195460 is the holotype by monotypy.

Ceratoxancus teramachii Kuroda, 1952: 70–71, figs. 1–4

  1. Paratype: AMNH 169039 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 200 fathoms, Tosa, Japan, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: A. Teramachi.

  4. Remarks: ex Teramachi Collection via Sasaki Collection via D'Attilio Collection. AMNH 169039 is paratype #2 with operculum. This taxon is the type of the genus Ceratoxancus Kuroda, 1952, by monotypy (Kuroda, 1952: 29).

Cerithidea costata “form” barbudaensis Usticke, 1969: 11, pl. 2, fig. 349

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195415.

  2. Locality: Mangrove swamps, Barbuda Island, Antigua and Barbuda, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #349. Although Usticke (1969: 11) cited this taxon as a “form,” he listed it as a “new s[ub] sp[ecies]” (1969: 11), treated it subspecifically in the index, and called it “Cerithidea barbudaensis” in the figure caption. We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described. Usticke (1971: 7) stated that this specimen was the holotype. Because Usticke (1969: 11) did not designate a holotype, Usticke's (1971) action constituted a lectotype designation. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 11) given size range for the taxon of 12–17 mm length. This taxon is a possible synonym of Cerithidea costata beattyi Bequaert, 1942 (Faber, 1988: 73).

Cerithiopsis academicorum Rolán and Espinosa, 1995: 140–141, figs. 21–26

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226503 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Cienfuegos, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/17219, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IES, MNHN, USNM, ZMA, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés and E. Rolán (Rolán and Espinosa, 1995: 140).

Cerithiopsis aimen Rolán and Espinosa, 1995: 142, figs. 27–30

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226504 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Punta Tamarindo, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/17220, and additional paratypes are in IES and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán and Espinosa, 1995: 142).

Cerithiopsis binoda Usticke, 1969: 12, pl. 2, fig. 378

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 198492.

  2. Locality: St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #378. We herein select the specimen figured by Usticke (1969, pl. 2, fig. 378) as lectotype to fix the identity of this poorly defined taxon. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 12) given size range for the taxon of 6–8 mm length. Usticke considered this taxon to be a synonym of C. bicolor C. B. Adams, 1850 (Usticke, MS: 79).

Cerithiopsis contra-pupa Usticke, 1969: 12, pl. 2, fig. 394

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195418.

  2. Locality: Long Reef, Christiansted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #394/395. AMNH 195418 is the holotype by monotypy. Usticke changed his catalog number for this taxon from #394 (1969: 12) to #395 (1971: 8) without explanation. The taxon is correctly cited without the hyphen as C. contrapupa.

Cerithiopsis cruzana Usticke, 1959: 42, pl. 2, fig. 17

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195417.

  2. Locality: Ham Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #386. Usticke (1959: 42) gave only a single measurement for this taxon, and we conclude that he had only a single specimen before him at the time of description. This taxon is possibly a synonym of C. latum (C. B. Adams, 1850) (Faber, 1988: 76).

Cerithiopsis dominiquezi Rolán and Espinosa, 1995: 136–138, figs. 17–19

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226525 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Jibacoa, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/17225, and additional paratypes are in USNM and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán and Espinosa, 1995: 136).

Cerithiopsis fuscoflavus Rolán and Espinosa, 1995: 144–146, figs. 37–39

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226508 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Jibacoa, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/18008, and additional paratypes are in IES, ZMA, and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán and Espinosa, 1995: 144).

Cerithiopsis paucispiralis Rolán and Fernandes, 1989: 38, fig. 1

  1. Paratype: AMNH 245391 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Fuma Bay, Brava Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 11.37/1033, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IICT, MIST, MNHN, and ZMA (Rolán and Fernandes, 1989: 38).

Cerithiopsis portoi Rolán and Espinosa, 1995: 144, figs. 34–36

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226506 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Jibacoa, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/17222, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IES, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés and E. Rolán (Rolán and Espinosa, 1995: 144).

Cerithiopsis prieguei Rolán and Espinosa, 1995: 142–144, figs. 31–33, 44–45

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226505 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Marianao Beach, La Habana, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/17221, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IES, MNHN, UNMS, ZMA, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés and E. Rolán (Rolán and Espinosa, 1995: 142).

Cerithiopsis pseudomovilla Rolán and Espinosa, 1995: 134–136, figs. 11–13

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226507 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Jibacoa, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/17226, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IES, MNHN, USNM, ZMA, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés and E. Rolán (Rolán and Espinosa, 1995: 134).

Cerithium magnum Jay, 1836: explanation of pl. 2 [p. 83], fig. 5

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 56067.

  2. Paralectotype: AMNH 16126 (2 specimens; in part—see remarks).

  3. Locality: “?” (Jay, 1836: 83); “New Holland” (Jay, 1850: 314).

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: ex Jay Collection #2560a (Jay, 1839) and #7687 (Jay, 1850). AMNH 56057 is labeled as “fig d. pl. 2, fig. 5” (fig. 6 herein). Houbrick (1978: 108) stated that AMNH 56067 was the holotype, but because Jay (1836) did not designate a holotype, Houbrick's statement was an inadvertent lectotype designation. Jay (1839) stated that he had “two specimens in my cabinet.” One of the specimens from AMNH 16126 is therefore not part of the type series, but it is not possible at this time to determine which one. This species is a synonym of Pseudovertagus (P.) clava (Gmelin, 1791) (Houbrick, 1978: 108).

Cerodrillia girardi Lyons, 1972: 3–4, figs. 1–2

  1. Paratype: AMNH 167028 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Sta. D, 55 m, 27°37′N, 83°58′W, off Egmont Key, Hillsborough Co., Florida, United States, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Project Hourglass, April 4, 1967.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 707001, and additional paratypes are MCZ 278870 and in ANSP, DMNH, FSCB I, LACM, and USNM (Lyons, 1972: 3–4).

Cheilea equestris striata Usticke, 1959: 47, pl. 2, fig. 19

  1. Holotype: AMNH 198509.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 294373 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: Judith's Fancy, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection (AMNH 198509) and Schwartz Collection (AMNH 294373). The repository of additional paratypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1959: 47) given size range for the taxon of 20–40 mm length. This taxon is a synonym of C. equestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (Faber, 1988: 90).

Cheirodonta apexcrassum Rolán and Fernández-Garcés, 1994: 21–22, figs. 27–29

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226471 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 7 m, Jibacoa, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is NINCN 15.05/11143, and additional paratypes are BMNH 1993061 and in IES, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés and E. Rolán (Rolán and Fernández-Garcés, 1994: 21–22).

Cheirodonta decollate Rolán and Fernández-Garcés, 1994: 20–21, figs. 19–21, 23–24, 30

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 226470 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 2 m, Marianao Beach, La Habana, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/11142, and additional paratypes are BMNH 1993062 and in IES, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés and E. Rolán (Rolán and Fernández-Garcés, 1994: 21).

Chicoreus cosmani Abbott and Finlay, 1979: 159–161, figs. 1–9

  1. Paratype: AMNH 223497 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 10–15 ft, Reynolds bauxite dock, Ocho Rio, Jamaica, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Cosman, March 1967.

  4. Remarks: ex Bijur Collection. The holotype is USNM 783323, and additional paratypes are ANSP 35419 and in DMNH and the collections of J. Bijur, D. Cosman, and C. Finlay (Abbott and Finlay, 1979: 161). This specimen (AMNH 223497) was donated as part of the J. M. Bijur Collection; the specimen(s) stated to be deposited in AMNH by Abbott and Finlay (1979) were lost in the mail. This taxon is placed in the subgenus Triplex Perry, 1810 (Houart, 1994: 42).

Chicoreus fosterorum Houart, 1989: 60–62, figs. 1–5

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226465 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 50 m, 30°15′S, 30°49′E, Aliwal Shoal, Natal, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Glass and Foster Collection #86–083 via Vaught Collection. The holotype is NM 5343, and additional paratypes are NM E2031 and in the R. Houart Collection (Houart, 1989: 60). This taxon is placed in the subgenus Triplex Perry, 1810 (Houart, 1994: 51).

Chicoreus rachelcarsonae Petuch, 1987: 13, pl. 1, figs. 9–10

  1. Paratype: AMNH 223374 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 400 ft, 30 mi west of Cedar Key, Levy Co., Florida, United States, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Pace Collection via A. Deynzer. The holotype is USNM 859811, and the additional paratype is ANSP 354768 (Petuch, 1987: 13). This taxon is a synonym of C. dilectus (A. Adams, 1855) (Vokes, 1990: 30).

Chicoreus subpalmatus Houart, 1988: 188–189, figs. 1–2, 15

  1. Paratype: AMNH 225999 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Sta. DW 14, 246 m, 23°40′S, 168°00′E, south of New Caledonia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: B. Richer on R/V “Vauban,” May 22, 1987.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is in MNHN, and additional paratypes are AMS C 155097, NMNZ MF 56356, and in MNHN and the collection of R. Houart (Houart, 1988: 188). This taxon is placed in the subgenus Triplex Perry, 1810 (Houart, 1994: 94).

Chicoreus (Chicomurex) turschi Houart, 1981: 186–188, figs. 1–6

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 196023 (1 specimen), 196024 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 45–60 m, off Durangit, Hansa Bay, Papua New Guinea, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is IRSBN 374, and additional paratypes are BMNH 198089, USNM 784589, and in the collection of R. Houart (Houart, 1981: 188). This taxon is placed in the genus Chicomurex Arakawa, 1964 (Houart, 1994: 99).

Chondropoma (Chondropomium) clenchi Pilsbry, 1933: 126, pl. 9, figs. 2–3.

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 81534 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: St. 85, approximately 3000 ft, Senior Del Monte's plantation, in a verdant gully, near Salvation, Barahona, Santo Domingo.

  3. Collector: D. Pease, Aug. 4, 1932.

  4. Remarks: ex ANSP. The holotype and additional paratypes are ANSP 160995 (Pilsbry, 1933: 126). Further paratypes are in MCZ and the collection of D. Pease (Pilsbry, 1933: 126). This taxon may be a Licina Gray, 1847 (Baker, 1964: 169). This species-level name is a homonym of Chondropoma ernesti clenchi Aguayo, 1932 (now C. (Chondropomedes) ernesti clenchi fide Torre and Bartch, 1938: 363). C. (Chondropomium) clenchi Pilsbry is herein replaced by Chondropoma (Chondropomium) compressa, nom. nov., from the Latin “to press together” or, more loosely, “to clench.”

Chondropoma (Chondropoma) fuentesi Jaume and Alcalde, 1944: 39–40, pl. 6

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 150483 (4 specimens).

  2. Locality: “Santa Martina,” junta al Río Arimao, Barrio de Gavilán, Cienfuegos, Las Villas, Cuba.

  3. Collector: M. Jaume and O. Alcalde, May 1943.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is MP 3868, and additional paratypes are MP 3869 and in the collections of O. Alcalde, M. Jaume, and L. Sánchez (Jaume and Alcalde, 1944: 39).

Chondropoma hendersoni Torre, 1909: 49–50, pl. 4, fig. 6

  1. Syntypes: AMNH 56103 (4 specimens).

  2. Locality: Sierra del Ancón, northwest of Viñales, Pinar del Rio, Cuba.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Torre (1912). This taxon is the type of the subgenus Hendersonina Torre and Bartsch, 1938, by monotypy (Torre and Bartsch, 1938: 234). An additional syntype is ANSP 219657 (Richardson et al., 1991: 46).

Chondropoma olssoni Pilsbry, 1933: 125, pl. 6, figs. 1–4

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 95461 (5 specimens).

  2. Locality: Cerro Monti Cristi, Barahona, Santo Domingo.

  3. Collector: A. A. Olsson, 1916.

  4. Remarks: ex ANSP. The holotype is ANSP 160978 (Pilsbry, 1933: 125). Additional paratypes are ANSP 160868 and 373757 (formerly ANSP 160978) (Richardson et al., 1991: 46; as “paralectotypes”). Richardson et al. (1991: 46) stated that Baker (1964: 170) designated a lectotype, but Baker (1964: 170) correctly cited ANSP 160978 as the holotype by original designation of Pilsbry (1933: 125).

Chondropoma xenicum Pilsbry, 1933: 124–125, pl. 6, figs. 11–12

  1. Paratype: AMNH 81527 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: St. 85, approximately 3000 ft, Senior Del Monte's plantation, in a verdant gully, near Salvation, Barahona, Santo Domingo.

  3. Collector: D. Pease, Aug. 4, 1932.

  4. Remarks: ex ANSP. The holotype is ANSP 160980 (Pilsbry, 1933: 124). Additional paratypes are ANSP 374385 (formerly ANSP 160980) (Richardson et al., 1991: 131).

Chondropometes (Chondropometes) torrei Bartsch, 1937: 130–131, fig. 2

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 197984 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Mogote Canalete, Abra de Bejarano, Sierra San Andrés, Pinar del Rio, Cuba.

  3. Collector: M. L. Jaume.

  4. Remarks: ex Haume via Jacobson Collection. The holotype is USNM 428794 (Bartsch, 1937: 131).

Chondrothyrium (Plicathyrium) alcaldei Jaume and Fuentes, 1943b: 24–25, pl. 4, fig. 1

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 150240 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Barrio de la Sierra, Cienfuegos, Las Villas, Cuba.

  3. Collector: O. Alcalde.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is MP 5477, and additional paratypes are in the collections of O. Alcalde, L. Fuentes, and M. Jaume (Jaume and Fuentes, 1943b: 24). This species is the type of the subgenus Plicathyrium Jaume and Fuentes, 1943, by original designation (Jaume and Fuentes, 1943b: 23).

Chondrothyrium violaceum jaumei Alcalde, 1943: 14, pl. 1, fig. 2

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 150243 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: Río Chiquito, Cienfuegos, Las Villas, Cuba.

  3. Collector: O. Alcalde.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is MP 5483, and additional paratypes are in the collections of O. Alcalde, L. Fuentes, and M. Jaume (Alcalde, 1943: 14).

Chondrothyrium violaceum serranum Torre and Bartsch, 1938: 398–399, pl. 28, fig. 14

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 150478 (5 specimens).

  2. Locality: Naranga Dulce, La Sierra, southeast of Cienfuegos, Cuba.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is USNM 367833 (Torre and Bartsch, 1938: 399).

Choristes coani Marincovich, 1975: 169–170, figs. 2, 6–7

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 181739a (1 specimen), 181739b (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Sample OTB 132, 2830 m, 44°35.3′N, 125°34.5′W to 44°37′N, 125°36.4′W, off central Oregon, United States, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Department of Oceanography, Oregon State University, on R/V “Yaquina,” March 16, 1970.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 741014, and additional paratypes are ANSP 335460, CASIZ 55392, 55393, LACM 1733, MCZ 272885, SDNHM 63705, 63706, and USNM 741015 (Marincovich, 1975: 170).

Chrysallida gubbiolii Peñas and Rolán, 1998: 22, figs. 58–60

  1. Paratype: AMNH 294233 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 60 m, Luanda, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/31744, and additional paratypes are in MNHN and the collections of A. Peñas and E. Rolán (Peñas and Rolán, 1998: 22).

Chrysallida jordii Peñas and Rolán, 1998: 16–18, figs. 46–49

  1. Paratype: AMNH 294232 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 10–25 m, Miamia, Ghana, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/31742, and additional paratypes are in MNHN and the collections of A. Peñas and E. Rolán (Peñas and Rolán, 1998: 16).

Chrysallida manonegra Peñas and Rolán, 1998: 10–12, figs. 22–30

  1. Paratype: AMNH 294232 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Furna, Brava, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/31740, and additional paratypes are in MNHN, USNM, and the collections of A. Peñas and E. Rolán (Peñas and Rolán, 1998: 10).

Chrysodomus pribiloffensis Dall, 1919: 323

  1. Paratype: AMNH 225199 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Sta. 3554, 62 fathoms, off the Pribiloff Islands, Bering Sea, Alaska, United States, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: U.S. Fish Commission Steamer “Albatross,” Oct. 26, 1990.

  4. Remarks: ex USNM. The holotype is USNM 225603 (Dall, 1919: 323); it was later figured by Dall (1925: 10, pl. 7, fig. 4) with the catalog number cited as USNM 224085.

Circumscapula iota C. Cate, 1979: 110, fig. 154

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 204636 (5 specimens).

  2. Locality: 18–21 m, approx. 111°00′N, 27°20′W, San Carlos Bay, Guaymas, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: L. Shy, Oct. 1966.

  4. Remarks: ex Cate Collection #3652. The holotype is LACM 1839 (C. Cate, 1979: 110).

Clathrodrillia (Carinodrillia) bicarinata Shasky, 1961: 21, pl. 4, fig. 10

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 221884 (5 specimens).

  2. Locality: 45–90 fathoms, 24°32′N, 110°26′W, between Isla Partida and Espiritu Santo Island, Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Ariel Expedition, Aug. 30, 1960.

  4. Remarks: ex DuShane Collection. The holotype is SU 8622, and additional paratypes are in the collections of J. Burch, G. Campbell, H. King, M. Rogers, T Schowalter, D. Shasky, and G. Sphon (Shasky, 1961: 21). This taxon is placed in the genus Compsodrillia Woodring, 1928 (Abbott, 1974: 277).

Cleopatra cara Pilsbry and Bequaert, 1927: 294, text fig. 53

  1. Holotype: AMNH 72102 (lost).

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 72103 (3 specimens).

  3. Locality: 00°30′N, 25°15′E, Stanleyville (= Kisangani), Belgian Congo (= Zaire = Democratic Republic of the Congo), Africa.

  4. Collector: H. Lang and J. Chapin, March 1915.

  5. Remarks: Pilsbry and Bequaert (1927: 294) did not specify the number of specimens they examined. Additional paratypes are MCZ 41015 (15 specimens; 9 ex AMNH 72103). AMNH 72102 was recorded as lost in July 1945. This taxon is provisionally placed in the genus Pseudogibbula Dautzenberg, 1890 (Brown, 1980: 83).

Cleopatra langi Pilbsry and Bequaert, 1927: 293–294, text figs. 51a–d, 52

  1. Holotype: AMNH 72099.

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 72100 (1 specimen), 72101 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: 00°30′N, 25°15′E, Stanleyville (= Kisangani), Belgian Congo (= Zaire = Democratic Republic of the Congo), Africa.

  4. Collector: H. Lang and J. Chapin, March 1915.

  5. Remarks: Additional paratypes are MCZ 41016 (2 specimens).

Cocculina superba Clarke, 1960: 3, 2 unnumbered figs.

  1. Holotype: AMNH 213693.

  2. Locality: Sta. V-15–126, 3334 fathoms, 47°57.5′S, 48°03′W, Argentine Basin, approximately 800 mi east of Deseado, Argentina, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: R/V “Vema,” March 28, 1959.

  4. Remarks: ex LGO. The station was erroneously given by Clarke (1960: 3) as “210.” AMNH 213693 is the holotype by monotypy. Richards and Old (1969: 30) incorrectly cited the catalog number as “35126.”

Cochlespira elongata Simone, 1999: 105–111, figs. 1–2, 5, 7, 9, 11–22, 27

  1. Paratype: AMNH 292174 (1 specimen, alcohol).

  2. Locality: Sta. 5361, 320 m, 24°42′00″S, 44°30′05″W, Brazil, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: R/V “Prof. W. Besnard,” July 6, 1988.

  4. Remarks: ex MZUSP 28121. The holotype is MZUSP 28110, and additional paratypes are MNRJ 7161, MORG 32290, MZUSP 28111–28118, 28121, and USNM 886325 (Simone, 1999: 105).

Cochliolepis reductus Rolán and Rubio, 1990: 181–186, fig. 7

  1. Paratype: AMNH 294235 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Bahía de Santo Antonio, Isle de Principe, Republic of São Tomé and Principe, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/1113, and additional paratypes are in BMNH and the collections of F. Fernandes, E. Rolán, and F. Rubio (Rolán and Rubio, 1990: 183).

Columbella mercatoria “var.” elongata Usticke, 1959: 65

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195429.

  2. Paralectotype: AMNH 294360 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: Lime Tree Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #720 (AMNH 195429) and Schwartz Collection (AMNH 294360). Although Usticke (1959: 65) cited this taxon as a “var.,” he first listed it (1959: vi) as “Columbella mercatoria elongata” under the heading “new species and subspecies.” We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described. Because Usticke (1959) did not figure or designate a holotype, we herein select the specimen figured by Usticke (1971: pl. 2, fig. 720) as lectotype to fix the identity of this poorly defined taxon. The repository of additional paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1959: 65) given size range for the taxon of 15–20 mm length. Usticke (1959: 65) also called this taxon “Pyrene mercatoria elongata,” for reasons unknown. This taxon is a synonym of C. mercatoria (Linnaeus, 1758) (Faber, 1988: 79).

Columbella socorroensis Shasky, 1970: 194, fig. 9

  1. Paratype: AMNH 179308 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 2 m, 18°42′45″N, 110°56′50″W, Braithwaite Bay, Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Shasky, Aug. 11, 1965.

  4. Remarks: ex Shasky Collection. The holotype is LACM 1418, and additional paratypes are in CASIZ, SDNHM, USNM, and the collection of D. Shasky (Shasky, 1970: 194).

Comitas ilariae Bozzetti, 1991: 26–27, figs. 1–3

  1. Paratype: AMNH 239708 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 100–150 m, Bohol, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Fishermen, Feb. 1990.

  4. Remarks: ex Bozzetti Collection (paratype C). The holotype is in MNHN, and additional paratypes are in the collections of L. Bozzetti, M. Ferrario, K. Nicolay, and M. Prati (Bozzetti, 1991: 28).

Compsodrilla olssoni McLean and Poorman, 1971: 103, fig. 32

  1. Paratype: AMNH 164609 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 8–10 fathoms, 02°8′20″S, 81°00′15″W, Santa Elena Bay, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: R/V “Velero III,” Feb. 9, 1934.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is LACM 1519, and additional paratypes are LACM 1520 and in ANSP, CASIZ, and USNM (McLean and Poorman, 1971: 103).

Conus alconnelli da Motta, 1986b: 5, figs. 2a–b

  1. Paratype: AMNH 222018 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 78 fathoms, off Park Rynie, South Africa, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: A. Connell, Aug. 1981.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MHNG 986.543, and additional paratypes are in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1986b: 6). This taxon is a synonym of C. martensi E. A. Smith, 1884 (Röckel et al., 1995: 173).

Conus antoniomonteiroi Rolán, 1990: 47–48, pl. 1, fig. 16; pl. 2, fig. 16; pl. 3, fig. e; pl. 6, fig. e; pl. 8, fig. e

  1. Paratype: AMNH 245404 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1 m, Parda, Sal Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MCNM 15.05–1100, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MIST, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of F. Fernandes, A. Monteiro, D. Röckel, and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1990: 48).

Conus asiaticus da Motta, 1985d: 25, unnumbered fig

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213525 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Nha Trang, Vietnam, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213525 is da Motta's (1985d: 25) paratype #2. The holotype is MHNG 984.599, and the additional 5 paratypes are MHNG 984.600 and in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1985d: 25).

Conus auratinus da Motta, 1982: 2–3, fig. 2

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213501 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Fakarava Island, Tuamoto Archipelago, French Polynesia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213501 is da Motta's (1982: 3) paratype #1. The holotype is MHNG 982.118, and the additional paratype is in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1982: 3).

Conus bajanensis Usticke, 1968: 28–29, pl. 4, fig. 1020

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195451.

  2. Locality: South of Barbados, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: “Bajan shrimpers.”

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1020. Usticke (1968: 28–29) had only a single specimen of this species, and AMNH 195451 is therefore the holotype by monotypy. This taxon is a either a subspecies of C. armiger Crosse, 1858 (Coomans et al., 1982: 7) or a valid taxon (Vink, 1988: 10–11).

Conus bertarolae Costa and Simone, 1998: 4–6, figs. 1–20

  1. Paratype: AMNH 294224 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1–2 m, sea mount off Alcobaqa, Bahia State, Brazil, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: A. Bodart.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MORG 39.007, and additional paratypes are in ANSP, IBUFRJ, MNHN, MNRJ, MZSP, USNM, the Cargile Collection, and the collection of J. Coltro (Costa and Simone, 1998: 4).

Conus biraghii congruens Korn and Raybaudi Massilia, 1993: 33–35, figs. 3 [p. 32], 1a–c [p. 33], 3rd fig. from left [p. 34], 6 [p. 38], 3 [p. 39], 3 [p. 40]

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226498 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Gulf of Aden, Somalia, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: Fishermen, Dec. 1992.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SMNS ZI 8843, and additional paratypes are in ZMA and the collections of M. Angioy, G. Biraghi, W. Korn, L. Luisi, G. Raybaudi Massilia, and D. Röckel (Korn and Raybaudi Massilia, 1993: 35). This taxon is a synonym of C. biraghii (Raybaudi Massilia, 1992) (Röckel et al., 1995: 50).

Conus bitleri da Motta, 1984a: 24, figs. 1a–b

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 213504 (1 specimen), 213572 (1 specimen), 213655 (1 specimen), 223496 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Baliungan Island, Tawi Tawi Group, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: “Native divers.”

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta (AMNH 213504) and W. Bitler (AMNH 213572, 213655, 223496). AMNH 213504 is da Motta's (1984a: 24) paratype #9; AMNH 213572 is da Motta's (1984a: 24) paratype #3; AMNH 213655 is da Motta's (1984a: 24) paratype #5; AMNH 223496 is da Motta's (1984a: 24) paratype #1. The holotype is MHNG 983.574, and the additional 6 paratypes are in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1984a: 24). This taxon is a synonym of C. cordigera Sowerby II, 1866 (Röckel et al., 1995: 187).

Conus boavistensis Rolán and Fernandes in Rolán, 1990: 23–25, pl. 1, fig. 17; pl. 2, fig. 17; pl. 4, fig. k; pl. 7, fig. i

  1. Paratype: AMNH 245396 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1 m, Bahia Teodora, Boavista Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MCNM 15.05–1089, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MIST, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of F. Fernandes, A. Monteiro, D. Röckel, and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1990: 24).

Conus bondarevi Röckel and Raybaudi, 1992: 25–26, unnumbered fig. on p. 25, figs. 1–5, 9

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226452 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 150 m, off northern coast of Somalia, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is in SMNS, and additional paratypes are in MHNG and the collections of L. Bozzetti, G. Raybaudi, and D. Röckel (Röckel and Raybaudi, 1992: 26).

Conus (Dauciconus) boui da Motta, 1988: 41, figs. a–c

  1. Paratype: AMNH 236975 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 25 m, off coast of St. Pierre, Martinique, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: P. Bou.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MHNG 988.105, and additional paratypes are in MNHN and the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1988: 42).

Conus bozzettii Lauer, 1991: 33–34, figs. 1–6, 9, 11–12

  1. Paratype: AMNH 252830 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 150–200 m, off Cape Ras Hafun, Somalia, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Bozzetti Collection (paratype #4). The holotype is in MNHN, and additional paratypes are in MNHN, NM, and the collections of L. Bozzetti and J. Lauer (Lauer, 1991: 34).

Conus cailliaudii Jay, 1848: 169, pl. 10, figs. 8a–b.

  1. Syntype(s): None in AMNH.

  2. Locality: ”?” (Jay, 1848: 169).

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: As part of the Jay Collection, these specimen(s) should have been deposited in AMNH. However, there are no type specimens (Jay, 1850: #10449) of this species in the collections of AMNH; their repository is unknown. This taxon is a synonym of C. ventricosus Gmelin, 1791 (Walls, 1979: 927).

Conus caribbaeus “var.” circumpunctatus Usticke, 1968: 15, pl. 2, fig. 1002

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195446.

  2. Locality: Anguilla, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1002. Usticke (1971: 18) stated that one specimen (now AMNH 195446) was the holotype. Because Usticke (1968: 15) did not designate a holotype, Usticke's (1971) action constituted a lectotype designation. Usticke (1968: 15) referred to this taxon as a variety, although he (1968: 15) used the term “n[ew] s[ub] sp[ecies]” after the species name and used the name subspecifically in the plate caption. We consider this taxon to be subspecific and Usticke's (1971) inadvertent lectotype selection to be valid. Coomans et al. (1985: 230) also selected AMNH 195446 as lectotype, but Usticke's (1971) designation has priority. Usticke (1969: 22) erroneously listed this subspecies as new from that paper. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1968: 15) given size range for the taxon of 32–35 mm length. This taxon is a color form of C. daucus Hwass, 1792 (Coomans et al., 1985: 230).

Conus centurio “form” caribaensis Usticke, 1968: 13, pl. 2, fig. 998

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195445.

  2. Locality: Krause's Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #998. We herein select Usticke's (1968: pl. 2, fig. 998) figured specimen as lectotype to fix the identity of this poorly defined taxon. Although Usticke (1969) referred to this taxon as a form, he (1968: 13) used the term “n[ew] s[ub] sp[ecies]” after the species name and used the name subspecifically in the plate caption. We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described and our lectotype selection to be valid. Usticke (1969: 22) erroneously listed this subspecies as new from that paper. Coomans et al. (1983: 90–91) stated that this taxon could not be subspecific because “it is sympatric with the nominal form.” This biologically based rationale has no implications for the validity of the taxon name from a nomenclatural perspective and cannot be used to invalidate the name. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1968: 13) given size range for the taxon of 30–40 mm length. This taxon is a synonym of C. centurio Born, 1778 (Coomans et al., 1983: 91).

Conus centurio “form” cruzensis Usticke, 1968: 12–13, pl. 2, figs. 997[a], 997[b]

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195444.

  2. Paralectotype: AMNH 189729a (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: Ham Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #997. Usticke (1971: 18) stated that one specimen (now AMNH 195444) was the holotype. Because Usticke (1968: 12–13) did not designate a holotype, Usticke's (1971) action constituted a lectotype designation. Usticke (1968, 1969, 1971) never referred to this taxon other than as a form of C. centurio Born, 1778, in the text, although he (1968: 12) used the term “n[ew] s[ub] sp[ecies]” after the species name and used the name subspecifically in the plate caption. We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described and Usticke's (1971) inadvertent lectotype selection to be valid. Coomans et al. (1985: 279–280) also selected AMNH 195444 as lectotype, but Usticke's designation has priority. Usticke (1969: 22) erroneously listed this subspecies as new from that paper. The repository of additional paralectotypes (if any) is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1968: 12) given size range for the taxon of 30–40 mm length. This taxon is a synonym of C. centurio Born, 1778 (Coomans et al., 1985: 280).

Conus cernohorskyi da Motta, 1983: 2–3, figs. 9–13

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213493 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Near Borogon, Samar Oriental, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: “Native divers.”

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213493 is da Motta's (1983: 2) paratype #6. The holotype is MHNG 983.110, and the additional 16 paratypes are MHNG 983.111–983.113 and in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1983: 2). This taxon is a synonym of C. magnus Linnaeus, 1758 (Röckel et al., 1995: 121).

Conus ciderryi da Motta, 1985a: 4–5, pl. 1, figs. 3a–b

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213498 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Strait of Taiwan, Taiwan, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213498 is da Motta's (1985a: 4) paratype #2. The holotype is MHNG 984.636, and the additional 2 paratypes are in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1985a: 4).

Conus crosseanus Bernardi, 1861: 168–169, pl. 6, figs. “3–4” [in text; actually figs. 5–6]

  1. Paralectotype: AMNH 46865 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: New Caledonia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Mr. Thomas of Brest via Constable Collection (see Coomans et al., 1985: 277). The lectotype (BMNH) was selected and figured by Coomans et al. (1985: 277, fig. 561). AMNH 46865 is the specimen figured by Bernardi (1861: pl. 6, fig. 5) and Coomans et al. (1985: fig. 562). This taxon is a synonym of C. marmoreus Linnaeus, 1758 (Röckel et al., 1995: 41).

Conus curralensis Rolán, 1986: 10–13, figs. 1b, 2d, 3d, 4d, 5b, 6b, 6d–e

  1. Paratype: AMNH 238700 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Santa Luzia Island, Curral Bay, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Fernandes.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection #16727. The holotype is MNCN 11–91–1010, and additional paratypes are CZL G-1502 and in BMNH, MNCN, MNHN, the Museo de Cabo Verde, the Museo Galego do Mar de Vigo, and the collections of M. Garrido, J. Messias, A. Monteiro, I. Navarro, A. Ramalho, D. Röckel, E. Rolán, and H. Trovão (Rolán, 1986: 11).

Conus derrubado Rolán and Fernandes in Rolán, 1990: 19–21, pl. 1, fig. 4; pl. 2, fig. 4; pl. 4, fig. i; pl. 6, fig. f; pl. 8, fig. h

  1. Paratype: AMNH 245394 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1 m, Derrubado, Boavista Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MCNM 15.05–1087, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MIST, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of F. Fernandes, A. Monteiro, D. Röckel, and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1990: 20).

Conus diminutus Trovão and Rolán, 1986: 10–14, figs. 3 a–c

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 222921 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Sal Rei Bay, Boa Vista Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán, 1985.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is in MNCN, and additional paratypes are MNCN 11–91–1011, 11/91/1012, and in the Museu Nacional de História Natural Universidade de Lisboa (Lisbon, Portugal), CPAS Lisbon, the Museu de Cabo Verde, BMNH, CZL, MNHN, NHMV, USNM, ZMA, and the collections of J. Borges, A. da Motta, M. de Lanoy Meijer, G. Dionis, I. Felix Alves, C. Fernandes, F. Fernandes, M. Garrido, R. Gomez, J. Messias, A. Monteiro, I. Navarro, J. Otero-Schmitt, A. Ramalho, D. Röckel, E. Rolán, G. Soares, H. Trovão, and T. Whitehead (Trovão and Rolán, 1986: 11–12).

Conus emersoni Hanna, 1963: 25, pl. 1, fig. 2

  1. Holotype: AMNH 105211.

  2. Locality: 300 fathoms, off Los Frailes, Cape San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Scipps Institution of Oceanography.

  4. Remarks: Additional paratypes are in CASIZ (Hanna, 1963: 25).

Conus eversoni Petuch, 1987: 74, pl. 10, figs. 12–14

  1. Paratype: AMNH 237981 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 40 ft, Utila Bay Islands, Honduras, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: K. Sunderland.

  4. Remarks: ex Sunderland Collection. The holotype is USNM 859878. An additional paratype is in the collection of W. Harland (Petuch, 1987: 74).

Conus evorai Monteiro, Fernandes, and Rolán, 1995: 8–12, figs. 2–3 + 4 unnumbered text figs

  1. Paratype: AMNH 275361 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Praia Zeburaca, Boavista Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/1858, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, SMNS, and the collections of J. Evora, C. Fernandes, R. Filmer, A. Monteiro, A. Ramalho, G. Raybaudi, E. Rolán, J. Rosado, R. Silva, and H. Trovão (Monteiro et al., 1995: 10).

Conus explorator Vink, 1990a: 42–44, figs. 2 (right), 4 (right), 38, unnumbered fig. on p. 40

  1. Paratype: AMNH 232146 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 14 m, Discovery Bay, Jamaica, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Vink, July 1983.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is in MHNG. Additional paratypes are in RMNH and the collection of D. Vink (Vink, 1990a: 42).

Conus felitae Rolán, 1990, 45–47: pl. 1, fig. 18; pl. 2, fig. 18; pl. 3, fig. b; pl. 6, fig. d; pl. 8, fig. c

  1. Paratype: AMNH 245403 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1 m, Rabo de Junco, Mordeira, Sal Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MCNM 15.05–1099, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of F. Fernandes, A. Monteiro, D. Röckel, and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1990: 46).

Conus filmeri Rolán and Röckel, 2000: 35–36, figs. 77–80

  1. Paratype: AMNH 297917 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1–3 m, Saco Mar, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SMNS ZI 30493, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, USNM, and the collections of M. Filmer, G. R. Massilia, D. Röckel, E. Rolán, and P. Ryall (Rolán and Röckel, 2000: 36).

Conus flavusalbus Rolán and Röckel, 2000: 38–39, figs. 92–96

  1. Paratype: AMNH 297918 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1–3 m, Pipas Bay, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/39753, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, SMNS, USNM, and the collections of M. Filmer, G. R. Massilia, D. Röckel, E. Rolán, and P. Ryall (Rolán and Röckel, 2000: 38).

Conus fontonae Rolán and Trovão in Rolán, 1990: 28–31, pl. 1, fig. 10; pl. 2, fig. 10; pl. 3, fig. 3; pl. 6, fig. c; pl. 8, fig. b

  1. Paratype: AMNH 245398 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1 m, Bahia de Fontona, Sal Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MCNM 15.05–1091, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MIST, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of F. Fernandes, A. Monteiro, D. Röckel, E. Rolán, and H. Trovão (Rolán, 1990: 29).

Conus franciscoi Rolán and Röckel, 2000: 36–37, figs. 82–86

  1. Paratype: AMNH 297916 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1–3 m, Chapeu Armado, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/39751, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, SMNS, USNM, and the collections of M. Filmer, G. R. Massilia, D. Röckel, E. Rolán, and P. Ryall (Rolán and Röckel, 2000: 36).

Conus fulvobullatus da Motta, 1982: 13–14, fig. 12

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213505 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 200 m, Balut Island, Mindanao, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: “Natives.”

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213505 is da Motta's (1982: 14) paratype #1. The holotype is MHNG 982.114 and the additional paratype is in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1982: 14). This taxon is a synonym of C. magnus Linnaeus, 1758 (Röckel et al., 1995: 121).

Conus gabrielae Rolán and Röckel, 2000: 33–34, figs. 67–71

  1. Paratype: AMNH 297914 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1–3 m, Chapeu Armado, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/39748, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, SMNS, USNM, and the collections of M. Filmer, G. R. Massilia, D. Röckel, E. Rolán, and P. Ryall (Rolán and Röckel, 2000: 33).

Conus garciai da Motta, 1982: 18–19, fig. 17

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 206095 (2 specimens), 206096 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 150 ft, off Caratasca Key (AMNH 206095), 120 ft, off Punta Patuca (AMNH 206096), Honduras, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. F. Garcia.

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 206095 is da Motta's (1982: 18) paratypes #1 and #4; AMNH 206096 is da Motta's (1982: 18) paratypes #2 and #5. The holotype is MHNG 982.528, and the additional paratype is in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1982: 18).

Conus gracianus da Motta and Blöcher in da Motta, 1982: 16–17, fig. 15

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213490 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Grand Recif, Tulear, Madagascar, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213490 is da Motta's (1982: 16) paratype #4. Although this taxon was not explicitly identified as “sp. nov.” by da Motta and Blöcher in da Motta (1982), that paper is the source of description for this taxon as evidenced by the reference to “the new species” on p. 17. The holotype is MHNG 982.112, and the additional 5 paratypes are in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1982: 16). This taxon is a synonym of C. aulicus Linnaeus, 1758 (Röckel et al., 1995: 287).

Conus gradatus thaanumi Schwengel, 1955: 15, pl. 2, figs. 12–13

  1. Syntype: AMNH 152392 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Bahia Salinas, Costa Rica, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: T. Dranga, 1954.

  4. Remarks: ex H. Geib Collection. This taxon is a synonym of C. regularis Sowerby, 1833 (Keen, 1871: 665).

Conus halli da Motta, 1983: 3–6, figs. 1–8

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213523 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Pasir Putih, about 180 km east of Surabaya, Java, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213523 is da Motta's (1983: 5) paratype #7. The holotype is MHNG 983.103, and the additional 17 paratypes are MHNG 983.104–983.109 and in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1983: 5). This taxon is a synonym of C. hyaena Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 (Röckel et al., 1995: 98).

Conus harlandi Petuch, 1987: 74–75, pl. 12, figs. 9–12

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 222919 (4 specimens), 253614 (1 specimen), 259699 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 30–40 feet in sand (AMNH 253614), Utila Island, Bay Islands, Honduras, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: W. Harland, Nov. 1986 (AMNH 222919); K. Sunderland (AMNH 253614); unknown, Nov. 1986 (AMNH 259699).

  4. Remarks: ex Harland Collection (AMNH 222919), Sunderland Collection via Johnson Collection (AMNH 253164), and Sunderland Collection via Fleischner Collection (AMNH 259699). The holotype is USNM 859883, and additional paratypes are USNM 859907 and in the collections of W. Harland, R. Kremer, and K. Sunderland (Petuch, 1987: 74).

Conus havanensis Aguayo and Farfante, 1947: 11, fig. 1

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 186415 (1 specimen), 259702 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: “La Puntilla,” La Chorrera, La Habana, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: C. G. Aguayo and/or M. L. Jaume.

  4. Remarks: ex SDMNH via Cate Collection (AMNH 186415) and ex J. Donovan via Eddison Collection (AMNH 259702). The holotype is MPUH 12133, and additional paratypes are MPUH 175241 (Aguayo and Farfante, 1947: 11). Because Aguayo freely distributed paratype material to other institutions and individuals, and the locality data are the same as for the type series, we consider the AMNH specimens as paratypes. However, it should be noted that some ex MPUH land snail specimens labeled as “paratypes” in American museums are not such, but were distributed from MPUH with invalid type designations (see Boyko and Rosenberg, 1999). This taxon is a synonym of C. jaspideus Gmelin, 1791 (Abbott, 1974: 256).

Conus hereditarius da Motta, 1987a: 27, 2 unnumbered figs

  1. Paratype: AMNH 222929 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 40–80 ft, Raya Island, Thailand, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: “Native divers.”

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MHNG 987.107, and additional paratypes are in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1987a: 27). This taxon is a synonym of C. ammiralis Linnaeus, 1758 (Röckel et al., 1995: 180).

Conus holemani Usticke, 1968: 21–22, pl. 3, fig. 1011

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195450.

  2. Locality: St. Vincent, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. Holeman.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1011. Usticke (1971: 20) stated that this specimen was the holotype. Because Usticke (1968: 21–22) did not designate a holotype, his 1971 action constituted a lectotype designation. Usticke (1969: 25) erroneously listed this subspecies as new from that paper. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1968: 21) given size range for the taxon of 60–65 mm length. This taxon is a synonym of C. cedonulli Linnaeus, 1758 (Faber, 1988: 81).

Conus (Profundiconus) ikedai Ninomiya, 1987a: 7–12, pl. 1, figs. 1–4; pl. 2, figs. 5–6

  1. Paratype: AMNH 221813 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 300 m, off Hayana, Sagami Bay, Japan, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is NSMT 64118, and additional paratypes are NSMT 64119 and in the collection of T. Ninomiya (Ninomiya, 1987a: 8).

Conus infinitus Rolán, 1990, 39–41: pl. 1, fig. 12; pl. 2, fig. 12; pl. 5, fig. p; pl. 7, fig. m; pl. 8, fig. i

  1. Paratype: AMNH 245400 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1 m, Bahia de Pau Seco, Maio Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MCNM 15.05–1095, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MIST, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of F. Fernandes, A. Monteiro, D. Röckel, and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1990: 40).

Conus jaspideus branhamae Clench, 1953a: 364–365, pl. 181, fig. 2

  1. Holotype: AMNH 166926.

  2. Locality: Green Turtle Cay, Great Abaco, Bahamas, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Branham Collection. AMNH 166926 is the holotype by monotypy. This taxon is a synonym of C. jaspideus Gmelin, 1791 (Abbott, 1974: 256).

Conus kalafuti da Motta, 1987c: 42, pl. 1, figs. a–b

  1. Paratype: AMNH 225977 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Northwest Roatan Island, off Honduras, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: T. Kalafut.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MHNG 987.111, and additional paratypes are in the collections of A. da Motta and T. Kalafut (da Motta, 1987c: 42).

Conus karinae Usticke, 1968: 9, pl. 2, fig. 992

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195442.

  2. Locality: North of Fredericksted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: G. W. N. Usticke.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #992. Usticke (1971: 17) stated that this specimen was the holotype. Because Usticke (1968: 9) did not designate a holotype, his 1971 action constituted a lectotype designation. Usticke (1969: 21) erroneously listed this species as new from that paper. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1968: 9) given size range for the taxon of 20–34 mm length. This taxon is a form of C. mindanus Hwass, 1792 (Coomans et al., 1979: 89).

Conus kermadecensis Iredale, 1912: 227, pl. 9, figs. 15–16

  1. Paratype: AMNH 101810 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Meyer (= Sunday) Island, Kermadec Islands, New Zealand, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: T. Iredale, 1908.

  4. Remarks: ex Powell Collection. The holotype is in CMNZ, and additional paratypes are in AM (Iredale, 1912: 228). This taxon is a synonym of C. lischkeanus Weinkauff, 1875 (Röckel et al., 1995: 138).

Conus kerstitchi Walls, 1978: 2–3, unnumbered fig. on p. 6

  1. Paratype: AMNH 220848 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 250 ft, Sheppard's Rock, Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: A. Kerstitch, July 22, 1972.

  4. Remarks: ex Kerstitch Collection via Vaught Collection. The holotype is in DMNH, and additional paratypes are in the collections of M. Cunningham and A. Kerstitch (Walls, 1978: 2).

Conus kongaensis da Motta, 1984b: 8–9, 2 unnumbered figs

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213499 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Konga Island, off Larantuka, southeast Flores, Indonesia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213499 is da Motta's (1984b: 8) paratype #2. The holotype is MHNG 984.123, and the additional 7 paratypes are MHNG 984.124 and in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1984b: 8). This taxon is a synonym of C. wittigi Walls, 1977 (Röckel et al., 1995: 193).

Conus (Leptoconus) korni Raybaudi, 1993a: 24, figs. 1–5, 14–16, 19

  1. Paratype: AMNH 232523 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Gulf of Aden, Somalia, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: Fishermen, Dec. 1982.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SMNS ZI8844, and additional paratypes are in NMC, ZMA, and the collections of K. and M. Angioy, T. Baer, L. Bozzetti, W. Korn, L. Luisi, G. Raybaudi Massilia, D. Röckel, and E. Rolán (Raybaudi, 1993a: 24).

Conus leobrerai da Motta and Martin, 1982: 3, fig. 2

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213500 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 20–40 fathoms, Visayan Sea, between Malapascua and Bantayan Islands, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213500 is da Motta and Martin's (1982: 3) paratype #2. The holotype is MHNG 982.729, and the additional 3 paratypes are in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta and Martin, 1982: 3).

Conus lienardi Bernardi and Crosse, 1861: 49–50, pl. 1, fig. 2

  1. Syntype: AMNH 47629 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: New Caledonia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Liénard Collection via Constable Collection. This specimen matches the dimensions (45 × 18 mm) given by Bernardi and Crosse (1861: 49) and is the basis of the original figure (fig. 7 herein). The other syntype is in BMNH (Röckel et al., 1995: 111).

Conus (Asprella) lovellreevei Raybaudi, 1993b: 3, pl. 1, figs. 4–5

  1. Paratype: AMNH 232522 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Madras, India, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is BMNH 1993025, and additional paratypes are in NMC, SMNS, and the collections of G. Biraghi, A. Delsaerdt, W. Korn, G. Raybaudi, D. Röckel, and the Mostra Mondiale Malacologia, Cupra, Italy (Raybaudi, 1993b: 3). This taxon is a synonym of C. asiaticus da Motta, 1985 (Röckel et al., 1995: 226).

Conus luquei Rolán and Trovão in Rolán, 1990: 50–52, pl. 1, fig. 2; pl. 2, fig. 2; pl. 4, fig. g

  1. Paratype: AMNH 245406 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 3 m, Bahia de Gata, Boavista Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MCNM 15.05–1102, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MIST, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of F. Fernandes, A. Monteiro, D. Röckel, and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1990: 51).

Conus maculospira bangladeshianus da Motta, 1985a: 6–7, pl. 1, figs. 5a–b, 6a–b

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213488 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Bay of Bengal, off Bangladesh, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213488 is da Motta's (1985a: 7) paratype #3. The holotype is MHNG 984.595, and the additional 6 paratypes are MHNG 984.596 and in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1985a: 7). This taxon is a synonym of C. inscriptus Reeve, 1843 (Röckel et al., 1995: 194).

Conus maioensis Trovão, Rolán, and Félix-Alves, 1990: 71–75, figs. 2–3, 5, 7, 9, 11

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 226439 (1 specimen), 264674 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Baía do Navio Quebrado, Maio Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection (AMNH 226439) and Bendersky Collection (AMNH 264674). The holotype is Museu Nacional de História Natural Universidade de Lisboa (Lisbon, Portugal) 15459, and additional paratypes are BMNH 1986153, MNCN 11/19/1012, and in ANSP, MNHN, and the collections of I. Félix-Alves, F. Fernandes, M. Filmer, J. Messias, A. Monteiro, I. Navarro, A. Ramalho, D. Röckel, E. Rolán, P. Ryall, and H. Trovão (Trovão et al., 1990: 74, 78).

Conus mayaguensis Usticke, 1968: 15, pl. 2, fig. 1003

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195447.

  2. Locality: Punta Guanajibos, Puerto Rico, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1003. We herein select Usticke's (1968: pl. 2, fig. 1003) figured specimen as lectotype to fix the identity of this poorly defined taxon. Usticke (1969: 23) erroneously listed the species as new from that paper. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1968: 15) given size range for the taxon of 20–37 mm length. This taxon is a subspecies of C. beddomei Sowerby III, 1901 (Coomans et al., 1982: 18).

Conus mcgintyi Pilsbry, 1955: 47, pl. 3, figs. 10–11

  1. Paratype: AMNH 169828 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Sta. 874, 75 fathoms, off Palm Beach, Palm Beach Co., Florida, United States, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: T. L. McGinty on R/V “Triton,” May 7, 1952.

  4. Remarks: ex Holeman Collection. The holotype is ANSP 193858, and additional paratypes are in the collections of T. McGinty, J. Schwengel, and A. Thompson (Pilsbry, 1955: 47).

Conus messiasi Rolán and Fernandes in Rolán, 1990: 17–19, pl. 1, fig. 6; pl. 2, fig. 6; pl. 4, fig. h

  1. Paratype: AMNH 245393 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 2 m, Derrubado, Boavista Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MCNM 15.05–1086, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MIST, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of F. Fernandes, A. Monteiro, D. Röckel, and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1990: 18).

Conus micropunctatus Rolán and Röckel, 2000: 35, figs. 72–76

  1. Paratype: AMNH 297919 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1–3 m, Lucira, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/39749 and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, SMNS, USNM, and the collections of M. Filmer, G. R. Massilia, D. Röckel, E. Rolán, and P. Ryall (Rolán and Röckel, 2000: 35).

Conus mordeirae Rolán and Trovão in Rolán, 1990: 25–28, pl. 1, fig. 11; pl. 2, fig. 11; pl. 3, fig. a; pl. 6, fig. a; pl. 8, fig. a

  1. Paratype: AMNH 245397 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 2 m, Bahia de Mordeira, Sal Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MCNM 15.05–1090, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MIST, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of F. Fernandes, A. Monteiro, D. Röckel, E. Rolán, and H. Trovão (Rolán, 1990: 26).

Conus nahoniaraensis da Motta, 1986a: 20, 2 unnumbered figs

  1. Paratype: AMNH 220787 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Honiara, Guadalcanal Island, Solomon Islands, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MHNG 986.101, and additional paratypes are in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1986a: 20). This taxon is a synonym of C. zebra Lamarck, 1810 (Röckel et al., 1995: 203).

Conus navarroi Rolán, 1986: 3–6, fig. 1a, 3b, 4b, 6a, 6c

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 222920 (1 specimen), 238701 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Calhau, Sao Vicente Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán (AMNH 222920), F. Fernandes (AMNH 238701).

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection #11042 (AMNH 222920) and Fernandes Collection #2351 (AMNH 238701). The holotype is MNCN 11-91-1008, and additional paratypes are CZL G1501 and in BMNH, MNCN, MNHN, the Museo de Cabo Verde, and the collections of M. Garrido, J. Messias, A. Monteiro, I. Navarro, A. Ramalho, D. Röckel, E. Rolán, and H. Trovão (Rolán, 1986: 4).

Conus navarroi calhetae Rolán, 1990: 41–42, pl. 1, fig. 7; pl. 2, fig. 7; pl. 5, fig. o

  1. Paratype: AMNH 245401 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1 m, Calheta, Maio Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MCNM 15.05–1096, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MIST, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of F. Fernandes, A. Monteiro, D. Röckel, and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1990: 41).

Conus nipponicus da Motta, 1985a: 2–3, pl. 1, figs. 2a–b

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213491 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Punta Engano, Cebu, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213491 is da Motta's (1985a: 3) paratype #1. The holotype is MHNG 984.637, and the additional 2 paratypes are in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1985a: 3). This taxon is a synonym of C. spirofilis Habe and Kosuge, 1970 (Röckel et al., 1995: 251).

Conus nivalis da Motta, 1985a: 5–6, pl. 1, figs. 4a–b

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213510 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Ragay Gulf, southern Luzon, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213510 is da Motta's (1985a: 5) paratype #6. The holotype is MHNG 984.633, and the additional 5 paratypes are in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1985a: 5). This taxon is a synonym of C. furvus Reeve, 1843 (Röckel et al., 1995: 119).

Conus (Dauciconus) norai da Motta and Raybaudi, 1992: 61, figs. 1–3

  1. Paratype: AMNH 259076 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 10 m, Pointe de la Baleine, Martinique, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MHNG 16150, and additional paratypes are SMNS ZI 8468 and in the collections of A. Monteiro, A. Nora, G. Raybaudi, and D. Röckel (da Motta and Raybaudi, 1992: 61–62).

Conus patonganus da Motta, 1982: 7–8, fig. 7

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213494 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 100 ft, off Raya Island, Phuket, Thailand, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Native divers.

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213494 is da Motta's (1982: 8) paratype #2. The holotype is MHNG 981.738, and the additional paratype is in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1982: 8). This taxon is a synonym of C. ommaria Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 (Röckel et al., 1995: 293).

Conus pennaceus bazarutensis Fernandes and Monteiro, 1988: 19–21, figs. a–b

  1. Paratype: AMNH 237994 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Bozaruto Island, Mozambique, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is in MNHN, and additional paratypes are in the collections of C. Fernandes, A. Monteiro, A. Ramalho, and J. Rosado (Fernandes and Monteiro, 1988: 20). This taxon is a synonym of C. pennaceus Born, 1778 (Röckel et al., 1995: 296).

Conus poormani Berry, 1968: 156–157

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 186416 (1 specimen), 221948 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 30–40 fathoms, Morro Colorado, Sonora, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: A. Luna, Sept. 1967.

  4. Remarks: ex Poorman Collection (AMNH 186416) and DuShane Collection (AMNH 221948). The holotype is SBMNH 34638, and additional paratypes are LACM 1261 and SBMNH 34639 (Hertz, 1999: 36, fig. 80). AMNH 221948 was donated to AMNH subsequent to publication of Hertz (1984) but was not cited by Hertz (1999).

Conus poppei Elsen, 1983: 185, figs. 5–6

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213398 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 2–3 m, Santa Monica, Boavista, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: “Lobster divers,” 1982.

  4. Remarks: ex Poppe Collection via Vaught Collection. The holotype is KBIN 398, and additional paratypes are in the collections of J. Elsen, G. Poppe, B. Tursch, and E. Wils (Elsen, 1983, 186). This taxon is a synonym of C. crotchii Reeve, 1849 (Moolenbeek and Elsen, 1984: 136, figs. 1, 4).

Conus primus Röckel and Korn, 1990b: 45–46, pl. 10, row 1, figs. 1–5, text fig. 1

  1. Paratype: AMNH 243611 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 325 ft, 11°46′S, 59°33′W, between Seychelles and Chagos Archipelago, Saya de Malha Bank (Mascarene Ridge), Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: Russian fishing trawlers.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SMNS ZI 3940, and an additional paratype is in the collection of H. Danila (Röckel and Korn, 1990b: 46).

Conus pseudoaustini Usticke, 1968: 29

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195452.

  2. Locality: South of Barbados, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: “Bajan shrimpers.”

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1021. Usticke (1968: 29) had only a single specimen of this species, and AMNH 195452 is therefore the holotype by monotypy. The holotype is illustrated herein for the first time (fig. 8). This taxon is either a synonym of C. bajanensis Usticke, 1968 (Usticke, 1971: 20), which is a subspecies of C. armiger Crosse, 1858 (Coomans et al., 1982: 7), or possibly a good species (Vink, 1988: 10–11).

Conus pseudo-jaspideus Usticke, 1968: 7, pl. 1, fig. 985

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195441.

  2. Locality: St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #985. We herein select Usticke's (1968: pl. 1, fig. 985) figured specimen as lectotype to fix the identity of this poorly defined taxon. Usticke (1969: 21) erroneously listed this species as new from that paper. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1968: 7) given size range for the taxon of 20–25 mm length. The species is correctly cited without the hyphen as C. pseudojaspideus. This taxon is probably a synonym of C. mindanus Hwass, 1792 (Faber, 1988: 88).

Conus puncticulatus cardonensis Vink, 1990b: 16–17, fig. 39c

  1. Paratype: AMNH 232172 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: on beach, Punta Macolla, Paraguana Peninsula, Venezuela, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Vink.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is in MNHN, and additional paratypes are in RMNH and the collection of D. Vink (Vink, 1990b: 16).

Conus queenslandis da Motta, 1984a: 25–26, figs. 3a–b

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213520 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 150 fathoms, between Lord Howe Island and Lady Musgrave Island, Queensland, Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213520 is da Motta's (1984a: 26) paratype #4. The holotype is MHNG 983.576, and the additional 4 paratypes are in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1984a: 26). This taxon is a synonym of C. tribblei Walls, 1977 (Röckel et al., 1995: 142). Walls (1977: 2) named C. tribblei after “his favorite cat,” but neglected to specify the cat's sex. It is therefore unclear from Walls's (1977) description whether the species-group ending -i or -ae is correct; in all probability, neuter would be more accurate.

Conus (Kermasprella) raoulensis Powell, 1958: 83, pl. 9, fig. 1

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 105520 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Sta. 675, 58–64 m, off Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands, New Zealand, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: R/V “Galathea,” March 3, 1952.

  4. Remarks: ex Powell Collection. The holotype is in ZMUC (Powell, 1958: 66). This taxon is the type of the subgenus Kermasprella Powell, 1958, by monotypy (Powell, 1958: 83).

Conus raulsilvai Rolán, Monteiro, and Fernandes, 1998: 36–44, figs. 1–3, 4a, 5a, 6a

  1. Paratype: AMNH 287636 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Maio Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/27320, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, SMNS, and the collections of J. Evora, C. Fernandes, G. Raybaudi Massilia, A. Monteiro, A. Ramalho, D. Röckel, E. Rolán, M. Rosado, R. Silva, and H. Trovão (Rolán et al., 1998: 38–39).

Conus regonae Rolán and Trovão in Rolán, 1990: 31–33, pl. 1, fig. 3; pl. 2, fig. 3; pl. 3, fig. d; pl. 6, fig. b

  1. Paratype: AMNH 245399 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1 m, Bahia de Regona, Sal Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MCNM 15.05–1092, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MIST, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of F. Fernandes, A. Monteiro, D. Röckel, E. Rolán, and H. Trovão (Rolán, 1990: 32).

Conus rhododendron “Couthuoy” Jay, 1839: 121, pl. 7, figs. 2–3

  1. Holotype: Not in AMNH (lost).

  2. Locality: “Seas of Australasia.”

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype by monotypy cannot be located in AMNH, was apparently never deposited there, and is considered lost. This taxon is a synonym of C. adamsonii Broderip, 1836 (Röckel et al., 1995: 213).

Conus rolani Röckel, 1986: 234–235, figs. 1–2

  1. Paratype: AMNH 225978 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Tayabas Bay, Luzon, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is ZSM 1801, and additional paratypes are in MNHN, NMC, SMF, SMNS, and the collections of H. Fischöder, D. Röckel, and E. Rolán (Röckel, 1986: 235).

Conus roseorapum Raybaudi and da Motta, 1990: 41, p. 42, 2 unnumbered figs.; p. 43, unnumbered fig., 2nd and 3rd specimens from left

  1. Paratype: AMNH 232178 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 100 m, Bohol, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: “Native Fishermen.”

  4. Remarks: ex Raybaudi Collection (paratype #2). The holotype is MHNG 10708, and additional paratypes are in the collection of G. Raybaudi (Raybaudi and da Motta, 1990: 41). This taxon is a synonym of C. recluzianus Bernardi, 1853 (Röckel et al., 1995: 156).

Conus rubropennatus da Motta, 1982: 6–7, fig. 6

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213503 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Off Réunion Island, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: “Divers.”

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213503 is da Motta's (1982: 6) paratype #1. The holotype is MHNG 981.735, and the additional 2 paratypes are in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1982: 6). This taxon is a synonym of C. pennaceus Born, 1778 (Röckel et al., 1995: 296).

Conus rudiae Magnotte, 1971: 11, figs. 1–2

  1. Holotype: AMNH 167026.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 167027 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: 13 fathoms, off Pompano Beach (AMNH 167026), 12 fathoms, off Lauderdale-by-the-Sea (AMNH 167027), Broward Co., Florida, United States, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: G. Magnotte, Sept. 1970.

  5. Remarks: None of the additional specimens cited by Magnotte (1971: 11) are paratypes. This taxon is a synonym of C. patae Abbott, 1971 (Abbott, 1974: 258).

Conus sagei Korn and Raybaudi, 1993: 37–38, p. 32, fig. 7; p. 34, unnumbered fig.; p. 37, figs. 5a–d; p. 39, figs. 7–8; p. 40, fig. 7

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 226499 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Gulf of Aden, Somalia, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: “Fisherman,” April 1993.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is in SMNS, and additional paratypes are NM G9936 and in ZMA and the collections of W. Korn, G. Raybaudi, and D. Röckel (Korn and Raybaudi, 1993: 38).

Conus sahlbergi da Motta and Harland, 1986: 19, figs. 8a–b

  1. Holotype: AMNH 221046.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 221047 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: 10–35 ft, off Cat Cay and Gun Cay, Bimini, Bahamas, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: T. Honker, Feb. 1986.

  5. Remarks: Additional paratypes are MHNG 986.1011 and in the collections of M. Cahill, A. da Motta, W. Harland, T. Honker, and C. Sahlberg (da Motta and Harland, 1986: 20).

Conus samiae da Motta, 1982: 12–13, fig. 11

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213522 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 200 m, Balut Island, off Mindanao, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: “Natives.”

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213522 is da Motta's (1982: 12) paratype #2. The holotype is MHNG 982.117, and the additional 3 paratypes are in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1982: 12). This taxon is a synonym of C. sulcatus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 (Röckel et al., 1995: 228).

Conus saragasae Rolán, 1986: 7–9, figs. 1c, 3c, 4c, 5a

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 245405 (1 specimen), 238702 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Bahía de Saragasa, Punta Saragasa, San Vicente Island (AMNH 245405); 1 m, Sierra Negra, Sal Island (AMNH 238702), Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán (AMNH 245405), F. Fernandes (AMNH 238702).

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection #16717 (AMNH 245405) and Fernandes Collection #2352 (AMNH 238702). The holotype is MNCN 11–91–1009, and additional paratypes are CZL G1500 and in BMNH, MNCN, MNHN, the Museo de Cabo Verde, the Museo Galego do Mar, and the collections of M. Garrido, J. Messias, A. Monteiro, I. Navarro, D. Röckel, E. Rolán, and H. Trovão (Rolán, 1986: 8).

Conus sculpturatus Röckel and da Motta, 1986: 133–135, pl. 19, figs. 1, 3, 8

  1. Paratype: AMNH 225956 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Tayabas Bay, Samar Island, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex da Motta Collection. The holotype is SMF 257412, and additional paratypes are SMF 257413, ZSM 1793, and in the collections of A. da Motta and D. Röckel (Röckel and da Motta, 1986: 133).

Conus sennottorum Rehder and Abbott, 1951: 63–64, pl. 9, figs. 1–2

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 73277 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 15–16 fathoms, 50 mi southwest of Campeche, Yucatan, Mexico, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Shrimp fishermen, 1951.

  4. Remarks: ex Sennott Collection. The holotype is USNM 597519, and additional paratypes are USNM 597520 and in the collection of J. Sennott (Rehder and Abbott, 1951: 64).

Conus serranegrae Rolán, 1990: 49–50, pl. 1, fig. 15; pl. 2, fig. 15; pl. 3, fig. f; pl. 6, fig. g; pl. 8, fig. g

  1. Paratype: AMNH 245405 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1 m, Serra Negra, Sal Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MCNM 15.05–1101, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MIST, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of F. Fernandes, A. Monteiro, D. Röckel, and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1990: 50).

Conus spurius arubaensis Usticke, 1968: 12, pl. 1, fig. 995

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195443.

  2. Locality: 25 ft, Aruba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #995. Usticke (1971: 17) stated that this specimen was the holotype. Because Usticke (1968: 12) did not designate a holotype, Usticke's (1971) action constituted a lectotype designation. Usticke (1969: 21) erroneously listed this subspecies as new from that paper. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1968: 12) given size range for the taxon of 40–55 mm length. This taxon is a synonym of C. spurius Gmelin, 1791 (Coomans et al., 1981: 24).

Conus subfloridus da Motta, 1985b: 27, figs. 4a–d

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213516 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Gulf of Mannar, between India and Sri Lanka, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213516 is da Motta's (1985b: 27) paratype #5. The holotype is MHNG 984.634, and the additional 6 paratypes are MHNG 984.635 and in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1985b: 27). This taxon is a synonym of C. striatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Röckel et al., 1995: 219).

Conus teodorae Rolán and Fernandes in Rolán, 1990: 21–23, pl. 1, fig. 5; pl. 2, fig. 5; pl. 4, fig. j; pl. 7, fig. h; pl. 8, fig. d

  1. Paratype: AMNH 245395 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1 m, Bahia Teodora, Boavista Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MCNM 15.05–1088, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MIST, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of F. Fernandes, A. Monteiro, D. Röckel, and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1990: 22).

Conus textile neovicarius da Motta, 1982: 4–5, fig. 4

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213519 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt, Sinai Peninsula, Red Sea.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213519 is da Motta's (1982: 5) paratype #2. The holotype is MHNG 982.115, and the additional 2 paratypes are in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1982: 5). This taxon is a synonym of C. textile Linnaeus, 1758 (Röckel et al., 1995: 309).

Conus thevenardensis da Motta, 1987b: 29–30, figs. 1–4

  1. Paratype: AMNH 225976 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Thevenard Island, Western Australia, Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MHNG 987.112, and additional paratypes are WAM 157–87 and in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1987b: 30). This taxon is a synonym of C. nielsenae Marsh, 1962 (Röckel et al., 1995: 282).

Conus travaoi Rolán and Röckel, 2000: 37–38, figs. 87–91

  1. Paratype: AMNH 297915 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1–3 m, Limagens, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/39752, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, SMNS, USNM, and the collections of M. Filmer, G. R. Massilia, D. Röckel, E. Rolán, and P. Ryall (Rolán and Röckel, 2000: 37).

Conus turritinus da Motta, 1985a: 1–2, pl. 1, figs. 1a–b

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213509 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Off east coast, Malaysia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213509 is da Motta's (1985a: 2) paratype #4. The holotype is MHNG 984.597, and the additional 3 paratypes are MHNG 984.598 and in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1985a: 2). This taxon is a synonym of C. furvus Reeve, 1843 (Röckel et al., 1995: 119).

Conus turschi da Motta, 1985e: 3–4, pl. 1, figs. 1–2; pl. 2, fig. 4

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 213396 (1 specimen), 213397 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 20–40 fathoms, Andaman Sea, off southwest Thailand, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is in MHNG, and the additional 10 paratypes are in IRSNB, MHNG, and the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1985d: 4). This taxon is a synonym of C. consors Sowerby I, 1833 (Röckel et al., 1995: 117).

Conus tuticorinensis Röckel and Korn, 1990a: 279–280, pl. 1, fig. 1; pl. 2, fig. 1

  1. Paratype: AMNH 245389 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Tuticorin, India, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SMF 307770, and additional paratypes are in NMCL and the collections of W. Korn and D. Röckel (Röckel and Korn, 1990a: 280).

Conus ustickei Miller in Usticke, 1959: 80, pl. 1, fig. 14

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195448.

  2. Paralectotype: AMNH 294369 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: North of Fredericksted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown (AMNH 195448), G. N. Usticke, 1959 (AMNH 294369).

  5. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1004 (AMNH 195448) and Schwartz Collection (AMNH 294369). The authorship of this species has been in some doubt. Usticke (1959: 80) credited the description to J. P. Miller but repeatedly used the first person when referring to the species. Examples of this are found in Usticke (1959: vi), where the species is listed with the taxa for which “I [Usticke] designate as holotypes the new species that are pictured” and Usticke's (1959: 80) statement about this species that “as far as I know this has not been described, so I will proceed to remedy that defect if I can.” Faber (1988: 91) noted that “it is remarkable that Mr. Miller had exactly the same confusing way of describing taxa as Mr. Usticke himself.” However, given the evidence, we must accept Miller in Usticke as the author of this species. But, because this is the case, the holotype designation by Usticke (1959: vi), not Miller, is actually a lectotype designation. The repository of additional paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1959: 80) given size range for the taxon of 20–28 mm length. This taxon is a synonym of C. bifasciatus Sowerby III, 1857–1858 (non C. bifasciatus Gmelin, 1791) (Coomans et al., 1982: 24). Because C. bifasciatus Sowerby III is a junior homonym of C. bifasciatus Gmelin, this species must be called by the name of its earliest junior synonym, which is C. ustickei (new status).

Conus veillardi da Motta, 1990: 44, 2 unnumbered figs.

  1. Paratype: AMNH 232179 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 5–7 m, Glorieuses Islands, Réunion, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MHNG 10709, and additional paratypes are in SMNS and (presumably) the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1990: 44). Although da Motta (1990: 44) cited only one paratype by name, he clearly indicated in the text that he examined “over twenty specimens” of this taxon and, because AMNH 232179 came directly from da Motta labeled as “paratype #3,” we consider it part of the type series. This taxon is a synonym of C. gubernator Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 (Röckel et al., 1995: 221).

Conus verdensis furnae Rolán, 1990: 42–44, pl. 1, fig. 9; pl. 2, fig. 9; pl. 5, fig. q; pl. 7, fig. k; pl. 8, fig. j

  1. Paratype: AMNH 245402 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1 m, Bahia de Pedrinha, Brava Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MCNM 15.05–1091, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of F. Fernandes, A. Monteiro, D. Röckel, and E. Rolán (Rolán, 1990: 43).

Conus (Textilia) vicweei Old, 1973: 58–59, figs. 1–3, 5

  1. Holotype: AMNH 173710.

  2. Locality: 55–60 fathoms, northwest of Sumatra, Indonesia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown, “mid-August” 1972.

  4. Remarks: The paratypes (“A” and “B”) are in the collection of V. Wee (Old, 1973: 58–59) and A. J. da Motta (V. Wee, in litt., May 5, 1985).

Conus whiteheadae da Motta, 1985b: 26, figs. 3a–b

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213515 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Approximately 150 fathoms, near Lord Howe Island and Lady Musgrove Island, Queensland, Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex A. da Motta. AMNH 213515 is da Motta's (1985b: 26) paratype #6. The holotype is MHNG 984.594, and the additional 8 paratypes are “in an Australian museum” and in the collection of A. da Motta (da Motta, 1985b: 26). This taxon is a synonym of C. sugimotonis Kuroda, 1928 (Röckel et al., 1995: 144).

Conus wittigi Walls, 1977: 1, unnumbered fig. on p. 3

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 241621 (2 specimens), 245390 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Straight of Flores (AMNH 241621), Mokko, Flores Island, Lesser Sunda Islands (AMNH 245390), Indonesia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: R. Skinner, June 9, 1975 (AMNH 241621), 1976 (AMNH 245390).

  4. Remarks: ex Skinner Collection. The holotype is in DMNH, and additional paratypes are in the collections of G. Gundaker, R. Skinner, and J. Walls (Walls, 1977: 1).

Conus xicoi Röckel, 1987a: 45–46, pl. 1, figs. a–d; pl. 2, figs. a, c, unnumbered text fig

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 237995 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Santiago Beach, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Fernandes.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is in SMF, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CSL, IMT, MNHN, and the collections of I. Alves, F. Fernandes, W. Korn, J. Messias, A. Monteiro, E. Rolán, A. Ramalho, D. Röckel, and H. Trovão (Röckel, 1987a: 47).

Conus zapatosensis Röckel, 1987b: 288–290, figs. 4, 8, 12

  1. Paratype: AMNH 232081 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 50 m, Marinduque, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is in ZSM, and additional paratypes are in SMF and the collections of D. Röckel and G. Stalzer (Röckel, 1987b: 290).

Coralliophila armeniaca D'Attilio and Myers, 1984a: 89–90, figs. 21–24

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 213803a (1 specimen), 213803b (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 75 m, off Cebu Island, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SDNHM 79507, and additional paratypes are SDNHM 79504a–j and USNM 819634a–b (D'Attilio and Myers, 1984a: 90).

Coralliophila elvirae D'Attilio and Emerson, 1980: 69–70, pl. 19, figs. 1–2; pl. 20, figs. 1, 3–4

  1. Paratype: AMNH 203623 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: ca. 75 m, Punta Engaño, Mactan Island, Cebu, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SDNHM 73602, and additional paratypes are in SDNHM and the collection of G. Everson (D'Attilio and Emerson, 1980: 70).

Coralliophila macleani Shasky, 1970: 189, fig. 4

  1. Paratype: AMNH 179305 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 3–4 m, 27°53′15″N, 110°59′W, Saladita Bay, Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Shasky, Dec. 1958 or Dec. 1959.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is LACM 1411, and additional paratypes are LACM 1412 and in ANSP, CASIZ, SDNHM, SU, USNM, and the collection of D. Shasky (Shasky, 1970: 189).

Coralliophila occidentale Kosuge and Fernandes, 1988: 96–97, pl. 39, figs. 5–6, unnumbered text fig

  1. Paratype: AMNH 242675 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 60 m, Luanda, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Fernandes.

  4. Remarks: ex Fernandes Collection. The holotype is IMT 88–2, and additional paratypes are in the collection of F. Fernandes (Kosuge and Fernandes, 1988: 96–97).

Coralliophila raramaculatus Kosuge and Fernandes, 1989: 133–135, pl. 50, fig. 5

  1. Paratype: AMNH 242676 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1 m, Emilia Beach, São Tomé Island, São Tomé and Principe, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Fernandes.

  4. Remarks: ex Fernandes Collection. The holotype is IMT 88-181, and additional paratypes are in IRSNB and the collection of F. Fernandes (Kosuge and Fernandes, 1988: 134).

Coralliophila rocasuciae Myers and D'Attilio, 1990: 287, figs. 13–16

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 232086 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 18–24 m, Roca Sucia, Cocos Island, Costa Rica, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Shasky, April 1986.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 860013, and additional paratypes are LACM 2202, MCZ 297218, SBMNH 35046, SDNHM 93353–93355, USNM 860016–860018, and in ANSP, CASIZ, and the collections of K. Kaiser and D. Shasky (Myers and D'Attilio, 1990: 287–289).

Cornirostra floridana Bieler and Mikkelsen in Bieler, Ball, and Mikkelsen, 1998: 307–310, figs. 1–13

  1. Paratype: AMNH 289806 (1 specimen), 289256 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 24°53′25″N, 80°40′28″W, gulf side, Indian Key Fill, mile marker 79, Monroe Co., Florida, United States, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: P. Mikkelsen and R. Bieler, Oct. 1, 1994.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is FMNH 278401, and additional paratypes are FMNH 278402, 278403, 278405, and USNM 880276 (Bieler and Mikkelsen in Bieler et al., 1998: 307).

Costoanachis rassierensis Smythe, 1985: 31–32, pl. 4, figs. d–e, text figs. 4, 7, 10–11

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 220731 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 16°58′N, 54°42′E, Mirbat, Dhofar, Oman, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: K. Smythe, Feb. 1984.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is BMNH 1984082, and additional paratypes are BMNH 1984083, NMW 1984.048.1–2, ONHM 1984/69/C, and in MNHN, USNM, ZMA, and the collections of D. Bosch and K. Smythe (Smythe, 1985: 32). The specific name is incorrectly spelled “rasierensis” in Smythe's (1985) text fig. 11. This taxon is a synonym of Anachis fauroti (Jousseaume, 1888) (Bosch et al., 1995: 129).

Cotonopsis monfilsi Emerson, 1993: 147, figs. 1–10

  1. Holotype: AMNH 232519.1 (shell), 232519.2 (radula).

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 232091 (2 specimens), 232091A (1 specimen), 232092 (3 specimens), 232092A (1 specimen), 232152 (3 specimens).

  3. Locality: 300 m, 16°02′N, 16°30′W (AMNH 232519.1, 232519.2, 232091, 232091A), 300–350 m (AMNH 232092, 232092A), 450–500 m (AMNH 232152), off St. Louis, Senegal, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: M. Pin, 1987 (AMNH 232519.1, 232519.2, 232091, 232091A); unknown, Nov. 1987 (AMNH 232092, 232092A); unknown (AMNH 232152).

  5. Remarks: A specimen figured by Emerson (1993: fig. 4–6) has been split from AMNH 232091 as AMNH 232091A. Another specimen figured by Emerson (1993: figs. 7–8) has been split from AMNH 232092 as AMNH 232092A. AMNH 232092 and 232092A contain only 4 specimens, although 5 were cited by Emerson (1993: 149); 1 specimen was deaccessioned in 1993 and sent to USNM as an exchange.

Cotonopsis (Cotonopsis) skoglundae Jung, 1989: 178, figs. 56–9, 235

  1. Paratype: AMNH 232168 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 400–600 ft, off north end of Danzante Island, Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: C. and P. Skoglund, Oct. 1981.

  4. Remarks: ex Skoglund Collection. The holotype is NMB H17018, and additional paratypes are deposited as cited by Jung (1989: 180).

Cotonopsis (Cotonopsis) suteri Jung, 1989: 180, figs. 56–10, 236–238

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 90720 (7 specimens), 213782 (2 specimens), 213783 (3 specimens), 213784 (2 specimens), 232140 (2 specimens), 232141 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Sta. 136-D-4, Arena Bank, Gulf of California (AMNH 90720), Balandra (AMNH 213782), 150 ft, Punta Coyote (AMNH 232141), La Paz, Baja California Sur (AMNH 213783), Salina Cruz, Oaxaca (AMNH 213784, 232140), Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: “Zaca” Expedition, 1937–1938 (AMNH 90720), unknown (AMNH 213782), shrimpers (AMNH 213783, 213784, 232140, 232141).

  4. Remarks: ex Skoglund Collection via P. Jung (AMNH 232140) and ex DuShane Collection (AMNH 232141). The holotype is NMB H17242, and additional paratypes are deposited as cited by Jung (1989: 182).

Cotonopsis vanwalleghemi Kronenberg and Dekker, 1998: 12–16, pl. 1, figs. 1–6, text figs. 1–7

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 232177 (4 specimens), 253764 (2 specimens), 292765 (1 specimen), 292766 (1 specimen), 292772 (1 specimen), 292773 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Southwest of Phuket Island, Andaman Sea, Thailand, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown (AMNH 232177, 253764), July 1984 (AMNH 292766), Feb. 1987 (AMNH 253764, 292765, 292772, 292773).

  4. Remarks: The holotype is NMB H18090, and additional paratypes are ANSP 292773, KBIN 28.616, NMB H18090, SBMNH 144846, ZMA 3.98.015, and in the collections of H. Dekker, G. Kronenberg, and R. Vanwalleghem (Kronenberg and Dekker, 1998: 14, 16). This taxon is a synonym of Strombina phuketensis Kosuge, Roussy, and Muangman, 1998, which was published approximately two months earlier; the species is retained in Cotonopsis Olsson, 1942 (Kronenberg and Dekker, 1999: 69).

Crassispira funebralis Fernandes, Rolán, and Otero-Schmitt, 1995: 287–289, figs. 6–9, 31

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226521 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Farol das Lagostas, Luanda, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/18730, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, and the collections of F. Fernandes, J. Otero-Schmitt, and E. Rolán (Fernandes et al., 1995: 287).

Crassispira (Dallspira) martiae McLean and Poorman, 1971: 100, fig. 25

  1. Paratype: AMNH 164608 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 08°53′N, 79°36′W, Venado Island, Canal Zone, Panama, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. H. McLean and D. Shasky, March 8–11, 1970.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is LACM 1506, and additional paratypes are LACM 1507 and in ANSP, CASIZ, SDNHM, and USNM (McLean and Poorman, 1971: 100).

Crassispira monilecosta Fernandes, Rolán, and Otero-Schmitt, 1995: 298–299, figs. 24–25, 40

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226523 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Farol das Lagostas, Luanda, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/18729, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNCN, MNHN, NMW, ZMA, and the collections of F. Fernandes, J. Otero-Schmitt, M. Pin, E. Rolán, and P. Ryall (Fernandes et al., 1995: 298).

Crassispira oliva Fernandes, Rolán, and Otero-Schmitt, 1995: 293–294, figs. 15–18, 35–36

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226520 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Farol das Lagostas, Luanda, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/18731, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, and the collections of F. Fernandes, J. Otero-Schmitt, and E. Rolán (Fernandes et al., 1995: 293).

Crassispira pini Fernandes, Rolán, and Otero-Schmitt, 1995: 299–300, figs. 26–28

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226522 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Dakar, Senegal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/18727, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, and the collections of F. Fernandes, J. Otero-Schmitt, M. Pin, and E. Rolán (Fernandes et al., 1995: 299).

Crassispira sacerdotalis Rolán and Fernandes, 1992: 138–141, figs. 3–4, 12–13

  1. Paratype: AMNH 264676 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 3–8 m, Esprainha, São Tomé Island, Republic of São Tomé and Principe, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/2679, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IRSNB, MNHN, NMSA, ZMUC, and the collections of F. Fernandes and E. Rolán (Rolán and Fernandes, 1992: 138).

Crenavolva (Cuspivolva) baltea C. Cate, 1973: 55, fig. 115

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 204858 (5 specimens).

  2. Locality: 15°15′N, 74°00′E, Goa, India, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. C. Bridwell.

  4. Remarks: ex Cate Collection #3610. The holotype is USNM 442947 (C. Cate, 1973: 55). C. Cate (1973: 55) cited “several paratypes,” and the current repository of these additional paratypes, if any, is unknown.

Crepidula barbudaensis Usticke, 1969: 14, pl. 3, fig. 520

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195425.

  2. Locality: Lagoon, Barbuda, Antigua and Barbuda, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #520. Usticke (1971: 10) stated that this specimen was the holotype. Because Usticke (1969: 14) did not designate a holotype, Usticke's (1971) action constituted a lectotype designation. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 14) given size range for the taxon of 5–7 mm length.

Crepidula fornicata “var.” cruzana Usticke, 1959: 48–49

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195424.

  2. Locality: Altona Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #519. Although Usticke (1959: 48–49) cited this taxon as a “var.,” he first listed it (1959: vi) as “Crepidula fornicata cruzana” under the heading “new species and subspecies.” We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described. Because Usticke (1959) did not designate a holotype, we herein select the specimen figured by Usticke (1969: pl. 3, fig. 519) as lectotype to fix the identity of this poorly defined taxon. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1959: 48) given size range for the taxon of 8–15 mm length.

Cribraria (Cribraria) catholicorum F. and M. Schilder, 1938a: 114–115, fig. 5

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 80580 (1 specimen), 186627 (1 specimen), 203877 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Mope, New Britain, Papua New Guinea, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: P. J. Schneider, 1936.

  4. Remarks: ex Fobes Collection (AMNH 80580), Summers Collection (AMNH 186627), and Cate Collection #1244 (AMNH 203877). The holotype was Schilder Collection #5888 (current repository unknown). The current repository of the 62 additional paratypes is unknown. The genus is correctly cited as Cribrarula Strand, 1929.

Cribraria (Ovatipsa) chinensis whitworthi C. Cate, 1964: 20–21, pl. 5, figs. 2a–b

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 196003 (4 specimens), 203873 (1 specimen), 203874 (4 specimens), 203875 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: 21°48′S, 114°07′E, Vlaming Head, North West Cape, Western Australia, Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: A. R. Whitworth, 1961 (AMNH 203873), Jan. 4, 1962 (AMNH 203874), Aug. 10, 1962 (AMNH 196003).

  4. Remarks: ex Cate Collection #2132 (AMNH 203874), #2180 (AMNH 203873), #3103 (AMNH 203875), and #3104 (AMNH 196003). The holotype is WAM 33–64 (C. Cate, 1964: 21). The current repository of the 4 paratypes is unknown. This taxon is a synonym of Erronea chinensis amiges (Melvill and Standen, 1904) (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 141).

Cribraria haddnightae Trenberth, 1973: 1–2, pls. 1–2

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 186634 (1 specimen), 268523 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Parrys Beach, west of Denmark, Western Australia, Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Haddrill.

  4. Remarks: ex Summers Collection (AMNH 196634) and Harmon Collection (AMNH 268523). The holotype is SAM D15132, and additional paratypes are in the collections of F. Haddrill, M. Knight, and W. Trenberth (Trenberth, 1973: 2). Although Trenberth (1973) consistently and incorrectly referred to this taxon as a “subspecies of the species Cribraria Linne, 1758,” this taxon was obviously described at the species level, because Cribraria is a genus-level name. This taxon is a synonym of Cribrarula fallax (Smith, 1881) (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 179).

Crisilla alvarezi Templado and Rolán, 1993: 9–10, figs. 4, 10–11, 19, 22

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 269292 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 8 m, Fuma, Brava Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/15814, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNCN, MNHN, ZMA, and the collection of E. Rolán (Templado and Rolán, 1993: 9).

Crisilla graxai Templado and Rolán, 1993: 13–14, figs. 6, 13, 18, 24, 30

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 269294 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Fuma, Brava Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/15817, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, ZMA, and the collection of E. Rolán (Templado and Rolán, 1993: 13).

Crisilla luquei Templado and Rolán, 1993: 7–9, figs. 3, 9, 17, 21

  1. Paratype: AMNH 269291 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 8 m, Fuma, Brava Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/15815, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, ZMA, and the collection of E. Rolán (Templado and Rolán, 1993: 7).

Crisilla morenoi Templado and Rolán, 1993: 11–13, figs. 5, 12, 20, 23, 29

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 269293 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 4 m, Palmeira, Sal Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/15816, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNCN, MNHN, ZMA, and the collection of E. Rolán (Templado and Rolán, 1993: 11).

Crisilla orteai Templado and Rolán, 1993: 14–15, figs. 7, 14–15, 25

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 269295 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 1–10 m, Regona, Sal Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/15818, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNCN, MNHN, ZMA, and the collection of E. Rolán (Templado and Rolán, 1993: 14).

Crisilla vidali Templado and Rolán, 1993: 15–17, figs. 8, 16, 26

  1. Paratype: AMNH 269296 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 50 m, between Branco and Raso Islands, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/15819, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNCN, MNHN, ZMA, and the collection of E. Rolán (Templado and Rolán, 1993: 15).

Crocidopoma (Crocidopoma) zayasi Alcalde and Jacobson, 1959: 112, pl. 12, figs. 1–2

  1. Paratype: AMNH 79826 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Anse a L'Eau, Department du Sud, Haiti.

  3. Collector: O. Alcalde Ledon and F. de Zayas, July 1951.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is in the collection of O. Alcalde (Alcalde and Jacobson, 1959: 112).

Cryoturris cruzana Usticke, 1969: 29, pl. 6, fig. 1204

  1. Holotype: AMNH 192518.

  2. Locality: St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1204/1197. AMNH 192518 is the holotype by monotypy. Usticke (1971: 26) changed his catalog number for this taxon from #1204 to #1197 without explanation. This taxon may be a synonym of Glyphoturris quadrata (Reeve, 1846) (Faber, 1988: 76).

Ctenopoma torreianum “Gundlach” Arango y Molina, 1878: 18

  1. Syntype: AMNH 65405 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Mogote de Ceiba Mocha, Matanzas, Cuba.

  3. Collector: A. de la Torre.

  4. Remarks: ex Torre. An additional syntype is USNM 355529 (Torre and Bartsch, 1941: 144, pl. 10, fig. 1). This taxon is the type of the genus Torrella Henderson and Bartsch, 1920, by original designation, as T. (T.) torreiana (Henderson and Bartsch, 1920: 69).

Cyathopoma africanum Pilsbry, 1919: 328–329, text fig. 163

  1. Syntype: AMNH 2110 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 01°20′N, 27°40′E, Avakubi, Belgian Congo [Zaire], Africa.

  3. Collector: J. Bequaert, 1909–1915.

  4. Remarks: The repository of the additional syntype is unknown.

Cyclostoma amabile C. B. Adams, 1849b: 2

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 163170 (4 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex C. B. Adams via T. Bland via Gulick Collection. The lectotype was selected as MCZ 275959 and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: 446, pl. 55, fig. 10).

Cyclostoma armatum C. B. Adams, 1849b: 10–11

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 163190 (8 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex C. B. Adams via T. Bland via Gulick Collection. The lectotype was selected as MCZ 186245 and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: 518, pl. 91, fig. 17).

Cyclostoma augustae C. B. Adams, 1849b: 7–8

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 163183 (2 specimens), 163184 (2 specimens; “var. c”), 163185 (5 specimens; “var. d”), 163186 (2 specimens; “var. a”). 163187 (2 specimens; “var. b”).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex C. B. Adams via T. Bland via Gulick Collection. The lectotype was selected as MCZ 275906 and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: 518, pl. 91, fig. 11). Each of the AMNH lots is labeled with a different “variety” letter, but C. B. Adams (1849b: 8) mentioned only “var. a” in his publication.

Cyclostoma avena C. B. Adams, 1849b: 6

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 163189 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex C. B. Adams via T. Bland via Gulick Collection. The lectotype was selected as MCZ 186217 and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: 518, pl. 91, fig. 12).

Cyclostoma blandianum C. B. Adams, 1849b: 3

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 163175 (3 specimens), 163188 (4 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex MCZ (AMNH 163175) and ex C. B. Adams via T. Bland via Gulick Collection (AMNH 163188). The lectotype was selected as MCZ 275975 and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: 448, pl. 56, fig. 7).

Cyclostoma bronnii C. B. Adams, 1845: 11

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 163179 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: C. B. Adams, Feb.–March 1844.

  4. Remarks: ex C. B. Adams via T. Bland via Gulick Collection. The lectotype was selected as MCZ 177149 and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: 456, pl. 60, fig. 1). This taxon is placed in the genus Licina Gray, 1847 (Richardson et al., 1991: 96).

Cyclostoma chittyi C. B. Adams, 1849b: 1

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 163169 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex C. B. Adams via T. Bland via Gulick Collection. The lectotype was selected as MCZ 275962 and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: 448, pl. 56, fig. 4).

Cyclostoma crenulosum C. B. Adams, 1849b: 12–13

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 163191 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex C. B. Adams via T. Bland via Gulick Collection. The lectotype was selected as MCZ 275912 and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: 456, pl. 60, fig. 7). This taxon is placed in the genus Chondropoma Pfeiffer, 1847 (Richardson et al., 1991: 101).

Cyclostoma distortum Haines, 1855: 158, pl. 5, figs. 5–8

  1. Syntype: AMNH 62467 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Siam [= Thailand].

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Haines Collection.

Cyclostoma fecundum C. B. Adams, 1849b: 11

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 163192 (14 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex C. B. Adams via T. Bland via Gulick Collection. The lectotype was selected as MCZ 186235 and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: 452, pl. 58, fig. 10).

Cyclostoma granosum C. B. Adams, 1850b: 93

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 163177 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex C. B. Adams via T. Bland via Gulick Collection. Jacobson and Boss (1973: 454, pl. 59, fig. 4) illustrated MCZ 276016 and cited it as the “holotype.” Because C. B. Adams (1850b) did not designate a holotype, Jacobson and Boss's (1973) action constituted an inadvertent lectotype designation.

Cyclostoma hillianum C. B. Adams, 1845: 11

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 163199 (13 specimens), 163168 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: C. B. Adams, Feb.–March 1844.

  4. Remarks: ex C. B. Adams via T. Bland via Gulick Collection. The lectotype was selected as MCZ 275971 and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: 446, pl. 55, fig. 7).

Cyclostoma (Pterocyclos) housei Haines, 1855: 157, pl. 5, figs. 12–15

  1. Syntypes: AMNH 42923 (5 specimens).

  2. Locality: Siam [= Thailand].

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Haines Collection. This taxon is the type of the genus Rhiostoma Benson, 1860, as the senior synonym of R. haughtoni Benson, 1860 (Abbott, 1989: 42).

Cyclostoma lima C. B. Adams, 1845: 11

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 163171 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: C. B. Adams, Feb.–March 1844.

  4. Remarks: ex C. B. Adams via T. Bland via Gulick Collection. The lectotype was selected as MCZ 185172 and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: 448, pl. 56, fig. 9).

Cyclostoma maculosa Jay, 1839: 122, pl. 7, figs. 9–10

  1. Syntype: AMNH 56086 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: “Unknown” (Jay, 1839: 122); “Sumatra” (Jay, 1850: 260).

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Jay Collection #6014 (Jay, 1850). AMNH 56086 is labeled “type” in Jay's handwriting and is Jay's (1839) figured specimen (fig. 9 herein). The whereabouts of additional syntypes (if any) are unknown.

Cyclostoma multicarinata Jay, 1839: 122, figs. 7–8

  1. Syntypes?: AMNH 56102 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: “Unknown” (Jay, 1839: 122); “Seychelles” (Jay, 1850: 258).

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Jay Collection #5950 (Jay, 1850). None of these specimens is labeled as “type” or “fig d. type” in Jay's handwriting. Because none of the specimens is labeled and because Jay (1839) did not cite the specific number of specimens in his type series, it is unclear whether any of these specimens are actually syntypes, although this is likely.

Cyclostoma multilineata Jay, 1839: 123, pl. 7, figs. 12–13

  1. Syntype: AMNH 56087 (1 specimen).

  2. ?Syntypes: AMNH 56087a (2 specimens).

  3. Locality: “Unknown” (Jay, 1839: 123); “Madagascar” (Jay, 1850: 256).

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: ex Jay Collection #5869 (Jay, 1850). AMNH 56087 is labeled “type” in Jay's handwriting and is Jay's (1839) figured specimen (fig. 10 herein). Because Jay (1839) did not cite the specific number of specimens in his type series, it is unclear whether any of the specimens in AMNH 56087a are actually syntypes, although this is likely.

Cyclostoma (Megalomastoma) myersii Haines, 1855: 157, pl. 5, figs. 9–11

  1. Syntypes: AMNH 43629 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Siam [= Thailand].

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Haines Collection.

Cyclostoma nitens C. B. Adams, 1849b: 8

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 163172 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex C. B. Adams via T. Bland via Gulick Collection. The lectotype was selected as MCZ 186228 and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: 450, pl. 57, fig. 1).

Cyclostoma papyraceum C. B. Adams, 1850b: 92

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 163193 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex C. B. Adams via T. Bland via Gulick Collection. The lectotype was selected as MCZ 186251 and illustrated by Jacobson and Boss (1973: 450, pl. 57, fig. 7).

Cyclostoma redfieldianum C. B. Adams, 1849b: 10

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 163174 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex C. B. Adams via T. Bland via Gulick Collection. Jacobson and Boss (1973: 452, pl. 58, fig. 6) cited the “holotype” as MCZ 275994. Because C. B. Adams (1849b) did not designate a holotype, Jacobson and Boss's (1973) action constituted a lectotype designation.

Cyclostoma solidum C. B. Adams, 1849b: 7

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 163173 (6 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex C. B. Adams via T. Bland via Gulick Collection. The lectotype was selected as MCZ 275979 and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: 500, pl. 82, fig. 4). Cyclostoma jayanum C. B. Adams, 1850a (p. 50), is a replacement name for C. solidum C. B. Adams, 1849b, non Menke in Martini and Chemnitz, 1848.

Cyclostoma viridescens Pease, 1861: 243–244

  1. Syntypes: AMNH 16662 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Huaheine, Society Islands.

  3. Collector: W. H. Pease.

  4. Remarks: This species is placed in the genus Blanfordia A. Adams, 1863.

Cyclotheca [sic] pacei Petuch, 1987: 22, pl. 4, figs. 6–7

  1. Paratype: AMNH 237982 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: On back of Chlamys sentis (Reeve, 1853), 1 m, beneath MacArthur Causeway Bridge, Biscayne Bay, Dade Co., Florida, United States, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: R. Pace, June 7, 1984.

  4. Remarks: ex Sunderland Collection. The holotype is USNM 859816, and additional paratypes are USNM 859817 and in the collections of R. Pace and K. Sunderland (Petuch, 1987: 22). The genus is correctly cited as Cyclothyca Stearns, 1891.

Cylindrella (?) pygmaea C. B. Adams, 1845: 14

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 16621 (4 specimens), 16694 (33 specimens), 16695 (6 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: C. B. Adams, Feb.–March 1844.

  4. Remarks: ex Jay Collection (AMNH 16621, 16695) and Haines Collection (AMNH 16694). The lectotype was designated as MCZ 156155 by Clench and Turner (1948c: 205). This taxon is placed in the genus Geomelania Pfeiffer, 1845, and the subgenus Merrilliana Clench and Turner, 1948 (Clench and Turner, 1948c: 180).

Cyllene cernohorskyi Fernandes and Rolán, 1992b: 51–52, figs. 3–4, 6

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226442 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 10–20 m, Palmeirinhas Point, South Luanda, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Fernandes, 1987.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is in MNCN, and additional paratypes are in AMNZ, BMNH, MNHN, NMSA, ZMA, ZMC, and the collections of F. Fernandes and E. Rolán (Fernandes and Rolán, 1992b: 51).

Cymatium (Ranularia) boschi Abbott and Lewis, 1970: 87–88, figs. 1–6

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 139206 (4 speciemens), 245764 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Al Masirah Island, Oman, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown (AMNH 139206); D. Bosch, 1969 (AMNH 245764).

  4. Remarks: ex Bosch Collection (AMNH 245764). The holotype is DMNH 22862, and the additional paratype is ANSP 139206 (Abbott and Lewis, 1970: 88). This taxon is placed in the subgenus Ranularia Schumacher, 1817 (Bosch et al., 1995: 99).

Cymatium cruzana Usticke, 1959: 60

  1. Syntypes: lost.

  2. Locality: St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: This taxon was never figured by Usticke (1959; 1969; 1971). The syntypes are not in AMNH and are considered lost. This taxon is a synonym of C. (Monoplex) aquatile (Reeve, 1844) (Henning and Hemmen, 1993: 61).

Cymatium (Monoplex) penniketi Beu, 1998: 93, figs. 23j, 28a–j, 29e, h

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226540 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Masirah Island, Oman, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. and E. Bosch.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is in MNHN, and additional paratypes are AMS C202739, BMNH 1996033, NZGS WM13281, WM13512, USNM 880223, and in MNHN (Beu, 1998: 93).

Cymatium (Lotoria) perryi Emerson and Old, 1963: 7–10, figs. 2, 4, 6

  1. Holotype: AMNH 92899.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 92898 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: Ceylon (AMNH 92899); 12 mi north of Trincomale (AMNH 92898), Ceylon (= Sri Lanka), Indian Ocean.

  4. Collector: R. Jonklass, 1953 (AMNH 92899); E. H. Taylor, “World War II” (AMNH 92898).

  5. Remarks: Additional paratypes are ANSP 209812 and 210667 (Emerson and Old, 1963: 10). This species is the type of the subgenus Lotoria Emerson and Old, 1963, by original designation (Emerson and Old, 1963: 4).

Cymatium raderi D'Attilio and Myers, 1984b: 33–34, figs. 7–12

  1. Paratype: AMNH 182782 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: off Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: S. Weiss.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SDNHM 81627, and additional paratypes are SDNHM 81628 and in the collections of L. Bibbey and J. Rader (D'Attilio and Myers, 1984b: 34).

Cymatosyrinx roseola Hertlein and Strong, 1955: 221–222, pl. 2, fig. 27

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 73438 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Sta. 81, 10–15 fathoms, 00°32′00″S, 80°31′00″W, off Cape Pasado, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Askoy Expedition, April 14, 1941.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is CASIZ 9893, and additional paratypes are CASIS 9894 (Hertlein and Strong, 1955: 222). This taxon is placed in the genus Drillia Gray, 1838 (Keen, 1971: 703).

Cymbovula queenslandica C. Cate, 1974: 382, fig. 2

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 204856 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 22°07′S, 149°32′E, Clairview, Queensland, Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. Howland.

  4. Remarks: ex Cate Collection #4026 (possibly also #3981; see below). The holotype is AM C.92106 (C. Cate, 1974: 382). C. Cate (1974: 382) cited 3 paratypes, all in his collection (#3981, 4016, 4026). Because AMNH 204856 contains 2 specimens, either Cate Collection #4026 actually was 2 specimens or, more likely, the 10.4-mm specimen in AMNH 204856 is actually ex C. Cate #3981. The current repository of the additional paratype is unknown.

Cyphoma rhomba C. Cate, 1978: 164–165, figs. 7–8

  1. Paratype: AMNH 204854 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 18–29 m, 27°00′N, 80°00W, Ft. Lauderdale, Broward Co., Florida, United States, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: W. Chapman, Feb. 20, 1971.

  4. Remarks: ex Cate Collection #3891. The holotype is LACM 1792 (C. Cate, 1978: 165).

Cypraea burgessi Kay, 1981: 112–113, figs. 1a–d, 3a

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 213474 (1 specimen), 221826 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 20 fathoms, Lysan Island (AMNH 213474), Pearl and Hermes Reef (AMNH 221826), Hawaii, United States, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Pele Expedition, 1948.

  4. Remarks: ex Burgess Collection. The holotype is BPBM 9903, and additional paratypes are in BPBM, USNM, and the collections of C. Burgess, S. Jazwinski, and R. Schmeltz (Kay, 1981: 112–113). This taxon is a synonym of Blasicrura latior (Melvill, 1888) (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 164).

Cypraea cernica marielae C. Cate, 1960a: 3–6, pl. 1, figs. 1–2

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 203864 (1 specimen), 203865a (1 specimen), 203865b (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 50 fathoms, 20°57′N, 156°47′W, between Maui and Lanai Islands (AMNH 203864); 80 fathoms, 21°17′N, 157°54′W, Keehi Lagoon, Oahu (AMNH 203865a, 203865b), Hawaii, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: “Pele” Expedition, 1959.

  4. Remarks: ex Cate Collection (AMNH 203864) and ex C. Weaver Collection via Cate Collection (AMNH 203865a, 203865b). AMNH 203864 is C. Cate's (1960a: 6, pl. 1, figs. 2, 2a) “paratype 1.” AMNH 203865a and 203865b are C. Cate's (1960a: 6) “paratype 3” and “paratype 4,” respectively. The holotype is BPBM 212711, and the additional 2 paratypes were in the collections of C. Weaver and M. King (current repository unknown) (C. Cate, 1960a: 6). This taxon is a synonym of Erosaria cernica (Sowerby, 1870) (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 195).

Cypraea cernica viridicolor C. Cate, 1962a: 175–176, pl. 40, figs. 1–9

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 203866a (1 specimen), 203866b (1 specimen), 203867a (1 specimen), 203867b (1 specimen), 203868a (1 specimen), 203868b (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 21°50′S, 114°10′E, Vlaming Head, NW cape, Western Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: A. R. Whitworth, 1960.

  4. Remarks: ex Cate Collection. AMNH 203866a is C. Cate's (1962a: 177, pl. 40, fig. 8) “paratype 1”; AMNH 203866b is C. Cate's (1962a: 177, pl. 40, fig. 9) “paratype 2”; AMNH 203867a is C. Cate's (1962a: 177, pl. 40, fig. 3) “paratype 3”; AMNH 203867b is C. Cate's (1962a: 177, pl. 40, fig. 4) “paratype 4”; AMNH 203868a is C. Cate's (1962a: 177, fig. 5) “paratype 5”; AMNH 203868b is C. Cate's (1962a: 177, pl. 40, fig. 7) “paratype 7.” The holotype is SU 9506, and “paratype 6” was in the Cate Collection (current repository unknown) (C. Cate, 1962a: 177). This taxon is placed in the genus Erosaria Troschel, 1863 (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 195).

Cypraea connelli Liltved, 1983: 234–235, pl. 1, text fig. 1

  1. Paratype: AMNH 259700 (1 specimen) AMNH 301382 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 96 m, off Sandy Point, Transkei, South Africa (AMNH 259700), 130–140m, Coral rubble, off Part Rynie, Natal (AMNH 301382); Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: A. Connell, 1981.

  4. Remarks: ex Mal de Mar via D. Fleischner Collection (AMNH 259700), C. M. Burgess via Dunlap Collection (AMNH 301382). The holotype is NM B.4861, and additional paratypes are NM C.277, C.337, C.897, C.970, SAM (SAMC) A.35850, and in the collection of T. Kelmscott (Liltved, 1983: 236). This taxon is placed in the genus Cypraeovula Gray, 1824 (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 97).

Cypraea cruenta “var.” greegori Ford, 1893: 112–113

  1. Syntype: AMNH 186626 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: “Ceylon” [Sri Lanka, Indian Ocean] (Ford, 1894: 312).

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex J. Ford via R. Summers. This taxon was also described as “Cypraea Greegori Ford n. sp.” (Ford, 1894: 311), a junior synonym and homonym. The repository of additional syntypes is unknown. This taxon was figured by [Pilsbry] (1893: pl. 2, figs. 4–5) and Ford (1894: unnumbered figure). This taxon is a synonym of Erronea coloba (Melvill, 1888) (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 142).

Cypraea (Blasicrura) dayritiana C. Cate, 1963: 141–142, pl. 15, figs. 1, 1a, 2, 2a

  1. Paratype: AMNH 203885 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 6 ft, Cagbatan Island, Calamian Group, North Palawan, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. G. Dayrit, May 19, 1962.

  4. Remarks: ex Cate Collection #1648. The holotype is NMM NMCO-6766, and the 8 additional paratypes are “variously in the collections of Norton, Lee, Cate [now AMNH], the National Museum, Manila” (C. Cate, 1963: 141), and MCZ 249640 (ex NMM). AMNH 203886 (ex Cate Collection #2351) and AMNH 203887 (ex Cate Collection #2405), previously considered paratypes, do not match any of the paratype measurements given by C. Cate (1963: 142), and are not here considered to be part of the type series. This taxon is retained in the genus Blasicrura Iredale, 1930 (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 162).

Cypraea englerti Summers and Burgess, 1965: 41–42, pl. 4, figs. i–l

  1. Paratype: AMNH 148004 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Easter Island, Chile, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: S. Englert.

  4. Remarks: ex Summers Collection. The holotype is BPBM 8909 (Summers and Burgess, 1965: 41). This taxon is placed in the genus Erosaria Troschel, 1863 (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 203).

Cypraea (Lyncina) leviathan gedlingae C. Cate, 1968: 227, pl. 26, fig. 28

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 204451 (1 specimen), 204452 (1 specimen), 204453 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Vlaming Head, Northwest Cape, Western Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: M. Gelding.

  4. Remarks: ex Cate Collection #3537 (AMNH 204452) and #3195 (AMNH 204453). Although AMNH 204451 lacks a C. Cate label with his catalog number, it is from his collection and the type locality, and is undoubtedly a paratype. The holotype is WAM 334–67 (C. Cate, 1968: 227). The number of paratypes was not specified, and the repository of additional ones, if any, is unknown. This taxon is a synonym of Lyncina leviathan titan Schilder and Schilder, 1962 (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 70).

Cypraea mauiensis Burgess, 1967: 6–11, pl. 2

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 138199 (2 specimens), 186630 (2 specimens), 220744 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 2–4 ft, 20°48.5′N, 156°37.3′W, under Porites coral, Olowalu, Maui, Hawaii, United States, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: C. M. Burgess, July 1966 (AMNH 138199), Sept. 1963 (AMNH 186630, AMNH 220744).

  4. Remarks: The holotype is BPBM 8916, and additional paratypes are in AMNZ, AMS, ANSP, BBM, BMNH, CUMZ, MCZ, MONA, MPMP, NMV, NZSI, RMNH, USNM, WAMP, ZMUC, and the collections of several unspecified individuals (Burgess, 1967: 7–8). This taxon is placed in the genus Pustularia Swainson, 1840 (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 220).

Cypraea polita Roberts, 1868: 70, pl. 15, figs. 1–3

  1. Syntypes: AMNH 22815 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: “Sandwich Islands?” (= Hawaii, United States, Pacific Ocean).

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Witthaus Collection. Additional syntypes are in ANSP (Roberts, 1868: 70). This taxon is a synonym of Erosaria semiplota (Mighels, 1845) (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 212).

Cypraea saulae siasiensis C. Cate, 1960b: 36, pl. 5, figs. 2–6

  1. Paratype: AMNH 203889 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 05°32′N, 120°52′E, Punnungan Island, Siasi, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. G. Dayrit, Jan. 1959.

  4. Remarks: ex Cate Collection. AMNH 203889 is C. Cate's (1960b: 35, pl. 5, fig. 3) “paratype 1.” The holotype is BPBM 212719, and the additional 2 paratypes were in the collection of C. Cate (current repository unknown) (C. Cate, 1960b: 35). This taxon is a synonym of Palmadusta saulae (Gaskoin, 1843) (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 157).

Cypraea semiplota Mighels, 1845: 24

  1. Syntypes: AMNH 22824 (9 specimens).

  2. Locality: Oahu, Hawaii, United States, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Pease Collection via Witthaus Collection. The repository of additional syntypes is unknown. This taxon was figured by Roberts (1885: 194–195, pl. 19, figs. 31, 36–37). Johnson (1949: 229, pl. 27, fig. 1) selected a “neoholotype” (= neotype): MCZ 176989. Catalog books deposited in the AMNH by Witthaus list these specimens (AMNH 22824) as “type species” received from Pease. Cypraea semiplota is not the type species of any cypraeid genus-level taxon; therefore, we conclude that Witthaus was actually referring to “type specimens.” Johnson's “neoholotype” is hereby supressed by the rediscovery of this type material. This taxon is placed in the genus Erosaria Troschel, 1863 (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 212).

Cypraea tigris schilderiana C. Cate, 1961: 108, pl. 19, figs. 1–2

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 196004 (1 specimen), 196005 (1 specimen), 203851 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 30 ft, Waialua Bay (AMNH 196004); 35 ft, off reef in Maunalua Bay, off Koko Head Point (AMNH 196005); 8 ft, Keei (AMNH 203851), Oahu, Hawaii, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: R. Gage (AMNH 196004), A. Kekoa, Jr. (AMNH 196005), C. Weaver, Jan. 15, 1958 (AMNH 203851).

  4. Remarks: ex Cate Collection #1998, #1999, and #2004. AMNH 196004 is C. Cate's (1961: 109) “paratype 9”; AMNH 196005 is C Cate's (1961: 109) “paratype 10”; AMNH 203851 is C. Cate's (1961: 109) “paratype 8.” The holotype is BPBM 212885, and paratypes 2, 4, 5, and 7 are in USNM, the Schilder Collection (current repository unknown), BMNH, and MCZ, respectively. The current repository of paratypes 1, 3, and 6 is unknown. This taxon is a synonym of C. tigris Linnaeus, 1758 (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 65).

Cypraea (Notocypraea) trenberthae Trenberth, 1961: 1–2, fig. 1

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213442 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Tunmy Bay, South Australia, Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: W. P. Trenberth.

  4. Remarks: ex Summers Collection (paratype #4). The holotype is SAM D.14616, and additional paratypes are in the Trenberth Collection and the Malacological Society of Australia Collection (Trenberth, 1961: 2). This taxon is a synonym of Notocypraea comptonii (Gray, 1847) (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 100).

Cypraea undata “var.” buttoni Oldroyd, 1916: 107–108

  1. Paratype: AMNH 44439 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Fiji, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Oldroyd Collection. The holotype is in SU (Oldroyd, 1916: 108). Although described as a “new variety,” this taxon has been repeatedly treated at the species level (Burgess, 1970: 94; Burgess, 1985: 129; Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 153). Because this satisfies the requirements of ICZN Article 45(g)(1), this taxon is treated at the subspecific level herein, and a type series is accordingly recognized. This taxon is a synonym of C. diluculum Reeve, 1845 (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 153).

Cystiscus bubistae Fernandes, 1987: 263–265, fig. 2

  1. Holotype: AMNH 225992.

  2. Locality: 1–3 m, Gatas Bay, Boavista Island, Cape Verde Archipelago, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Fernandes, May 27, 1986.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. Paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MNHN, the Cabo Verde Museum, and the collections of I. Felix-Alves, F. Fernandes, J. Messias, M. Pin, E. Rolán, and P. Ryall (Fernandes, 1987: 264–265). [Fernandes] (1987: 334) changed the specific name to Cysticus bubistaensis, an unjustified emendation.

Cystiscusgutta Gofas and Fernandes, 1988: 17–19, figs. 19–20, pl. 2a

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 238669 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 3–5 m, Esprainha Beach, São Tomé, São Tomé and Principe, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Fernandes, Nov. 23, 1986.

  4. Remarks: ex Fernandes Collection. The holotype is in MNHN, and additional paratypes are in IIT, MNHN, NMW, and the collection of F. Fernandes (Gofas and Fernandes, 1988: 17). The generic classification is only provisional (Gofas and Fernandes, 1988: 17).

Cystiscus palantirulus Roth and Coan, 1968: 66–67, pl. 7, figs. 17–18

  1. Holotype: AMNH 128732.

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 77942 (2 specimens).

  3. Locality: Sta. 89, 20–40 fathoms, 23°21′N, 109°25′W, Los Frailes Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  4. Collector: R/V “Puritan” Expedition, April 19, 1957.

  5. Remarks: The two lots cited above constitute the entire type series.

Daphnella barbadensis Usticke, 1969: 30, pl. 6, fig. 1222

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195474.

  2. Locality: Barbados, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1222. AMNH 195474 is the holotype by monotypy. This taxon is a synonym of D. lymneiformis (Kiener, 1840) (Faber, 1988: 73).

Daphnella hayesi Usticke, 1959: 84, pl. 4, fig. 13

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195473.

  2. Locality: Long Reef, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1221. AMNH 195473 is the holotype by monotypy. The type locality was given as “Ham Bay” by Usticke (1959: 84) but as cited above by Usticke (1969: 30).

Daphnella stegeri “var.” monocincta Usticke, 1969: 30, pl. 6, fig. 1224

  1. Holotype: lost.

  2. Locality: Antigua, Antigua and Barbuda, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: Although Usticke (1969: 30) cited this taxon as a “var.,” he listed it as a “n[ew] sp[ecies]” (1969: 30), treated it subspecifically in the index, and called it “Daphnella monocincta” in the figure caption. We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described. Usticke's (1969: pl. 6, fig. 1224) figured specimen was the holotype by monotypy. It cannot be located in AMNH and is presumed lost. Usticke's (1969: 30) mention of the “Gulf of Mexico” as a locality for this taxon is a mystery.

Dendroconus morrisoni Raybaudi Massilia, 1991: 20–25, text figs. 20–25, 25d

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 232181 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 12°20′S, 122°E, northeast corner of Ashmore Reef, Timor Sea, Western Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown, 1990.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MHNG 16152, and additional paratypes are in WAMP and the collections of the G. Massilia, H. Morrison, and A. Nora (Raybaudi Massilia, 1991: 21). This taxon is a synonym of Conus catus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 (Röckel et al., 1995: 103).

Dentiovula spectabilis C. Cate, 1975: 257, fig. 8

  1. Paratype: AMNH 204860 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 10 fathoms, 34°00′N, 134°48′E, off Hinomisaki, Kii, Japan, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Cate Collection #4082. The holotype is LACM 1702 (C. Cate, 1975: 257).

Distichotyphis vemae Keen and Campbell, 1964: 56, pl. 11, figs. 45–47

  1. Holotype: AMNH 110459.

  2. Locality: Sta. V-15–60, 1892 m, 06°21′N, 85°17′W, off Panama–Costa Rica coast, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: R/V “Vema,” Nov. 30, 1958.

  4. Remarks: This taxon is the type of the genus Distichotyphis Keen and Campbell, 1964, by monotypy (Keen and Campbell, 1964: 56).

Distorsio euconstricta Beu, 1986: 310–314, figs. 131–143, 145

  1. Paratype: AMNH 232233 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 136 m, sponge rubble off Park Rynie, South Africa, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: R. Kilburn, March 5, 1981.

  4. Remarks: ex NMSA B3892. The holotype is USNM 718952, and additional paratypes are AMS C127392, C127393, C127394, MF 42428, NMSA C1569, C1664, B3945, B3658, C5454, C4575, B3813, B3892, NZOIT 682, USNM 718966, WAMP 13274, 13275, and in NMNZ and NZGS (Beu, 1986: 312, 314).

Distorsio graceiellae Parth, 1989a: 55, p. 55, unnumbered fig. (left 3 specimens); p. 56, unnumbered fig. (left 3 specimens); p. 57, unnumbered fig. (left specimen)

  1. Paratype: AMNH 246022 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Cebu, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Parth Collection. The holotype is in BMNH (Parth, 1991: 21), and the additional paratype is in the collection of M. Parth (Parth, 1989a: 56).

Distorsio (Distorsio) jenniernestae Emerson and Piech, 1992: 111–113, figs. 5–8, 16–18, 24

  1. Holotype: AMNH 232214.

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 232215 (3 specimens), 232215a (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: 73 m, between Isla Cébaco and Isla Coiba, Veraguas, Panama, Pacific Ocean.

  4. Collector: J. Ernest, 1991.

  5. Remarks: Additional paratypes are DMNH 189600, DSIR-GG WM 15345, USNM 860245, and in the collection of B. Piech (Emerson and Piech, 1992: 113). The AMNH paratype figured by Emerson and Piech (1992: figs. 7–8) has been segregated from AMNH 232215 as AMNH 232215A.

Distorsio minoruohnishii Parth, 1989c: 8–11, 2 unnumbered figs

  1. Paratype: AMNH 246024 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Bay of Chiriqui, Panama, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Parth (paratype #2). The holotype is in BMNH (Parth, 1991: 21), and the repository of the additional 8 paratypes is unknown.

Distorsio ventricosa Kronenberg, 1994: 94–96, pl. 3, figs. 5–6; pl. 4, figs. 7–8; text figs. 24–25

  1. Paratype: AMNH 232525 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Punta Engaño, Cebu, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is ZMA Moll. 3.93.035, and additional paratypes are IGNS WM15422, NNM 56809, and in BMNH and the collections of H. Dekker and G. Kronenberg (Kronenberg, 1994: 94).

Dolium melanostomum Jay, 1839: 124–125, pls. 8–9

  1. Holotype: AMNH 56115.

  2. Locality: “Friendly Islands” [Tonga] (Jay, 1839: 124); “Pacific Ocean” (Jay, 1850: 357).

  3. Collector: “Natives” (Jay, 1839: 124).

  4. Remarks: ex Jay Collection #9132 (Jay, 1850). AMNH 56113 is labeled “type,” is Jay's (1839) figured specimen, and is the holotype by monotypy (fig. 11 herein). This species is placed in the genus Tonna Brünnich, 1772, as T. melanostoma (Abbott and Dance, 1982: 118).

Douglassia (Cerodrillia?) [sic] nodosa Usticke, 1969: 28, pl. 6, fig. 1131

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195464.

  2. Locality: Marina Key, Virgin Gorda, British Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1131. Usticke (1971: 24) stated that this specimen was the holotype. Because Usticke (1969: 28) did not designate a holotype, Usticke's (1971) action constituted a lectotype designation. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 28) given size range for the taxon of 12–13.5 mm length.

Doxospira hertleini Shasky, 1971: 67–68, fig. 1

  1. Paratype: AMNH 164610 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 77–112 m, 09°19′32″N, 84°29′30″W, 14 mi SSE of Judas Point, Costa Rica, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: W. Beebe, March 1, 1938.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is CASIZ 13288, and additional paratypes are CASIZ 13289–13291, LACM 1565, and in SDMNH, USNM, and the collection of D. Shasky (Shasky, 1971: 68).

Drillia chaaci Espinosa and Rolán, 1995: 30–32, figs. 1–6

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226535 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Puerto Morelos, Yucatan, Mexico, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/22391, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IES, MNHN, UNAM, and the collection of E. Rolán (Espinosa and Rolán, 1995: 30).

Drillia inaequistriata Li, 1930: 275, pl. 8, fig. 71

  1. Holotype: AMNH 269094.

  2. Locality: Mouth of Rio Grande, in mud, 10–40 ft, 1 mi from mainland near La Boca, Panama Bay, Panama, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. MacDonald, 1907.

  4. Remarks: ex Columbia University 22131. AMNH 269094 is the holotype by monotypy. The specific name was given by Li (1930) as both “inequistriata” (p. 251) and “inaequistriata” (pp. 275, 296). Pilsbry (1931: 434) exercised the right of first revisor and chose “inaequistriata” as the correct spelling, although he apparently did so unintentionally, because he never cited the alternate spelling. To further complicate matters, the species was listed as Clathrodrillia interstriata by Pilsbry (1931: 437, 440). This was an unjustified emendation corrected by Pilsbry to “inaequistriata” on an errata sheet tipped into some copies of his 1931 publication. This taxon is a synonym of Crassispira (C.) incrassata (Sowerby, 1834) (Keen, 1971: 715).

Drillia kleinrosa Usticke, 1969: 27, pl. 5, fig. 1099

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195458.

  2. Locality: Klein Bonaire, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1099. AMNH 195458 is the holotype by monotypy. Usticke (1971: 22) changed his number for this taxon from #1099 to #1089 without explanation.

Drillia ponciana “var.” virgata Usticke, 1969: 27, pl. 5, fig. 1098

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195457.

  2. Locality: Barbados, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1098. Although Usticke (1969: 27) cited this taxon as a “var.,” he listed it as a “n[ew] sp[ecies]” (1969: 27), treated it subspecifically in the index, and called it “Drillia virgata” in the figure caption. We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described. Usticke (1971: 22) introduced the unnecessary replacement name D. bandata for this taxon (see Faber, 1988: 72) and changed his catalog number for it from #1098 to #1088 without explanation. Usticke (1971: 22) stated that this specimen (now AMNH 195457) was the holotype. Because Usticke (1969: 27) did not designate a holotype, Usticke's (1971) action constituted a lectotype designation. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 27) given size range for the taxon of 8.5–9 mm length. The types of D. ponciana virgata and D. bandata are the same. The identity of this taxon is unclear, but it does not appear to be a Drillia Gray, 1838 (Faber, 1988: 72).

Drillia (Drillia) tumida McLean and Poorman, 1971: 97, fig. 17

  1. Paratype: AMNH 164604 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 20–40 fathoms, 20°43′N, 105°25′W, Banderas Bay, Jalísco, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: G. Willett, Feb. 14, 1938.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is LACM 1492, and additional paratypes are LACM 1493, MCZ 278867, and in ANSP, CASIZ, SBMNH, SDNHM, SU, and USNM (McLean and Poorman, 1971: 97).

Drillia wolfei Tippett, 1995: 127–129, figs. 1, 28, 31

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226536 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 15 km east of Cape Lookout, Carteret Co., North Carolina, United States, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Wolfe, March–May 1971.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 880070, and additional paratypes are in ANSP, DMNH, IRSNB, LACM, MCZ, MNHN, MORG, NHM, NM, and the collections of D. Tippett and D. Wolfe (Tippett, 1995: 129).

Drupa ricinus hadari Emerson and Cernohorsky, 1973: 23, pl. 2, figs. 9–10; pl. 18

  1. Holotype: AMNH 166928.

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 112617 (7 specimens), 112617a (1 specimen), 112617b (1 specimen, alcohol).

  3. Locality: Eilat, Gulf of Aqaba, Israel, Red Sea.

  4. Collector: A. Hadar, 1961.

  5. Remarks: Additional paratypes are DMNH 51119 and in AIM and TAUI (Emerson and Cernohorsky, 1973: 24). Although Emerson and Cernohorsky (1973: 24) cited 8 paratypes in AMNH, 9 are present. The figured paratype (AMNH 112617A) and a specimen in alcohol (AMNH 112617B) retain their separate catalog numbers, but all of the other AMNH paratypes have been combined into a single lot.

Drupella minuta Fujioka, 1984: 45–46, pl. 1, figs. 1–6, 12–13; pl. 2, figs. 1–8

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 205837 (1 specimen), 205838 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 26°39′N, 127°52′E, Sesoko Island, northwestern coast of Okinawa, Japan, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MMBS 3413011, and the additional paratype is MMBS 3413012 (Fujioka, 1984: 46).

Duplicaria baileyi Bratcher and Cernohorsky, 1982: 64–65, figs. 5, 11

  1. Paratype: AMNH 206093 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Batangas Island, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Bratcher Collection via D. Dan. The holotype is LACM 1970, and additional paratypes are AM C132464, ANSP 352482, CASIZ 60674, MCZ 280426, MORG 21.275, NM (= MPMP) H-766, USNM 782262, and in the collections of T. Bratcher, W. Cernohorsky, and M. Morrow (Bratcher and Cernohorsky, 1982: 65).

Eatoniella (Eatoniella) latina Marincovich, 1973: 26–27, figs. 51, 57–58

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 172409 (5 specimens).

  2. Locality: 20°13′S, 70°10′W, Iquique, Chile, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: L. Marincovich, Aug. 1964.

  4. Remarks: ex LACM #64–16. The holotype is LACM 1587, and additional paratypes are LACM 1588 and in AM, ANSP, CASIZ, SDNHM, and USNM (Marincovich, 1973: 27).

Eatonina (Saginofusca) atacamae Marincovich, 1973: 27, figs. 52, 59–60

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 172410 (25 specimens).

  2. Locality: 20°13′S, 70°10′W, Iquique, Chile, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: L. Marincovich, Aug. 1964.

  4. Remarks: ex LACM #64–16. The holotype is LACM 1589, and additional paratypes are LACM 1590 and in AM, ANSP, CASIZ, SDNHM, and USNM (Marincovich, 1973: 27–28).

Eatonina martae Rolán and Templado, 1993: 196–197, fig. 4

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 269478 (5 specimens).

  2. Locality: 50 m, between Branco and Raso, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/833, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, RMNH, ZMA, and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán and Templado, 1993: 196).

Echinus [sic] nodulosus “var.” major Usticke, 1969: 9–10, pl. 2, fig. 224

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195411.

  2. Locality: Ham Bluff, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #224. Although Usticke (1969: 9) cited this taxon as a “var.,” he listed it as a “new s[ub] sp[ecies]” (1969: 9), treated it subspecifically in the index, and called it “Echinus major” in the figure caption. We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described. Usticke (1971: 6) stated that this specimen (now AMNH 195411) was the holotype. Because Usticke (1969: 9–10) did not designate a holotype, Usticke's (1971) action constituted a lectotype designation. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 9) given size range for the taxon of 16–21 mm length. This taxon is a synonym of Nodolittorina (Tectinus) antoni (Philippi, 1846) (Faber, 1988: 83–84).

Engina ryalli Rolán and Fernandes, 1995a: 6–8, figs. 1–11

  1. Paratype: AMNH 277153 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 2–5 m, Esprainha, São Tomé Island, São Tomé and Principe, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is in MNCN, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, and the collections of F. Fernandes and P. Ryall (Rolán and Fernandes, 1995a: 6).

Engina turbinella “var.” cruzana Usticke, 1959: 68–69

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 198494.

  2. Locality: West coast, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #790. Although Usticke cited this taxon as a “var.” (= variety) (1959: 68) and as a “form” (1959: 68), he first listed it (1959: vi) as “Engina turbinella cruzana” under the heading “new species and subspecies.” We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described, but because Usticke (1959) did not designate a holotype, we herein select the specimen figured by Usticke (1969: pl. 2, fig. 789 [790]) as lectotype to fix the identity of this poorly defined taxon. The correct number of the figure given by Usticke (1969) for this taxon should be fig. 790, as shown by the species entry on p. 17. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1959: 68) given size range for the taxon of 10–14 mm length. This taxon is a synonym of E. turbinella (Kiener, 1834) (Faber, 1988: 77).

Epitonium (Nitidiscala) arcanum DuShane, 1979: 379, fig. 1

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 189507 (4 specimens), 275628 (89 specimens).

  2. Locality: 30°20′02″N, 114°38′08″W, Puertecitos, Baja California Norte, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: H. DuShane, Oct. 1970.

  4. Remarks: ex DuShane Collection (AMNH 275628). The holotype is LACM 1264, and additional paratypes are in CASIZ, LACM, SBMNH, USNM, and the collections of T. Bratcher, R. Poorman, D. Shasky, and C. Skoglund (DuShane, 1979: 379). This taxon is placed in the subgenus Hyaloscala de Boury, 1889 (Weil et al., 1999: 148).

Epitonium (Nitidiscala) hancocki DuShane 1970a: 332, pl. 51, fig. 1

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 275623 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 112 fathoms, off north end of Isla Santa Cruz, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. DeRoy, July 22, 1969.

  4. Remarks: ex DuShane Collection. The holotype is LACM 1235, and additional paratypes are LACM 1238 and in the collection of J. DeRoy (DuShane, 1970a: 332). This taxon is placed in the subgenus Epitonium Röding, 1798 (Weil et al., 1999: 148).

Epitonium (Epitonium) hemmesi DuShane, 1988: 267, figs. 1–2

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 225995 (2 specimens), 275629 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: 20–27 m, 21°28′N, 158°14.2′W, Lahilahi Point, near Makaha Beach, Oahu, Hawaii, United States, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Hemmes and S. Jazwinski, 1985–1986.

  4. Remarks: ex DuShane Collection (AMNH 275629). The holotype is BPBM 8987, and additional paratypes are BPBM 8988, LACM 2306, and in the collections of M. Goldsmith, D. Hemmes, and S. Jazwinski (DuShane, 1988: 267).

Epitonium (Asperiscala) macleani DuShane, 1970b: 3, fig. 2

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 275621 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 15–25 fathoms, 24°04′N, 109°49′W, off Punta Ventana, Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. McLean, P. Orringer, and L. Marincovich on R/V “Sea Quest,” April 8, 1966.

  4. Remarks: ex DuShane Collection (1 specimen) and LACM 1198 (2 specimens). The holotype is LACM 1197, and additional paratypes are LACM 1198 (DuShane, 1970b: 3). This taxon is placed in the subgenus Limiscala de Boury, 1909 (Weil et al., 1999: 152).

Epitonium (Epitonium) mauryi Tursch and Pierret, 1964: 36–37, fig. 5

  1. Paratype: AMNH 111914 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 50 m, 23°22′S, 48°28′W, off Punta de Juantinga, São Paulo, Brazil, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SU 9738, and additional paratypes are in MNRJ (Tursch and Pierret, 1964: 37). This taxon is a synonym of E. (Hirtoscala) fractum Dall, 1927 (Weil et al., 1999: 200).

Epitonium phymanthi Robertson, 1994: 83–84, figs. 1–11, 13

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 194365 (21 specimens), 194429 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Ham Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (AMNH 194365), Saint George's Lagoon, Grenada (AMNH 194429), Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is ANSP 391939, and additional paratypes are ANSP 374362, 391940, 391941, and ANSP uncataloged (Robertson, 1994: 84–85). This taxon is placed in the subgenus Limiscala de Boury, 1909 (Weil et al., 1999: 20).

Epitonium (Epitonium) shyorum DuShane and McLean, 1968: 2, fig. 2

  1. Paratype: AMNH 275619 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 12–13 fathoms, 19°03′N, 104°20′W, Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: L. and C. Shy, Nov. 1965.

  4. Remarks: ex DuShane Collection. The holotype is LACM 1160, and additional paratypes are in CASIZ, SU, and the collection of L. and C. Shy (DuShane and McLean, 1968: 2). This taxon is placed in the subgenus Hirtoscala Monterosato, 1890 (Weil et al., 1999: 148).

Epitonium (Nitidiscala) skoglundae DuShane, 1974: 72, figs. 150–151, 153

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 275625 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 08°56′N, 79°33′W, Fort Amador, Panama Canal Zone, Panama, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: C. Skoglund, March 1972.

  4. Remarks: ex DuShane Collection. The holotype is LACM 1612, and additional paratypes are LACM 1613 and in the collection of C. Skoglund (DuShane, 1974: 72).

Epitonium (Asperiscala) textimattum DuShane, 1977: 89–90, figs. 1–8

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 183743 (1 specimen), 222225 (2 specimens), 269840 (2 specimens), 275627 (4 specimens).

  2. Locality: 7–18 m, 19°18′N, 104°50′W, Playa Los Angeles, Tenacatita Bay (AMNH 183743, 222225, 275627), 11–27 m, Cuastecomate (AMNH 269840), Jalisco, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: C. and P. Skoglund, Aug. 1975.

  4. Remarks: ex Skoglund Collection (AMNH 222225), ex Skoglund Collection via S. and S. Long Collection (AMNH 269840), and ex Skoglund Collection (2 specimens) and DuShane Collection (2 specimens) (AMNH 275627). The holotype is LACM 846, and additional paratypes are in ANSP, BMNH, DMNH, LACM, SBNHM, SDNHM, USNM, and the collections of M. Bennet and C. Skoglund (DuShane, 1977: 91). This taxon is placed in the subgenus Sodaliscala de Boury, 1909 (Weil et al., 1999: 158).

Epitonium (Epitonium) thorssoni DuShane, 1988: 269, fig. 6

  1. Paratype: AMNH 275630 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 62–80 m, 21°15.8′N, 157°50′W, off south side of Oahu Island, Hawaii, United States, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: W. Thorsson, Nov. 3, 1980.

  4. Remarks: ex DuShane Collection. The holotype is BPBM 8986, and additional paratypes are LACM 2302 (DuShane, 1988: 269).

Epitonium worsfoldi Robertson, 1994: 87–88, figs. 14–19

  1. Paratype: AMNH 194365b (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Ham Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown, 1957.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is ANSP A17193, and additional paratypes are deposited as cited by Robertson (1994: 88–89). This taxon is placed in the subgenus Hyaloscala de Boury, 1889 (Weil et al., 1999: 18).

Erronea errones azurea F. Schilder, 1968: 73–75, figs. 1–2

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213441 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Broome, Western Australia, Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown, Nov. 1954.

  4. Remarks: ex Summers Collection. The holotype is Schilder Collection #20748 (current repository unknown), and the additional 10 paratypes are Schilder Collection #22224 (1 specimen, current repository unknown) and in the collections of A. Kalnins (8 specimens) and K. Uetz (1 specimen) (Schilder, 1968: 73).

Erronea (Erronea) vredenburgi F. Schilder, 1927: 120

  1. Syntypes: AMNH 203878 (1 specimen), 213475 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Tjilaut, Java, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Summers Collection (AMNH 213475) and Cate Collection #1982 (AMNH 203878). These specimens are probably from the type lot, but because of F. Schilder's (1927: 120) descriptive brevity and minimal data, this is not completely certain. The repository of additional syntypes in unknown.

Eulima mulata Rios and Absalão, 1990: 62, fig. 1

  1. Paratype: AMNH 225155 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 24 m, off Salinopolis, Para, Brazil, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: R/V “Almirante Saldanha,” Nov. 21, 1968.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MORG 23428, and additional paratypes are BMNH 1989089, IBUFRJ 1736, LACM 2208, MNHNM 14777, MNUFRJ 5802, MORG 14124, MZUSP 26245, and in USNM and MNHN (Rios and Absalão, 1990: 62–63).

Eulimella acusangusta Peñas and Rolán, 1997b: 82, figs. 219–220

  1. Paratype: AMNH 288313 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 10–25 m, Miamia, Ghana, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/27812, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, and the collections of A. Peñas and E. Rolán (Peñas and Rolán, 1997b: 82).

Eulimella angeli Peñas and Rolán, 1997b: 88–89, figs. 239–246

  1. Paratype: AMNH 288315 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 14–20 m, Palmeirinhas, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/27814, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, and the collections of A. Peñas and E. Rolán (Peñas and Rolán, 1997b: 88).

Eulimella ignorabilis Peñas and Rolán, 1997b: 92–94, figs. 251–253

  1. Paratype: AMNH 288317 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 60–100 m, Luanda, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/27816, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, and the collections of A. Peñas and E. Rolán (Peñas and Rolán, 1997b: 82).

Eulimella levidensis Peñas and Rolán, 1997b: 86–88, figs. 232–235

  1. Paratype: AMNH 288314 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 10–25 m, Miamia, Ghana, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/27813, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, and the collections of A. Peñas and E. Rolán (Peñas and Rolán, 1997b: 86).

Eulimella paucisulcata Peñas and Rolán, 1997b: 89–90, figs. 247–248

  1. Paratype: AMNH 288316 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 10–25 m, Miamia, Ghana, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/27815, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, and the collections of A. Peñas and E. Rolán (Peñas and Rolán, 1997b: 89).

Eulimella similminuta Peñas and Rolán, 1997b: 94–96, figs. 256–258

  1. Paratype: AMNH 288318 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 246 m, Nboro, Senegal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/27817, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, and the collections of A. Peñas, M. Pin, and E. Rolán (Peñas and Rolán, 1997b: 94).

Eutudora limbifera britoi Jaume and Fuentes, 1943a: 19–20, pl. 3, fig. 1

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 150997 (4 specimens).

  2. Locality: El Hatillo, San Miguel de los Baños, Matanzas, Cuba.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is MP 5495, and additional paratypes are in the collections of O. Alcalde, L. Fuentes, and M. Jaume (Jaume and Fuentes, 1943a: 19–20).

Falsilatirus pacificus Emerson and Moffitt, 1988: 43–44, figs. 1–4

  1. Holotype: AMNH 225996.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 225997 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: Cruise TC 83–05, Sta. 167, 123–503 m, off Arakane Reef, 15°38.4′N, 142°46.2′E, Northern Marianas Islands, Pacific Ocean.

  4. Collector: NOAA R/V “Townsend Cromwell,” Dec. 19, 1983.

  5. Remarks: The additional paratype is USNM 859320 (Emerson and Moffitt, 1988: 44). This species is the type of the genus Falsilatirus Emerson and Moffitt, 1988, by monotypy (Emerson and Moffitt, 1988: 43).

Falsilyria sunderlandi Petuch, 1987: 71–72, pl. 14, figs. 1–2

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 268503 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Utila Island, Bay Islands, Honduras, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: K. Sunderland.

  4. Remarks: ex Sunderland Collection via Fleischner Collection. The holotype is USNM 859903, and additional paratypes are in the collection of K. Sunderland (Petuch, 1987: 71–72).

Farcimen (Farcimen) auriculatum pygmaeum Alcalde, 1945a: 13, pl. 1, fig. 5

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 142383 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: Lomas Grandes, Galdós, Cienfuegos, Las Villas, Cuba.

  3. Collector: O. Alcalde.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is Alcalde Collection #3465 (Alcalde, 1945a: 13).

Farcimen (Farcimen) auriculatum serranum Alcalde, 1945a: 14, pl. 1, fig. 6

  1. Paratype: AMNH 142385 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Aguada de la Piedra, La Sierra, Cienfuegos, Las Villas, Cuba.

  3. Collector: O. Alcalde.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is Alcalde Collection #3467 (Alcalde, 1945a: 14).

Farcimen (Farcimen) bilabiatum regium Alcalde, 1945a: 17, pl. 1, fig. 11

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 142388 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: Los farallones de Muñoz, Zarza Gorda, San Juan, Trinidad, Cuba.

  3. Collector: O. Alcalde.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is Alcalde Collection #3486 (Alcalde, 1945a: 17).

Farcimen (Farcimen) cisnerosi cisnerosi Alcalde, 1945a: 45–47, pl. 5, fig. 11

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 142392 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: Quemado de los Cedros, San José, Cienfuegos, Las Villas, Cuba.

  3. Collector: O. Alcalde.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is Alcalde Collection #3533 (Alcalde, 1945b: 47).

Farcimen (Farcimen) cisnerosi edouardi Alcalde, 1945a: 46, pl. 5, fig. 10

  1. Paratype: AMNH 142394 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Linderos de Bolaños, Baullua, Trinidad, Las Villas, Cuba.

  3. Collector: O. Alcalde.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is Alcalde Collection #3532 (Alcalde, 1945b: 46).

Farcimen (Farcimen) guitarti rugulosum Alcalde, 1945a: 42–43, pl. 5, fig. 15

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 142396 (4 specimens).

  2. Locality: Cuajaní, Buenos Aires, Cienfuegos, Las Villas, Cuba.

  3. Collector: O. Alcalde.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is Alcalde Collection #3584 (Alcalde, 1945b: 43).

Farcimen (Farcimen) gundlachi maritimum Alcalde, 1946: 40

  1. Paratype: AMNH 142397 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Las piedras del Río Santana, Habana, Cuba.

  3. Collector: O. Alcalde.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is Alcalde Collection #4233 (Alcalde, 1946: 40). As this taxon appears never to have been illustrated, it is figured herein (fig. 12).

Farcimen (Farcimen) imperator imperator Alcalde, 1945a: 44–45, pl. 5, fig. 8

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 201173 (4 specimens).

  2. Locality: Valle de Delicias, Siguanea, Las Villas, Cuba.

  3. Collector: O. Alcalde.

  4. Remarks: ex Weeks Collection. The holotype is Alcalde Collection #3525 (Alcalde, 1945b: 45).

Farcimen (Farcimen) jaumei jaumei Alcalde, 1945a: 43, pl. 5, fig. 7

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 142442 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: Farallones de Briche, Yaguanabo, Trinidad, Las Villas, Cuba.

  3. Collector: O. Alcalde.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is Alcalde Collection #3529 (Alcalde, 1945b: 43).

Farcimen (Farcimen) jaumei parvulum Alcalde, 1945a: 44, pl. 5, fig. 5

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 142400 (4 specimens).

  2. Locality: Cumanayagua, Las Villas, Cuba.

  3. Collector: O. Alcalde.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is Alcalde Collection #3530 (Alcalde, 1945b: 44).

Farcimen (Farcimen) majusculum majusculum Alcalde, 1945a: 16, pl. 1, fig. 9

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 142409 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Loma de Polo Véliz, Cienfuegos, Las Villas, Cuba.

  3. Collector: O. Alcalde.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is Alcalde Collection #4222 (Alcalde, 1945a: 16).

Farcimen (Farcimen) majusculum mortuarium Alcalde, 1945a: 16, pl. 1, fig. 10

  1. Paratype: AMNH 142412 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Cabeza de Muerto, Cienfuegos, Las Villas, Cuba.

  3. Collector: O. Alcalde.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is Alcalde Collection #3469 (Alcalde, 1945a: 16).

Farcimen (Farcimen) seminudum protractum Alcalde, 1945a: 40, pl. 5, fig. 4

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 142418 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: Yaguanabo, Trinidad, Las Villas, Cuba.

  3. Collector: O. Alcalde.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is Alcalde Collection #3540 (Alcalde, 1945b: 40).

Fartulum moorei Marincovich, 1973: 30–31, fig. 64

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 172411 (20 specimens).

  2. Locality: 20°13′S, 70°10′W, Iquique, Chile, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: L. Marincovich, Aug. 1964.

  4. Remarks: ex LACM #64–16. The holotype is LACM 1591, and additional paratypes are LACM 1592 and in ANSP, CASIZ, SDNHM, and USNM (Marincovich, 1973: 31).

Fautor consobrinus Powell, 1958: 78–79, pl. 9, fig. 2

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 105516 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Sta. 675, 56–64 m, 29°15′S, 177°57′W, off Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands, New Zealand, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: R/V “Galathea,” March 3, 1952.

  4. Remarks: ex Powell Collection. The holotype is in ZMUC (Powell, 1958: 66).

Favartia cecalupoi Bozzetti, 1993a: 31, figs. 1–3.k

  1. Paratype: AMNH 264684 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 200–250 m, off Ras Hafun, Somalia, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Bozzetti Collection. The holotype is IRSNB IG 27882/455, and additional paratypes are IRSNB IG 27882, NM K8086/T838, and in MNHN and the collections of L. Bozzetti, A. Cecalupo, F. Franchi, and R. Houart (Bozzetti, 1993a: 32).

Favartia cocosensis Myers and D'Attilio, 1990: 282–283, figs. 1–3

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 232084 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 18–24 m, Bahia Yglesias, Cocos Island, Costa Rica, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Shasky, April 1983.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 860015, and additional paratypes are LACM 2200, MCZ 297216, SBMNH 35044, SDNHM 93349, USNM 860023, 860024, and in ANSP, CASIZ, and the collection of D. Shasky (Myers and D'Attilio, 1990: 283).

Favartia dorothyae Emerson and D'Attilio, 1979: 5–6, figs. 3–4, 15–16

  1. Holotype: AMNH 183821.

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 183822 (2 specimens), 183222a (1 specimen), 201249 (3 specimens).

  3. Locality: 30 m, off Punta Engaño, Cebu, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown, 1977.

  5. Remarks: ex Janowsky Collection (AMNH 201249). Additional paratypes are SDNHM 72624 and in the collection of L. Kempczenski (Emerson and D'Attilio, 1979: 6). This taxon is a synonym of F. maculata (Reeve, 1845) (Houart, 1994: 46).

Favartia elatensis Emerson and D'Attilio, 1979: 6–7, figs. 13–14

  1. Paratype: AMNH 183823 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 250 m, 29°31′–29°32′N, 34°58′–36°59′E, Elat, Gulf of Agaba, Israel, Red Sea.

  3. Collector: Hebrew University, Oct. 8, 1965.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is HUJ 10.202/8, and additional paratypes are HUJ 10.202/8, 10.203/9, and SDNHM 63254 (Emerson and D'Attilio, 1979: 6). This taxon is placed in the genus Muricopsis Bucquoy and Dautzenberg, 1882, and the subgenus Murexsul Iredale, 1915 (Houart, 1994: 47).

Favartia guamensis Emerson and D'Attilio, 1979: 4–5, figs. 11–12

  1. Paratype: AMNH 183820 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 18–21 m, off Orote Cliffs, Guam, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: L. Kempczenski, May 1, 1977.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SDNHM 72625, and additional paratypes are in the collections of A. Deynzer, L. Kempczenski, and D. Pisor (Emerson and D'Attilio, 1979: 5). This taxon is a possible synonym of F. crouchi (Sowerby, 1894) (Shasky, 1991: 28; Houart, 1994: 54).

Favartia jeanae Bertsch and D'Attilio, 1980: 133–134, figs. 3–5

  1. Paratype: AMNH 206092 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 80–100 m, 10°20′N, 124°00′E, off Punta Engaño, Mactan Island, Cebu, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex SDNHM. The holotype is SDNHM 796, and additional paratypes are BPBM 207077 and SDNHM 797 (Bertsch and D'Attilio, 1980: 134).

Favartia (Murexiella) leonae D'Attilio and Myers, 1985b: 60–61, figs. 7–11

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213555 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Okinawa, Japan, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: P. Bellin.

  4. Remarks: ex SDMNH. The holotype is SDNHM 81638, and additional paratypes are SDNHM 85102 and 85104–85110 (D'Attilio and Myers, 1985b: 61). This taxon is placed in the genus Murexiella Clench and Pérez Farfante, 1945 (Houart, 1994: 86).

Favartia (Favartia) paulboschi Smythe and Houart, 1984: 5–6, pl. 2, figs. 1–5

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 186117 (1 specimen), 220732 (1 specimen), 245765 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 20°39′N, 58°52′E, Dhuwwah, Masirah, Oman, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Bosch (AMNH 186117, 245765), K. Smythe, Dec. 19, 1980 (AMNH 220732).

  4. Remarks: ex Smythe Collection (AMNH 220732) and Bosch Collection (AMNH 245765). The holotype is BMNH 1983062, and additional paratypes are IRSNB IG 26656/403, NMW Z:1983:052, USNM 792424, and in MNHN, NHM (ONHM), and the collections of D. Bosch, R. Houart, T. Pain, and K. Smythe (Smythe and Houart, 1984: 6).

Favartia (Murexiella) paulskoglundi Hertz and Myers, 1998: 95–98, figs. 1–5

  1. Paratype: AMNH 290728 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 15–18 m, south of Isla Chitre, Islas las Perlas, Panama, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: C. and P. Skoglund, R. and W. Koch, April 15, 1984.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SDNHM 78066, and additional paratypes are SBMNH 144458, USNM 8800267, and in the collections of C. Hertz, K. Kaiser, W. Koch, D. Shasky, and C. Skoglund (Hertz and Myers, 1998: 96).

Favartia (Caribiella) purdyae Vokes and D'Attilio, 1980: 16–17, fig. 1

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 117941 (2 specimens), 139469 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Academy Bay (AMNH 117941), Puerto Nuñez (AMNH 139469), Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: C. Angermeyer, 1964 (AMNH 117941) and Jan. 1965 (AMNH 139469).

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SDNHM TS776, and additional paratypes are in the collection of D. Shasky (Vokes and D'Attilio, 1980: 18).

Favartia (Murexiella) rosamiae D'Attilio and Myers, 1985b: 58–59, figs. 1–6

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 213556 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Bohol Straits, Cebu, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown, 1984.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SDNHM 80742, and additional paratypes are SDNHM 80742, 81639, 82288, 84345, 85101, and in the collections of ANSP, BMNH, LACM, and USNM (D'Attilio and Myers, 1985b: 59–60). This taxon is placed in the genus Murexiella Clench and Perez Farfante, 1945 (Houart, 1994: 86).

Fenimorea culexensis Usticke, 1969: 28, pl. 6, fig. 1124

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195462.

  2. Locality: Virgin Gorda, British Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1124. Usticke (1971: 23) stated that this specimen was the holotype. Because Usticke (1969: 28) did not designate a holotype, Usticke's (1971) action constituted a lectotype designation. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 28) given size range for the taxon of 12–15 mm length.

Fenimorea fucata pulchra Usticke, 1959: 82, pl. 4, fig. 11

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195461.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 294366 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: North of Fredericksted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1123 (AMNH 195461) and Schwartz Collection (AMNH 294366). The repository of additional paratypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1959: 82) given size range for the taxon of 18–25 mm length.

Fenimorea petiti Tippett, 1995: 127–129, figs. 17, 33

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226537 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 30 fathoms, west of Crystal River, Citrus Co., Florida, United States, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. Moore, May 1963.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 880073. Additional paratypes are in ANSP, DMNH, IRSNB, LACM, MCZ, MNHN, MORG, NHM, NM, and the collection of D. Tippett (Tippett, 1995: 133). This taxon is placed in the genus Splendrillia Hedley, 1922 (Turgeon et al., 1998: 102).

Fissurella (Cremides) clenchi Pérez Farfante, 1943: 11, pl. 3, figs. 8–11

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 223119 (9 specimens).

  2. Locality: Praia das Conchas, Itanhaen, São Paulo, Brazil, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: P. de Oliveira.

  4. Remarks: ex MCZ. The holotype is MCZ 124730 (Pérez Farfante, 1943: 12), and additional paratypes are MCZ 124693 and 135521.

Fissurella (Cremides) deroyae McLean, 1970b: 118, figs. 7–8

  1. Paratype: AMNH 160261 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 00°45′S, 90°20′W, Academy Bay, Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. DeRoy, Oct. 1967.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is LACM 1375, and additional paratypes are ANSP 319138, LACM 1376, MCZ 277820, USNM 679568, and in CASIZ, SBMNH, SDNHM, and SU (McLean, 1970b: 118; Finet, 1994: 12).

Fissurella punctata “var.” rosea Usticke, 1969: 8, pl. 1, fig. 68

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 198495.

  2. Locality: Columbus Point, Buck Island, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #68. AMNH 198495 was the figured specimen (Usticke, 1969) and is here designated lectotype to fix the identity of this poorly defined taxon. Although the term “var.” (= variety) was employed in the description, all other “varieties” described by Usticke (1969) were called “new s[ub] sp[ecies]” or, in error, “new sp[ecies].” In this case, Usticke mistakenly considered his (1959: 24) introduction of the name without description as valid, when it was a nomen nudum from that paper. This taxon, described with an infrasubspecific term after 1960, should nevertheless be considered subspecific because it was not published expressly as a “variety” in the traditional sense of the word. This taxon was erroneously called “Fissurella rosea” in the figure caption (Usticke, 1969). The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 8) given size range for the taxon of 14–19 mm length. F. punctata rosea is preoccupied by Patella rosea Gmelin, 1791, but is a synonym of F. punctata Fischer, 1857 (Faber, 1988: 88–89).

Fossarus orbignyi “var.” tridentata Usticke, 1959: 47–48, pl. 3, fig. 2

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195422.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 294368 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: Ham Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #506 (AMNH 195422) and Schwartz Collection (AMNH 294368). Although Usticke cited this taxon as a “var.” (= variety) (1959: 47) and as “n. sp.” (1959: 47–48), he first listed it (1959: vi) as “Fossarus orbignyi tridentata” under the heading “new species and subspecies.” We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described and the holotype to be valid. Although Usticke (1959: 47) gave only a single measurement for this taxon, a second specimen subequal in size to the holotype exists (AMNH 294368). The specific name was misspelled “orbigny” on p. 48 (Usticke, 1959). This taxon is a synonym of F. ambiguus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Faber, 1988: 91).

Fusinus benjamini Hadorn, 1997: 10–15, figs. 1–7

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 191434 (10 specimens), 245897 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Unknown (AMNH 191434); Dry Tortugas, Florida, United States (listed as doubtful) (AMNH 245897), Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Bajan shrimp fishermen (AMNH 191434), J. Black, June 1971 (AMNH 245897).

  4. Remarks: ex Nowell-Usticke Collection (AMNH 191434) and Bijur Collection (AMNH 245897). The holotype is MHNG 20836, and additional paratypes are MHNG 20837, SMF 311195, USNM 880153, and in the collection of R. Hadorn (Hadorn, 1997: 13).

Fusinus consagensis Poorman, 1981: 339–340, figs. 1, 6, 10

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 198963 (1 specimen), AMNH 221949 (37 specimens).

  2. Locality: 22 m, 31°07′N, 114°30′W, 3 km south of Consag Rock, Baja California Norte, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown, June 28, 1968.

  4. Remarks: ex Dushane Collection (AMNH 221949). The holotype is LACM 1934, and additional paratypes are USNM 784586 and in the collections of L. Poorman (now in SBMNH) and L. Shy (Poorman, 1981: 339–340). This taxon is a synonym of F. fredbakeri Lowe, 1935 (Hertz et al., 1999: 75).

Fusinus humboldti Poorman, 1981: 340, figs. 2, 7, 11

  1. Paratype: AMNH 198964 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 400 m, 00°35′S, 90°40′W, off Duncan (= Pinzon) Island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown, March 1979.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is LACM 1935, and additional paratypes are LACM 1943, 1944, and USNM 784585 (Poorman, 1981: 341).

Fusinus (Sinistralia) somaliensis Smythe and Chatfield, 1984: 307–308, pl. 18, figs. a–d

  1. Holotype: AMNH 120348.

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 213804 (3 specimens).

  3. Locality: Mogadishu, Somalia, Indian Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: Additional paratypes are ANSP 289962, BMNH 1983061, and in the collection of H. Lee (Smythe and Chatfield, 1984: 308).

Fusinus stegeri Lyons, 1978: 85–87, figs. 1–5

  1. Paratype: AMNH 183874 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 200 m, south of Egmont Key, Hillsborough Co., Florida, United States, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. Black, 1971.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 749082, and additional paratypes are ANSP 345472, BMNH 197810, FSBC I 15028, MCZ 288494, and in the collections of N. Hepler and C. Winthrow (Lyons, 1978: 86).

Fusiturricula (knefastia) [sic] bajanensis Usticke, 1969: 26–27, pl. 5, fig. 1047

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195455.

  2. Locality: Deep water, south of Barbados, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: “Bajan shrimpers.”

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1047. AMNH 195455 is the holotype by monotypy.

Fusus (Colus) pagodoides Watson, 1882: 383–386

  1. Syntype: AMNH 51650 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Sta. 164B, 410 fathoms, 34°13′S, 151°38′E, off Sydney, Queensland, Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: H.M.S. “Challenger,” June 13, 1874.

  4. Remarks: ex Sowerby via Constable Collection. The species was illustrated by Watson (1886: 197–198, pl. 14, fig. 3). The AMNH specimen has only the data “410 fms, Sydney” on the label. It was purchased by Constable from Sowerby in the early 1890s. Because the shell was clearly live-collected, came from a British source after publication of the “Challenger” results, and has the same depth data as the specimens cited by Watson (1882), we conclude that AMNH 51650 is indeed part of the type series, as suggested by Richards and Old (1969). Additional syntypes are in BMNH and NMW (Way, personal commun.). This taxon is placed in the genus Columbarium von Martens, 1881 (Wilson, 1994: 58).

Geomelania affinis C. B. Adams, 1850b: 96

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 16674 (1 specimen), 16675 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Haines Collection (AMNH 16674) and Jay Collection (AMNH 16675). The lectotype was designated as MCZ 177212 by Clench and Turner (1948c: 194) and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: pl. 81, fig. 1).

Geomelania elegans C. B. Adams, 1849c: 18–19

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 16677 (1 specimen), 16678 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Haines Collection (AMNH 16677) and Jay Collection (AMNH 16678). The lectotype was designated as MCZ 177222 and figured by Clench and Turner (1948c: 199, pl. 23, fig. 8). This taxon is the type of the subgenus Merrilliana Clench and Turner, 1948, by original designation (Clench and Turner, 1948c: 179).

Geomelania expansa C. B. Adams, 1849c: 18

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 16679 (1 specimen), 16680 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Jay Collection (AMNH 16679) and Haines Collection (AMNH 16680). The lectotype was designated as MCZ 177209 by Clench and Turner (1948c: 199) and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: pl. 81, fig. 3). This taxon is a synonym of G. (G.) jamaicensis Pfeiffer, 1845 (Clench and Turner, 1948c: 174).

Geomelania fortis C. B. Adams, 1850b: 94

  1. Paralectotype: AMNH 16681 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Haines Collection. The lectotype was designated as MCZ 177214 by Clench and Turner (1948c: 199) and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: pl. 81, fig. 4). This taxon is a synonym of G. (G.) jamaicensis Pfeiffer, 1845 (Clench and Turner, 1948c: 174).

Geomelania gracilis C. B. Adams, 1850b: 95

  1. Paralectotype: AMNH 16682 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Haines Collection. The lectotype was designated as MCZ 177223 by Clench and Turner (1948c: 200) and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: pl. 81, fig. 5). This taxon is a synonym of G. (G.) jamaicensis Pfeiffer, 1845 (Clench and Turner, 1948c: 174).

Geomelania magna C. B. Adams, 1850b: 94–95

  1. Paralectotype: AMNH 16691 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Haines Collection. The lectotype was designated as MCZ 177200 by Clench and Turner (1948c: 202) and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: pl. 81, fig. 7). This taxon is a synonym of G. (G.) jamaicensis Pfeiffer, 1845 (Clench and Turner, 1948c: 174).

Geomelania media C. B. Adams, 1850b: 96

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 16692 (1 specimen), 16693 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Jay Collection (AMNH 16692) and Haines Collection (AMNH 16693). The lectotype was designated as MCZ 177213 and figured by Clench and Turner (1948c: 202, pl. 23, fig. 10). This taxon is a synonym of G. (G.) jamaicensis Pfeiffer, 1845 (Clench and Turner, 1948c: 174).

Geomelania minor C. B. Adams, 1849c: 18

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 16689 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Jay Collection. The lectotype was designated as MCZ 177207 by Clench and Turner (1948c: 200) and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: pl. 81, fig. 9).

Geomelania typica C. B. Adams, 1850b: 95–96

  1. Paralectotype: AMNH 16700 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Haines Collection. The lectotype was designated as MCZ 177208 by Clench and Turner (1948c: 209) and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: pl. 81, fig. 6).

Geomelania vicina C. B. Adams, 1850b: 96

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 16703 (1 specimen), 16704 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Haines Collection (AMNH 16703) and Jay Collection (AMNH 16704). The lectotype was designated as MCZ 156153 by Clench and Turner (1948c: 209) and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: pl. 81, fig. 12). This taxon is a synonym of G. (G.) typica C. B. Adams, 1850 (Clench and Turner, 1948c : 174).

Gibberula albotriangularis Rolán and Fernandes, 1997: 8–9, figs. 7–8

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 292123 (4 specimens).

  2. Locality: 12 m, Miamia, Ghana, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collectors: E. Rolán and F. Fernandes.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is in MNCN, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CFB, and the collections of E. Rolán and P. Ryall (Rolán and Fernandes, 1997: 8).

Gibberula decorfasciata Rolán and Fernandes, 1997: 7–8, figs. 5–6, 12–13

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 292116 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Bushua Beach and Abokwa Islet, Ghana, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is in MNCN, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, and the collections of F. Boyer, E. Rolán, and P. Ryall (Rolán and Fernandes, 1997: 7).

Gibberula rauli Fernandes, 1987: 265–266, fig. 3

  1. Holotype: AMNH 225993.

  2. Locality: 1–5 m, Rabo de Junco Beach, Sal Island, Cape Verde Island, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Fernandes.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. Paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MNHN, the Cabo Verde Museum, and the collections of I. Felix-Alves, F. Fernandes, J. Messias, E. Rolán, and P. Ryall (Fernandes, 1987: 265).

Glyphostoma permiscere Usticke, 1969: 29–30, pl. 6, fig. 1214

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195472.

  2. Locality: Long Reef, Christiansted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1214. Usticke (1971: 26) stated that this specimen was the holotype. Because Usticke (1969: 29–30) did not designate a holotype, Usticke's (1971) action constituted a lectotype designation. The repository of additional paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 29) given size range for the taxon of 6.5–7.5 mm length. This taxon is a synonym of Lienardia chrysoleuca Melvill, 1923 (Faber, 1995: 62).

Glyphostoma (Glyphostoma) pustulosa McLean and Poorman, 1971: 106–107, fig. 40

  1. Holotype: AMNH 157263.

  2. Locality: 10–20 fathoms, 00°23′S, 90°43′W, off Jervis Island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: A. and J. DeRoy, May 1964.

  4. Remarks: AMNH 157263 is the holotype by monotypy.

Granula achenea Roth and Coan, 1971: 578, fig. 3

  1. Paratype: AMNH 164912 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 80 ft, 05°35′N, 87°02′W, Chatham Bay, northeast side of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: W. Schmitt, April 24, 1941.

  4. Remarks: ex USNM 568110. The holotype is USNM 568110, and additional paratypes are MCZ 279192, USNM 681406, and in ANSP, CASIZ, LACM, and SU (Roth and Coan, 1971: 578–579).

Granula insularum Roth and Coan, 1971: 580, fig. 4

  1. Paratype: AMNH 164913 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Black Blight 1 mile west of Tagus Cove at south end of banks, Caleta Bank, Isla Isabela (Albemarle), Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: L. Hertlein, Jan. 5, 1932.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is CASIZ 13715, and additional paratypes are ANSP 324511, CASIZ 13716–13720, MCZ 279191, USNM 707101, and in LACM, SDNHM, and SU (Roth and Coan, 1971: 581; Finet, 1994: 67).

Granulina fernandesi Boyer and Rolán, 1999: 1–10, figs. 1–6

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 294226 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/31011, and additional paratypes are in MNHN, NNM, and the collections of F. Boyer and E. Rolán.

Granulina ocarina Fernandes, 1987, 260–263, fig. 1

  1. Holotype: AMNH 225991.

  2. Locality: 1–5 m, Rabo de Junco Beach, Sal Island, Cape Verde Archipelago, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Fernandes.

  4. Remarks: ex Fernandes. Paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MNHN, the Cabo Verde Museum, and the collections of I. Felix-Alves, F. Fernandes, J. Messias, E. Rolán, and P. Ryall (Fernandes, 1987: 236).

Graphis rotundata Usticke, 1969: 13, pl. 3, fig. 488

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195421.

  2. Locality: Palm Beach, Barbuda, Antigua and Barbuda, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #488. AMNH 195421 is the holotype by monotypy. Faber (1988: 89) suggested that AMNH 195421 may not be the figured specimen. Our examination of the specimen does not support this conclusion, but does confirm that the specimen was damaged at some time after it was illustrated by Usticke (1969). Usticke (1969; 1971) gave no indication that he had any additional specimens of this taxon.

Gyrineum longicaudatum Beu, 1998: 54–55, figs. 6e–g, 15a–l

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226539 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 400 m, 10°40′N, 124°35′E, off Tudela, Pacijan Island, between Leyte and Cebu, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Springsteen, Oct. 29, 1987.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is in MNHN, and additional paratypes are AMS C202740, ANSP 399243, BMNH 1996034, LACM T2789, NMNZ M272485, NMP L2063, NZGS WM15041, and USNM 880222 (Beu, 1998: 54).

Haliotis fatui Geiger, 1999: 73–77, figs. 1–15

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 81878 (1 specimen), 81899 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Santa Ana Island, Solomon Islands, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Whitney South Seas Expedition, Jan. 1930 (AMNH 81899), June 1930 (AMNH 81878).

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 486708, and additional paratypes are ANSP 284325, MHNG 21226, USNM 487953, 702512, 702975, and 2 uncataloged USNM lots (Geiger, 1999: 76).

Haliotis fulgens guadalupensis Talmadge, 1964: 375, fig. 1

  1. Paratype: AMNH 117647 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Morro Sur, Guadalupe Island, Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: R. Clutter, P. Taylor, and C. Boyd, Jan. 30, 1960.

  4. Remarks: ex Talmadge. The holotype is SDNHM H-1-30–60 (Talmadge, 1964: 375).

Haliotis (Padollus) roberti McLean, 1970b: 115, figs. 1–2

  1. Paratype: AMNH 160262 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 40–47 fathoms, 05°33′50″N, 86°58′55″W, Chatham Bay, Cocos Island, Costa Rica, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: R/V “Velero III,” Jan. 14, 1938.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is LACM 1368, and additional paratypes are LACM 1369 and in CASIZ and USNM (McLean, 1970b: 115).

Harpa goodwini Rehder, 1993: 127–129, figs. 1–2

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226438 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 82–228 m, between French Frigate Shoals and Maro Reef, Hawaii, United States, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Goodwin.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 860312, and additional paratypes are MCZ 303627, USNM 860314, 860315, and in AM, BMNH, BPBM, LACM, MHNG, MNHN, NSMT, and the collection of D. Goodwin (Rehder, 1993: 129).

Hastula alboflava Bratcher, 1988: 415–416, figs. 2, 5

  1. Paratype: AMNH 222588 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 15.5 m, Sogod, Cebu, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is LACM 2262, and additional paratypes are AMS C15235, BMNH 1986261, MCZ 296166, MORG 24.809, NM 758/13690, SDMNH 92523, USNM 859149, and in ANSP, CASIZ, MNHNP, and the collections of T. Bratcher, W. Cernohorsky, F. Dayrit, and J. Marquet (Bratcher, 1988: 416).

Hastula colorata Bratcher, 1988: 416, fig. 7

  1. Paratype: AMNH 222984 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 34°20′S, 115°10′E, Light House Beach, Augusta, Western Australia, Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is WAM 514–86, and additional paratypes are AMS C153006, BMNH 1986283, LACM 2263, MCZ 296167, MORG 24.810, NM K175/T3689, SDMNH 92524, USNM 859218, and in ANSP, CASIZ, and the collections of W. Anson, T. Bratcher, W. Buick, W. Cernohorsky, and M. Marrow (Bratcher, 1988: 416).

Haustellotyphis wendita Hertz, 1995: 158–161, figs. 1–4, 7, 9–10

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226509 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 6–15 m, 11°42′N, 85°50′W, off Playa Tomarindo, Bahía Tamarindo, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: R. Koch, March 6–8, 1993.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SBMNH 142120, and additional paratypes are ANSP 398306, CASIZ 099054, LACM 2744, USNM 887134, and in the collections of C. Hertz, R. Koch, and C. Skoglund (Hertz, 1995: 161).

Haustellum wilsoni D'Attilio and Old, 1971: 316–317, figs. 1–3

  1. Paratype: AMNH 154655 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Jurien Bay, Western Australia, Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Parkin, Dec. 29, 1967.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is WAM N/3981 and additional paratypes are in WAM (D'Attilio and Old, 1971: 317).

Heliacus crystallina Usticke, 1969: 10, pl. 2, fig. 338

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195414.

  2. Locality: Ham Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #338. Usticke (1971: 7) stated that this specimen was the holotype. Because Usticke (1969: 10) did not designate a holotype, Usticke's (1971) action constituted a lectotype designation. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 10) given size range for the taxon of 2.75–4.25 mm length. This taxon is a synonym of Pseudotorinia retifera (Dall, 1892) (Faber, 1988: 78).

Helicina chionea Pilsbry, 1949: 101

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 150311 (6 specimens).

  2. Locality: 2900 m, Mejorada, Rio Montara, Peru.

  3. Collector: W. Weyrauch.

  4. Remarks: ex Jacobson Collection. The holotype is ANSP 180005 (Pilsbry, 1949: 101), and additional paratypes are ANSP 358667 (formerly ANSP 18005) (Robertson et al., 1986: 59). Because this taxon appears never to have been illustrated, it is illustrated herein (fig. 13).

Helicina hollandi C. B. Adams, 1849b: 13

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 163176 (6 specimens).

  2. Locality: Jamaica.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex C. B. Adams via T. Bland via Gulick Collection. The lectotype was selected as MCZ 275698 and figured by Jacobson and Boss (1973: 514, pl. 89, figs. 17–18).

Helicina pompholyx Pilsbry, 1933: 131, pl. 7, figs. 11, 11a

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 95473 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: St. 85, 3000 ft, Señor Del Monte's Plantation, 5–6 mi west of Barahona, near Salvation, Dominican Republic.

  3. Collector: D. Pease, Aug. 4, 1932.

  4. Remarks: ex Pease Collection. The holotype is ANSP 160983 (Pilbsry, 1933: 131), and additional paratypes are ANSP 358669 (formerly ANSP 160983) (Robertson et al., 1986: 75). This taxon is placed in the genus Alcaldia Gray, 1840 (Robertson et al., 1986: 75). Robertson et al. (1986: 75) incorrectly cited the ANSP specimens as lectotype and paralectotypes, even thought Pilsbry (1933: pl. 7, figs. 11, 11a) clearly cited the figured specimen as the “type” (= holotype).

Hermes (Magelliconus) lizarum Raybaudi and da Motta, 1992: 65, figs. 1–3

  1. Paratype: AMNH 259077 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 150 m, Cape Guardafui, Somalia, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNHG 16151, and additional paratypes are SMNS ZI 8468 and in the collections of A. Monteiro, A. Nova, and G. Raybaudi (Raybaudi and da Motta, 1992: 65–66). This taxon is placed in the genus Conus Linnaeus, 1758 (Röckel et al., 1995: 163).

Hespererato septentrionalis C. Cate, 1977: 365, fig. 51

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 205284 (1 specimen), 205285 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 21°47′S, 114°10′E, Vlaming Head Light Beach, northwest cape, Western Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: L. Figgis.

  4. Remarks: ex Cate Collection #3618 (AMNH 205284) and #3631A (AMNH 205285). The holotype is LACM 1762 (C. Cate, 1977: 365).

Hexaplex rileyi D'Attilio and Myers, 1984a: 82–84, figs. 1–6

  1. Paratype: AMNH 213801 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 15 m, 64 km offshore, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf.

  3. Collector: K. Riley.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SDNHM 81618, and additional paratypes are SDNHM 81617a–b and USNM 819632 (D'Attilio and Myers, 1984a: 84).

Hindsiclava hertleini Emerson and Radwin, 1969: 151–152, pl. 28, figs. 5–6, text fig. 3

  1. Holotype: AMNH 150514.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 152603 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: 101 m, south of Isla Daphne (AMNH 150514); 44 fathoms, off Santa Cruz (AMNH 152603), Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  4. Collector: J. DeRoy, May 27 (AMNH 152603) and Nov. 25 (AMNH 150514), 1967.

  5. Remarks: Additional paratypes are SDNHM 50768 and in the collection of A. D'Attilio (Emerson and Radwin, 1969: 152).

Horologica cubensis Rolán and Espinosa, 1992: 46–47, figs. 2–3, 7

  1. Paratype: AMNH 259075 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 10–30 m, Cienfuegos, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is IES 69, and additional paratypes are MCNM 6718 and in the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés and E. Rolán (Rolán and Espinosa, 1992: 47).

Hydrocena saulae van Bentham Jutting, 1966: 40–41, fig. 2

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 152825 (6 specimens).

  2. Locality: Laying Caves, Keninggau, Sabah, Borneo, Indonesia.

  3. Collector: M. Saul, July 2, 1965.

  4. Remarks: ex Saul Collection. The holotype is in ZMA, and additional paratypes are in ZMA and the collection of M. Saul (van Bentham Jutting, 1966: 41).

Hydrocena scalinella van Bentham Jutting, 1966: 39–40, fig. 1

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 152824 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: Caves on Teck Guan Estate, Lahad Datu, Borneo, Indonesia.

  3. Collector: M. Saul, Aug. 18, 1964.

  4. Remarks: ex Saul Collection. The holotype is in ZMA, and additional paratypes are in ZMA and the collection of M. Saul (van Bentham Jutting, 1966: 41).

Iniforis carmelae Rolán and Fernández-Garcés, 1993: 102–104, figs. 12–15, 28–30

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226458 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 45 m, Rancho Luna, Cienfuegos, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/6822, and additional paratypes are BMNH 1992134, ZMA 3.93.006, and in IES, MNHN, and the collections of F. Fernandes and E. Rolán (Rolán and Fernández-Garcés, 1993: 102).

Iniforis immaculata Rolán and Fernández-Garcés, 1993: 104–105, figs. 16–19, 25–27

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226458 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 15 m, Rancho Luna, Cienfuegos, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/6821, and additional paratypes are BMNH 1992135, ZMA 3.93.007, and in IES, MNHN, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés and E. Rolán (Rolán and Fernández-Garcés, 1993: 104).

Iniforis pseudothomae Rolán and Fernández-Garcés, 1993: 100–102, figs. 5–8, 22–23

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226459 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 45 m, Rancho Luna, Cienfuegos, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/6820, and additional paratypes are BMNH 1992133, ZMA 3.93.005, and in IES, MNHN, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés and E. Rolán (Rolán and Fernández-Garcés, 1993: 100).

Inodrillia ustickei Hayes in Usticke, 1959: 82, pl. 4, fig. 12

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195463.

  2. Locality: North of Fredericksted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1125. The authorship of this species has been in some doubt. Usticke (1959: 82) credited the description to M. Hayes, but used the first person to refer to the species on p. vi in the list of taxa, where “I [Usticke] designate as holotypes the new species that are pictured.” This case is similar to that of Conus ustickei Miller in Usticke, and, given the evidence, we must accept Hayes in Usticke as the author of this species. However, because this is the case, the holotype designation by Usticke (1959: vi), not Miller, is actually a lectotype designation. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1959: 82) given size range for the taxon of 12–17.5 mm length. This taxon is a synonym of Drillia (Drillia) cydia Bartsch, 1943 (Faber, 1988: 91).

Io brevis Anthony, 1860: 69–70

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 276266 (6 specimens).

  2. Locality: Tennessee River, Tennessee, United States.

  3. Collector: J. Anthony.

  4. Remarks: ex MCZ. The lectotype (MCZ 50551) was selected by Turner (1946: 99, as “holotype”); the subsequent designation of ANSP 26873 as lectotype by Baker (1964: 180) is invalid. Additional paralectotypes are in MCZ. This is a form of I. fluviatilis (Say, 1825) (Burch, 1989: 272).

Isotriphora taenialba Rolán and Espinosa, 1994: 64–67, figs. 4–10

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 226468 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 10–30 m, Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/11140, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IES, MNHN, RMNH, ZMA, and the collections of J. Espinosa and E. Rolán (Rolán and Espinosa, 1994: 64).

Ithycythara edithae Usticke, 1971: 24, pl. 4, fig. 1155

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195465.

  2. Locality: Secret Harbor, St. Johns, Antigua, Antigua and Barbuda, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1155. The repository of paratypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1971: 24) given size range for the taxon of 4.75–5.6 mm length.

Kuroshiovolva shingoi Azuma and C. Cate, 1971: 266–267, figs. 14, 20–23

  1. Paratype: AMNH 204861 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 70–80 fathoms, 2–4 km off Hinomasaki, Kii, Japan, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Cate Collection #3884. The holotype is Azuma Collection #14839, and the 2 additional paratypes are Azuma Collection #14910 and in the collection of S. Habu (Azuma and C. Cate, 1971: 267). This species is the type of the genus Kuroshiovolva Azuma and C. Cate, 1971, by monotypy (Azuma and C. Cate, 1971: 266).

Kurtziella quadrilineata “var.” longa Usticke, 1969: 29, pl. 6, fig. 1201

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195469.

  2. Locality: Ham Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1201. Although Usticke (1969: 29) cited this taxon as a “var.,” he listed it as a “n[ew] s[ub] sp[ecies]” (1969: 28), treated it subspecifically in the index, and called it “Kurtziella longa” in the figure caption. We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described. Usticke (1971: 26) stated that this specimen was the holotype. Because Usticke (1969: 29) did not designate a holotype, Usticke's (1971) action constituted a lectotype designation. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 29) given size range for the taxon of 6–10.5 mm length.

Kurtziella (Rubellatoma) powelli Shasky, 1971: 70–71, fig. 7

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 164918 (1 specimen), 222022 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 30°42′N, 114°41′W, Agua de Chale, Baja California Norte, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Shasky, May 3–6, 1962.

  4. Remarks: ex DuShane Collection (AMNH 222022). The holotype is LACM 1574, and additional paratypes are LACM 1575 and in AIM, ANSP, CASIZ, SDMNH, SU, USNM, and the collections of H. DuShane and D. Shasky (Shasky, 1971: 71).

Kurtziella trilineata “var.” macula Usticke, 1969: 28, pl. 6, fig. 1199

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195468.

  2. Locality: Ham Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1199. Although Usticke (1969: 28) cited this taxon as a “var.,” he listed it as a “n[ew] s[ub] sp[ecies]” (1969: 28), treated it subspecifically in the index, and called it “Kurtziella macula” in the figure caption. We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described. Usticke (1971: 25) stated that this specimen (now AMNH 195468) was the holotype. Because Usticke (1969: 28) did not designate a holotype, Usticke's (1971) action constituted a lectotype designation. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 28) given size range for the taxon of 4.5–6 mm length. The identity of this taxon is unclear; it may be a synonym of Agathotoma metria (Dall, 1903) or Tenaturris trilineata (C. B. Adams, 1845) (Faber, 1988: 83).

Kurtziella vincula Usticke, 1969: 29, pl. 6, fig. 1202

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195470.

  2. Paralectotypes: AMNH 195471 (2 specimens).

  3. Locality: Altona Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #1202. Usticke (1971: 26) stated that this specimen (now AMNH 195470) was the holotype. Because Usticke (1969: 29) did not designate a holotype, Usticke's (1971) action constituted a lectotype designation. The repository of additional paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 29) given size range for the taxon of 6–8.5 mm length.

Kylix contracta McLean and Poorman, 1971: 92, fig.7

  1. Paratype: AMNH 164605 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 40–70 fathoms, 15°43′N, 96°08′W, Puerto Guatulco, Oaxaca, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: G. Willett, March 7, 1938.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is LACM 1474, and additional paratypes are LACM 1475 and in ANSP, CASIZ, SDNHM, and USNM (McLean and Poorman, 1971: 92).

Laeviscala luceo DuShane, 1988: 270, fig. 7

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 275633 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 17 m, 21°16.3′N, 157°50.7′W, off Sand Island, Oahu, Hawaii, United States, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: S. Jazwinski, June 1987.

  4. Remarks: ex DuShane Collection. The holotype is BPBM 8989, and additional paratypes are LACM 2325 and in the collection of D. Hemmes (DuShane, 1988: 270). This taxon is placed in the genus Epitonium Röding, 1798, and subgenus Laeviscala de Boury, 1909 (Weil et al., 1999: 96).

Lamellaria koto Schwengel, 1944: 17, pl. 1, figs. 3–6, 6a

  1. Syntypes: AMNH 223499 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Near Bradenton Beach, Manatee Co., Florida, United States, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: A. Koto, Jan. 11–Feb. 23, 1944.

  4. Remarks: ex Bijur Collection. The repository of additional syntypes is unknown.

Lanistes (Meladomus) procerus langi Pilsbry and Bequaert, 1927: 197–198, pl. 17, figs. 1–4

  1. Holotype: AMNH 72069 (lost).

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 72070 (unknown number of specimens; lost), 72104 (36 specimens), 162398 (3 specimens, alcohol).

  3. Locality: 00°30′N, 25°15′E, Stanleyville (= Kisangani), Belgian Congo (= Zaire = Democratic Republic of the Congo), Africa.

  4. Collector: H. Lang and J. Chapin, 1909–1915.

  5. Remarks: Additional paratypes are MCZ 171494 (28 specimens ex AMNH 72104). The repository of the additional approximately 100+ paratypes is unknown. AMNH 72069 and 72070 were recorded as lost in July 1945, and the file cards are missing from AMNH; the number of specimens originally present in AMNH 72070 therefore cannot be determined. This taxon is a synonym of L. ovum Peters, 1845 (Brown, 1980: 52).

Latiaxis (Babelomurex) dalli Emerson and D'Attilio, 1963: 4–8, figs. 1–3

  1. Paratype: AMNH 102799 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 200–230 fathoms, southwest of Egmont Key, Hillsborough Co., Florida, United States, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: J. Moore, May 1962.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is USNM 87215, and additional paratypes are MCZ 7321 and in the collections of J. Moore and D. Steger (Emerson and D'Attilio, 1963: 5). This taxon is placed in the genus Babelomurex Coen, 1922 (Kosuge and Suzuki, 1985: 12).

Latiaxis (Babelomurex) fearnleyi Emerson and D'Attilio, 1965a: 101–102, figs. 1–4, 6

  1. Holotype: AMNH 111976.

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 120585 (1 specimen), 120586 (1 specimen), 120587 (1 specimen), 136939 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: 8 fathoms, 1 mi northwest of Dawson's Reef, 7 mi southeast of Cooktown, Queensland, Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  4. Collector: J. Fearnley.

  5. Remarks: ex D'Attilio collection (AMNH 136939). Additional paratypes are AM 25110, 64476, ANSP 297260, and in the collections of A. D'Attilio (5 or 6 specimens) and B. F. Grunzig (4 specimens) (Emerson and D'Attilio, 1965a: 102). Because AMNH was originally cited by Emerson and D'Attilio (1965a) to contain only 2 paratype specimens, it is unclear what the origin of AMNH 120587 was, although it may have come from the collection of A. D'Attilio. In Emerson and D'Attilio (1965a), AMNH 111976 is figs. 1–2, AMNH 120585 is figs. 3–4, and AMNH 120586 is fig. 6. This taxon is placed in the genus Babelomurex Coen, 1922 (Wilson, 1994: 16).

Latiaxis (Pseudomurex) garrardi D'Attilio, 1968: 7–8, pl. 1, top four figs

  1. Paratype: AMNH 135640 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 55–58 fathoms, 18 mi north-northeast of Cape Moreton, due east of Caloundra, Queensland, Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is AM C.65908 (D'Attilio, 1968: 7). This taxon is placed in the genus Hirtomurex Coen, 1922 (Wilson, 1994: 18).

Latiaxis pisori D'Attilio and Emerson, 1980: 71, pl. 19, figs. 5–6; pl. 20, fig. 7

  1. Paratype: AMNH 203624 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Off Mactan Island, Cebu, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SDNHM 73603, and additional paratypes are in SDNHM (D'Attilio and Emerson, 1980: 71). This taxon is a synonym of Babelomurex longispinosus (Suzuki, 1972) (Kosuge and Suzuki, 1985: 15).

Latiaxis (Balelomurex) santacruzensis Emerson and D'Attilio, 1970a: 272–273, pl. 40, figs. 1–4

  1. Holotype: AMNH 155901.

  2. Paratype: 155902 (1 immature specimen).

  3. Locality: 150 m, south of Academy Bay, Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, Pacific Ocean.

  4. Collector: J. and A. DeRoy, May 29, 1968.

  5. Remarks: Additional paratypes are AHF 810–38 and in the collections of A. D'Attilio and J. DeRoy (Emerson and D'Attilio, 1970a: 273). This taxon is placed in the genus Babelomurex Coen, 1922 (Finet, 1994: 54).

Latirus deynzerorum Emerson and Sage, 1990b: 1, figs. 1–3

  1. Holotype: AMNH 232138.

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 232139 (2 specimens), 232139a (2 specimens).

  3. Locality: 11°03′N, 124°00′E, off Bogo, northeast Cebu Island, Philippines, Pacific Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown, May 1981.

  5. Remarks: Additional paratypes are in the collection of A. Deynzer (Emerson and Sage, 1990b: 1). The paratypes figured by Emerson and Sage (1990b: figs. 2–3) have been split from AMNH 232139 as AMNH 232139A.

Latirus karinae Usticke, 1969: 18, pl. 4, fig. 821

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 198490.

  2. Locality: Puerto Rico, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #821. We herein select the specimen figured by Usticke (1969, pl. 4, fig. 821) as lectotype to fix the identity of this poorly defined taxon. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 18) given size range for the taxon of 30–44 mm length. This taxon is a synonym of L. virginensis Abbott, 1958 (Faber, 1988: 82).

Lepetodrilus elevatus elevatus McLean, 1988: 11–12, figs. 5–6, 36–44

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 232305 (20 specimens, alcohol), 232306 (20 specimens, alcohol), 232307 (20 specimens, alcohol).

  2. Locality: Dive 1214, 2633 m, 20°50′N, 109°06′W (AMNH 232305), Dive 1221, 2618 m, 20°50′N, 109°06′W (AMNH 232307), Dive 1225, 2618 m, 20°50′N, 109°06′W (AMNH 232306), East Pacific Rise, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: R/V “Alvin,” April 20 (AMNH 232305), May 4 (AMNH 232307), May 9 (AMNH 232306), 1982.

  4. Remarks: ex LACM. The holotype is LACM 2127, and additional paratypes are in LACM, MNHN, USNM, and numerous other museums cited by McLean (1988: 5, 12).

Lepetodrilus elevatus galriftensis McLean, 1988: 13, figs. 7–8, 45–50

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 232308 (3 specimens, alcohol).

  2. Locality: Dive 884, 2482 m, 00°48.1′N, 86°76′W, Galápagos Rift, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: R/V “Alvin,” Jan. 25, 1979.

  4. Remarks: ex LACM. The holotype is LACM 2128, and additional paratypes are in LACM, MNHN, USNM, and numerous other museums cited by McLean (1988: 5, 13).

Lepetodrilus fucensis McLean, 1988: 18, figs. 17–20, 75–83

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 232311 (15 specimens).

  2. Locality: Dive 1419, 2208 m, 47°57′N, 129°04′W, Endeavor Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: R/V “Alvin,” July 25, 1984.

  4. Remarks: ex LACM. The holotype is LACM 2132, and additional paratypes are in LACM, MNHN, USNM, and numerous other museums cited by McLean (1988: 5, 18).

Lepetodrilus ovalis McLean, 1988: 14–15, figs. 9–12, 51–56

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 232309 (3 specimens, alcohol), 232310 (3 specimens, alcohol).

  2. Locality: Dive 1214, 2633 m (AMNH 232309), 2618 m (AMNH 232310), 20°50′N, 109°06′W, East Pacific Rise, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: R/V “Alvin,” April 20, 1982 (AMNH 232309), May 4, 1982 (AMNH 232310).

  4. Remarks: ex LACM. The holotype is LACM 2129, and additional paratypes are in LACM, MNHN, USNM, and numerous other museums cited by McLean (McLean, 1988: 5, 14).

Lepetodrilus pustulosus McLean, 1988: 8–11, figs. 1–4, 25–35

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 232302 (4 specimens, alcohol), 232303 (12 specimens, alcohol), 232304 (20 specimens, alcohol).

  2. Locality: Dive 884, 2482 m, 00°48.1′N, 86°76′W, Galápagos Rift (AMNH 232302), Dive 1214, 2633 m, 20°50′N, 109°06′W (AMNH 232304), Dive 1219, 2612 m, 20°50′N, 109°06′W (AMNH 232303), East Pacific Rise, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: R/V “Alvin,” Jan. 25, 1979 (AMNH 232302), April 20, (AMNH 232304), April 25 (AMNH 232305), 1982.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is LACM 2126, and additional paratypes are in LACM, MNHN, USNM, and numerous other museums cited by McLean (1988: 5, 11). This taxon is the type of the genus Lepetodrilus McLean, 1988, by original designation, which is the type of the family Lepetodrilidae McLean, 1988, by monotypy, which is the type of the superfamily Lepetodrilacea McLean, 1988, by original designation (McLean, 1988: 6).

Leptoconus (Thoraconus) biraghii Raybaudi, 1992: 31, pl. 3, figs. 16–20, 22

  1. Paratype: AMNH 239749 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Obja, 600 km north of Mogadishu, Somalia, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: Natives.

  4. Remarks: ex Raybaudi Collection (paratype #9). The holotype is SMNS 8470, and additional paratypes are MHNG 16153 and in the collections of G. Biraghi, W. Korn, K. Nicolay, G. Raybaudi, and D. Röckel (Raybaudi, 1992: 32).

Leucozonia ocellata “var.” lineata Usticke, 1969: 18, pl. 4, fig. 831

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195434.

  2. Locality: Buccoo Reef, Tobago, British Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #831. Although Usticke (1969: 18) cited this taxon as a “var.,” he listed it as a “n[ew] sp[ecies]” (1969: 18), treated it subspecifically in the index, and called it “Leucozonia lineata” in the figure caption. We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described. Usticke (1971: 14) stated that this specimen (now AMNH 195434) was the holotype. Because Usticke (1969: 18) did not designate a holotype, Usticke's (1971) action constituted a lectotype designation. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 18) given size range for the taxon of 22–27 mm length. This taxon is a synonym of L. ocellata (Gmelin, 1791) (Faber, 1988: 83).

Limnotrochus kirkii Smith, 1880a: 426

  1. Syntypes: AMNH 56101 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Lake Tanganyika, Kenya.

  3. Collector: E. Hore.

  4. Remarks: ex Unknown Collection #11962. This taxon was figured by Smith (1881: pl. 33, figs. 18, 18a, 18b), and is the type of the genus Chytra Moore, 1898, by monotypy (Pilsbry and Bequaert, 1927: 319).

Lioglyphostoma armstrongi Hertlein and Strong, 1955: 230–231, pl. 3, fig. 12

  1. Holotype: AMNH 73442.

  2. Locality: Sta. 30, sample 78, 25–64 m, Guayabo, Chiquito, Panama, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: “Askoy” Expedition, March 4, 1941.

  4. Remarks: AMNH 73442 is the holotype by monotypy. This taxon is a synonym of Glyphostoma (G.) neglecta (Hinds, 1843) (Keen, 1971: 745).

Lioglyphostoma rectilabrum McLean and Poorman, 1971: 101, fig. 28

  1. Paratype: AMNH 222057 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 15–25 fathoms, 27°50′N, 110°55′W, off Cabo Haro, Guaymas, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: Ariel Expedition, Aug. 28, 1960.

  4. Remarks: ex DuShane Collection. The holotype is LACM 1512 (McLean and Poorman, 1971: 101).

Lirularia antoniae Rubio and Rolán, 1997: figs. 1a–b, 2–6

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 294295 (2 specimens), 295746 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Praia das Conchas, São Tomé Island, São Tomé and Principe, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán, 1989–1990.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/23749, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, MNHN, and the collections of E. Rolán and F. Rubio (Rubio and Rolán, 1997: 24).

Lithasiopsis hinkleyi Pilsbry, 1910: 48–49, figs. 1–3

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 2631 (8 specimens).

  2. Locality: Coy River, tributary of Panuco, San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

  3. Collector: A. Hinkley, Jan.–Feb. 1909.

  4. Remarks: ex Hinkley Collection. The lectotype was selected by Baker (1964: 183) as ANSP 99484a. The repository of additional paralectotypes is unknown.

Lithasiopsis mexicanus Pilsbry, 1910: 49–50, fig. 4

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 2632 (5 specimens).

  2. Locality: Montezuma River at the ford, short distance above Tampamolon, San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

  3. Collector: A. Hinkley, Jan.–Feb. 1909.

  4. Remarks: ex Hinkley Collection. The lectotype was selected by Baker (1964: 185) as ANSP 99483a. The repository of additional paralectotypes is unknown.

Lithoglyphus rufofilosus Smith, 1880a: 426

  1. Syntypes: AMNH 56100 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Lake Tanganyika, Kenya.

  3. Collector: J. Thomson.

  4. Remarks: ex Unknown Collection #11961. This taxon was figured by Smith (1881: pl. 33, figs. 20, 20a) and is the type of the genus Tanganyicia Crosse, 1881, by monotypy, as T. rufofilosa (Pilsbry and Bequaert, 1927: 303).

Lithoglyphus zonatus Woodward, 1859: 349, pl. 47, fig. 3

  1. Syntype: AMNH 56097 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Lake Tanganyika, Kenya.

  3. Collector: Capt. R. Speke.

  4. Remarks: ex Unknown Collection #11957. This taxon is the type of the genus Spekia Bourguignat, 1879, by monotypy (Pilsbry and Bequaert, 1927: 315).

Littorina albicarinata McLean, 1970b: 127, fig. 36

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 160263 (4 specimens).

  2. Locality: 26°38′N, 111°50′W, El Requeson, Concepcion Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: R. Maynard, Aug. 1963.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is LACM 1399, and additional paratypes are LACM 1400, MCZ 277817, and in ANSP, CASIZ, SBMNH, SU, and USNM (McLean, 1970b: 126).

Lucapinella gigas Usticke, 1959: 23, pl. 2, fig. 3

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195404.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 294358 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: Buccaneer Beach, Altona Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #54 (AMNH 195404) and Schwartz Collection (AMNH 294358). The type locality was given by Usticke (1959: 23) as “Altona Bay,” but he subsequently (1971: 3) cited it as listed above. The repository of additional paratypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1959: 23) given size range for the taxon of 15–26.5 mm length.

Lucapinella gigas “var.” oblonga Usticke, 1959: 23, pl. 2, fig. 4

  1. Holotype: AMNH 195405.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 294364 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: Altona Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #55 (AMNH 195405) and Schwartz Collection (AMNH 294364). Although Usticke cited this taxon as a “var.” (= variety) and as a “minor variety” (1959: 23), he first listed it (1959: vi) as a “new…subspecies.” We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described and the holotype to be valid. The repository of additional paratypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1959: 23) given size range for the taxon of 14–18 mm length.

Lucapinella limatula delicata Usticke, 1969: 8, pl. 1, fig. 52

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 195391.

  2. Locality: St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: G. W. N. Usticke.

  4. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection #52. We herein select the specimen figured by Usticke (1969, pl. 1, fig. 52) as lectotype to fix the identity of this poorly defined taxon. The repository of the paralectotypes is unknown; their existence is indicated by Usticke's (1969: 8) given size range for the taxon of 10–13 mm length.

Lucapinella limatula hassleri Pérez Farfante, 1943: 20, pl. 5, figs. 4–5

  1. Paratype: AMNH 223210 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 17 fathoms, 41°17′S, 63°00′W, off Cabo Bermeja, Argentina, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: R/V “Hassler.”

  4. Remarks: ex MCZ. The holotype is MCZ 152227 (Pérez Farfante, 1943: 20), and additional paratypes are MCZ 150738 and 152228.

Lucidella (Poeniella) peasei Pilsbry, 1933: 133, pl. 7, figs. 8, 8a

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 95471 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: St. 85, 3000 ft, Señor Del Monte's Plantation, 5–6 mi west of Barahona, near Salvation, Dominican Republic.

  3. Collector: D. Pease, Aug. 4, 1932.

  4. Remarks: ex Pease Collection. The holotype and paratypes are ANSP 160986, and additional paratypes are in the Pease Collection (Pilsbry, 1933: 133).

Lyncina titan F. and M. Schilder, 1962: 207–212, fig. 1

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 105206 (1 specimen), 186635 (2 specimens), 196007 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Shimoni, Kenya, Indian Ocean.

  3. Collector: R. Benton, Aug. 28, 1961 (AMNH 196007), April 5, 1962 (AMNH 105206), May 4, 1962 (AMNH 186635).

  4. Remarks: ex Schilder Collection (AMNH 105206), Summers Collection (AMNH 186635), and Cate Collection #3076 (AMNH 196007). The holotype was Schilder Collection #13208 and 1176 (radula) (current repository unknown) and “SMF” 166534 (F. and. M. Schilder, 1962: 208). The repository of the additional 141 possible paratypes is unknown. This taxon is a subspecies of Lyncina leviathan (Schilder and Schilder, 1937) (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 70).

Lyria leonardi Emerson, 1985a: 29, figs. 1–6

  1. Holotype: AMNH 213575.

  2. Locality: 1500 m, off Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The paratype is USNM 820640 (Emerson, 1985: 29, 31).

Lyria leslieboschae Emerson and Sage, 1986: 103–104, figs. 1, 3–5

  1. Holotype: AMNH 221655.

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 221656 (3 specimens).

  3. Locality: Ca. 8 km south of the village of Haql, southeastern coast of Masirah Island, Oman, Indian Ocean.

  4. Collector: D., E., L., and D. Bosch, Jan. 1985.

  5. Remarks: ex Bosch Collection.

Lyria russjenseni Emerson, 1985a: 31, figs. 7–15

  1. Holotype: AMNH 213576.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 213574 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: From lobster pot, off La Paguera (AMNH 213576); in fish trap, 300 m, 8–10 mi offshore, off Cabo Rojo (AMNH 213574), Puerto Rico, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: “Fishermen,” 1978 (AMNH 213576); M. Carlo, 1979 (AMNH 213574).

  5. Remarks: Additional paratypes are in the collections of M. Cahill, G. Curry, Sr., and H. Lee (Emerson, 1985a: 31).

Macrarene spectabilospina Shasky, 1970: 188, figs. 1–2

  1. Paratype: AMNH 179303 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Sta. N-13, 82 m, 15°08′N, 93°23′W, Gulf of Tehuantepec, Chiapas, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: D. Shasky, July 10, 1963.

  4. Remarks: ex Shasky Collection. The holotype is LACM 1409, and additional paratypes are in CASIZ, SDNHM, USNM, and the collection of D. Shasky (Shasky, 1970: 189).

Macromphalina apexplanum Rolán and Rubio, 1998: 56, figs. 81–83

  1. Holotype: AMNH 194779.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 226549 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: St. John's, Antigua, Antigua and Barbuda, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: G. Nowell-Usticke, 1968.

  5. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. Additional paratypes are FLMNH 160484, 231594, and in IIMC and the collections of H. Lee and E. Rolán (Rolán and Rubio, 1998: 56).

Macromphalina canarreos Rolán and Rubio, 1998: 50–52, figs. 67–71

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226544 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 20 m, Cayo Avalos, Los Canarreos Archipeligo, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/23754, and additional paratypes are in FLMNH and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés and E. Rolán (Rolán and Rubio, 1998: 50).

Macromphalina garcesi Rolán and Rubio, 1998: 42–44, figs. 50–53

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226544 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: A. Fernández-Garcés.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/23751, and additional paratypes are ANSP 399245, BMNH 1996032, USNM 890427, and in FMNH, IES, MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés, C. Redfern, F. Rubio, and E. Rolán (Rolán and Rubio, 1998: 42). Rolán and Rubio (1998) incorrectly cited AMNH 226544 as containing two specimens.

Macromphalina jibacoa Rolán and Rubio, 1998: 54–56, figs. 77–80

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226548 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Jibacoa, between La Habana and Veradero, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/23756, and additional paratypes are in the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán and Rubio, 1998: 54).

Macromphalina paradoxa Rolán and Rubio, 1998: 46–48, figs. 58–61

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 226542 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/23753, and additional paratypes are ANSP 399246, BMNH 1996030, and in IES, MNCN, MNHN, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés, C. Redfern, E. Rolán, and F. Rubio (Rolán and Rubio, 1998: 46).

Macromphalina redferni Rolán and Rubio, 1998: 52–54, figs. 72–76, 104

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226543 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Treasure Cove, Albaco Island, Bahamas, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: C. Redfern.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is ANSP 399247, and additional paratypes are ANSP 374131, 398254, 375380, BMNH 1996031, MNCN 15.05/23755, USNM 890426, and in IES, MNHN, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés, H. Lee, C. Redfern, E. Rolán, and F. Rubio (Rolán and Rubio, 1998: 52).

Macromphalina robertsoni Rolán and Rubio, 1998: 44–46, figs. 54–57

  1. Paratype: AMNH 226541 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 15–56 m, Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/23752, and additional paratypes are ANSP 399244, BMNH 1996029, USNM 890425, and in IES, MNHN, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés, C. Redfern, E. Rolán, and F. Rubio (Rolán and Rubio, 1998: 44).

Maesiella maesae McLean and Poorman, 1971: 101–102, fig. 29

  1. Paratype: AMNH 164603 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 17 fathoms, 1 mi south of Puerto San Carlos, Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. and R. Poorman, March 1964 or Dec. 1965.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is LACM 1513, and additional paratypes are LACM 1514, MCZ 278865, and in ANSP, CASIZ, SDNHM, SU, and USNM (McLean and Poorman, 1971: 102).

Mangelia digressa Rolán and Otero-Schmitt, 1999: 18–19, figs. 57–62, 97–98

  1. Paratype: AMNH 297642 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 60–80 m, Luanda, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/35600, and additional paratypes are in MNHN, USNM, ZSM, and the collections of J. Otero-Schmitt, E. Rolán, and P. Ryall (Rolán and Otero-Schmitt, 1999: 18).

Mangelia inusitata Rolán and Otero-Schmitt, 1999: 14–16, figs. 37–41, 93

  1. Paratype: AMNH 297643 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 25–30 m, Buraco, Palmeirinhas, Luanda Province, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is in MNHN, and additional paratypes are MNCN 15.05/35599 and in MNHN and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán and Otero-Schmitt, 1999: 14).

Mangelia lineorosata Rolán and Otero-Schmitt, 1999: 6–10, figs. 1–13, 83

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 297644 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Luanda, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is MNCN 15.05/35596, and additional paratypes are in IRSBN, MNHN, ZMB, ZSM, and the collections of J. Otero-Schmitt and E. Rolán (Rolán and Otero-Schmitt, 1999: 6).

Manzonia boavistensis Rolán, 1987: 30–31, pl. 1, fig. 3; pl. 2, fig. 3

  1. Paratype: AMNH 238007 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 8 m, Bahia Teodora, Boavista Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is in MCNM, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MCNM, MNHNP, ZMA, and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán, 1987: 30).

Manzonia bravensis Rolán, 1987: 28–29, pl. 1, fig. 1; pl. 2, fig. 2

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 238005 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: 8 m, Fuma, Brava Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is in MCNM, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MCNM, MNHNP, ZMA, and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán, 1987: 28).

Manzonia caboverdensis Rolán, 1987: 32–33, pl. 1, fig. 5; pl. 2, fig. 5

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 238009 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: 8 m, Fuma, Brava Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is in MCNM, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MCNM, MNHNP, ZMA, and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán, 1987: 32).

Manzonia gofasi Rolán and Fernandes, 1990a: 63–64, figs. 1–3

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 225172 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 100 m, off Luanda, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown, Feb. 15, 1990.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MCNM 15.05/1038, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MIST, MNHNP, and the collections of F. Fernandes and E. Rolán (Rolán and Fernandes, 1990: 64).

Manzonia insulsa Rolán, 1987: 33–34, pl. 1, fig. 6; pl. 2, fig. 6

  1. Paratype: AMNH 238010 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 1 m, Rabo de Junco, Sal Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is in MCNM, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MNHNP, ZMA, and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán, 1987: 33).

Manzonia salensis Rolán, 1987: 31–32, pl. 1, fig. 4; pl. 2, figs. 4, 11

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 238008 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 1 m, Rabo do Junco, Sal Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is in MCNM, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MCNM, MNHNP, ZMA, and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán, 1987: 31).

Manzonia segadei Rolán, 1987: 29–30, pl. 1, fig. 2; pl. 2, figs. 2, 9

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 238006 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 8 m, Fuma, Brava Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is in MCNM, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MCNM, MNHNP, ZMA, and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán, 1987: 29).

Manzonia xicoi Rolán, 1987: 34–35, pl. 1, fig. 7; pl. 2, figs. 7–8, 10

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 238011 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: 8 m, Fuma, Brava Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: E. Rolán.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is in MCNM, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MCNM, MNHNP, ZMA, and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán, 1987: 34).

Mareleptopoma chefyae Rolán, Espinosa, and Fernández-Garcés, 1990: 87, pl. 2, figs. 6–9

  1. Paratype: AMNH 232336 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 50 m, Cienfuegos, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: R. Fernández-Garcés, June 18, 1991.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is IES 85, and additional paratypes are MNCN 15.05/2682 and in MNHN, ZMA, and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés and E. Rolán (Rolán et al., 1990: 87).

Maraleptopoma katyae Rolán, Espinosa, and Fernández-Garcés, 1990: 87–88, pl. 2, figs. 10–11

  1. Paratype: AMNH 232337 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 50 m, Cienfuegos, Cuba, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: R. Fernández-Garcés, June 18, 1991.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is IES 87, and additional paratypes are MNCN 15.05/2678 and in ZMA and the collections of R. Fernández-Garcés and E. Rolán (Rolán et al., 1990: 88).

Mareleptopoma verdensis Rolán and Rubio, 1999: 6–8, figs. 20–22

  1. Paratype: AMNH 294229 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: 2–4 m, Praia da Cruz, north of Sal Rei, Boa Vista Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/32189, and additional paratypes are in MNCN, MNHN, USNM, and the collections of E. Rolán and F. Rubio (Rolán and Rubio, 1999: 6).

Margarites umbilicalis spiralis Baker, 1919: 504

  1. Holotype: AMNH 2511.

  2. Locality: Etah, Greenland, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: W. Ekblaw and M. Tanquary [Crocker Land Expedition], 1914.

  4. Remarks: A paratype is NHMUI Z10863 (Baker, 1919: 504). Although Baker (1919: 504) described this taxon as a “new variety,” he used the term “variety” in a subspecific sense throughout his (1919) paper. We consider this taxon to have been subspecifically described, and we figure the holotype (fig. 14 herein).

Marginella carquejai Gofas and Fernandes, 1994: 113–114, figs. 14, 20

  1. Paratype: AMNH 275789 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Praia Amélia, Namibe, Moçâmedes, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Fernandes, Jan. 1991.

  4. Remarks: ex F. Fernandes. The holotype is in MNHN, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IIT, MNHN, NM, UAN, and the collection of F. Fernandes (Gofas and Fernandes, 1994: 113).

Marginella (Gibberula) charbarensis Melvill, 1897: 7, pl. 6, fig. 16

  1. Syntypes: AMNH 35833 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Charbar, Mekran Coast, Gulf of Oman.

  3. Collector: F. Townsend.

  4. Remarks: ex Maxwell Smith Collection. This taxon is placed in the genus Gibberula Swainson, 1840 (Bosch et al., 1995: 146).

Marginella evax Li, 1930: 270–271, pl. 7, fig. 58

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 269083.

  2. Paralectotypes: AMNH 269084 (39 specimens), 269085 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: Mouth of Rio Grande, in mud, 10–40 ft, 1 mi from mainland near La Boca, Panama Bay, Panama, Pacific Ocean.

  4. Collector: D. MacDonald, 1907.

  5. Remarks: ex Columbia University 22118. AMNH 269083 was selected as lectotype by Coan and Roth (1966: 279). Although the type lot originally contained 41 specimens, Pilsbry (1931: 433) cited only 6 examples. This taxon is a synonym of Prunum (P.) sapotilla (Hinds, 1844) (Keen, 1971: 633).

Marginella luculenta Gofas and Fernandes, 1994: 106–108, figs. 5–6, 22

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 275787 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: 50 m, off Ilha de Luanda, Luanda, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Fernandes, Oct. 1993.

  4. Remarks: ex F. Fernandes. The holotype is in MNHN, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IIT, MNHN, NM, UAN, and the collection of F. Fernandes (Gofas and Fernandes, 1994: 106).

Marginella (Prunum) matthewsi van Mol and Tursch, 1967: 196, fig. 1

  1. Paratype: AMNH 134492 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: ex fish stomachs (“pacamão”), 20 fathoms, off Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: The holotype is SU 9856, and the additional paratype is in the collection of B. Tursch (van Mol and Tursch, 1967: 197). This taxon is placed in the genus Bullata Jousseaume, 1875 (Rios, 1994: 147).

Marginella spinacia Gofas and Fernandes, 1988: 4–6, figs. 2–3, pl. 1, fig. c

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 238668 (5 specimens).

  2. Locality: 2–5 m, Esprainha Beach, São Tomé and Principe, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Fernandes, Nov. 23, 1986.

  4. Remarks: ex Fernandes Collection. The holotype is in MNHN, and additional paratypes are in IIT, MNHN, NMW, SAM, UAN, and the collections of F. Fernandes and J. Tomlin (Gofas and Fernandes, 1988: 4).

Marginella undulans Gofas and Fernandes, 1994: 110–111, figs. 10, 23

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 275788 (4 specimens).

  2. Locality: Praia Amélia, Namibe, Moçâmedes, Angola, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Fernandes, Oct. 1987.

  4. Remarks: ex F. Fernandes. The holotype is in MNHN, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IIT, MNHN, NM, UAN, and the collection of F. Fernandes (Gofas and Fernandes, 1994: 110).

Marshallora bubistae Fernandes and Rolán, 1988: 25–26, pl. 1, fig. 4e; pl. 2, fig. 4

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 241652 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: 1 m, Bahia das Gatas, Boavista Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Fernandes, May 1987.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 11–41–1014, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MNHN, and the collections of F. Fernandes and E. Rolán (Fernandes and Rolán, 1988: 25).

Marshallora gutta Fernandes and Rolán, 1988: 27–28, pl. 1, fig. 6e; pl. 2, fig. 6

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 241654 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 1 m, Rife do Chaves, Boavista Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Fernandes, May 1987.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 11–41–1016, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MNHN, and the collections of F. Fernandes and E. Rolán (Fernandes and Rolán, 1988: 27).

Marshallora mariangelae Fernandes and Rolán, 1988: 26–27, pl. 1, fig. 5e; pl. 2, fig. 5

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 241653 (3 specimens).

  2. Locality: 1 m, Bahia de Sal-Rei, Boavista Island, Cape Verde Islands, Portugal, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: F. Fernandes, May 1987.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 11–41–1015, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, CZL, MNHN, and the collections of F. Fernandes and E. Rolán (Fernandes and Rolán, 1988: 26).

Marshallora nichupte Rolán and Crúz-Ábrego, 1995: 88–91: figs. 1–13

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 226538 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: 2 m, Nichupté Lagoon, Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico, Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Rolán Collection. The holotype is MNCN 15.05/18726, and additional paratypes are in BMNH, IES, MCZ, MNHN, UNAM, USNM, ZMA, and the collection of E. Rolán (Rolán and Crúz-Ábrego, 1995: 88).

Mauritia (Arabica) arabica brunnescens C. Cate, 1964: 24–26, pl. 5, figs. 3a–b

  1. Paratypes: AMNH 196001 (4 specimens), 203880a (1 specimen), 203880b (1 specimen), 203881a (1 specimen), 203881b (1 specimen), 203882a (1 specimen), 203882b (1 specimen), 203883a (1 specimen), 203883b (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: Roebuck Bay, Broome, Western Australia, Australia, Pacific Ocean.

  3. Collector: T. Crake, Oct. 1962 and Sept. 27, 1963 (AMNH 196001), Sept. 22, 1963 (AMNH 203880a–203882b).

  4. Remarks: ex Cate Collection. AMNH 196001 contains C. Cate's paratypes #4 (Cate #2268), #6 (Cate #2670), #13 (Cate #2677), and #15 (Cate #2679). AMNH 203880a–203882b contain C. Cate's paratypes #2 (Cate #2667), #7 (Cate #2671), #8 (Cate #2672), #9 (Cate #2673), #10 (Cate #2674), #11 (Cate #2675), #14 (Cate #2678), and #16 (Cate #2680), respectively. The holotype is WAM 32–64 (C. Cate, 1964: 25); paratypes #5 (Cate #2669) and #12 (Cate #2676) were sent to F. A. Schilder in 1964 and their current repository is unknown. The current repository of the remaining paratypes (#1, 3; Cate #2666) is unknown. This taxon is a synonym of M. arabica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lorenz and Hubert, 1993: 58).

Melanella bibsae Usticke, 1959: 87, pl. 4, fig. 17

  1. Lectotype: AMNH 192773a.

  2. Paralectotypes: AMNH 192772a (1 specimen), 294361 (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: Judith's Fancy, Sugar Bay (AMNH 192773a), Cane Bay (AMNH 192772a, 294361), St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Collector: Unknown.

  5. Remarks: ex Usticke Collection (AMNH 192773a–192773b) and Schwartz Collection (AMNH 294361). Usticke (1959: pl. 4, fig. 17) figured two specimens, which contradicts his statement (p. vi) that only the “holotypes…are pictured.” We herein designate the larger of the illustrated specimens (AMNH 192773a) as lectotype to fix the identity of this poorly defined taxon. The repository of additional paralectotypes (if any) is unknown.

Melania “(—?)” horei Smith, 1880a: 427

  1. Syntypes: AMNH 56096 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Lake Tanganyika, Kenya.

  3. Collector: E. Hore.

  4. Remarks: ex Unknown Collection #11958. This taxon was figured by Smith (1881: pl. 34, fig. 27) and is the type of the genus Reymondia Bourguignat, 1885, by subsequent designation of Pilsbry and Bequaert, 1927 (Pilsbry and Bequaert, 1927: 312).

Melania laeta Jay, 1839: 122, pl. 7, fig. 11

  1. Syntypes: AMNH 56113 (1 specimen), AMNH 56113a (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: “Rivers in Alabama,” [United States] (Jay, 1839: 122).

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Jay Collection #6450 (Jay, 1850). AMNH 56113 is labeled “type” in Jay's handwriting and is Jay's (1839) figured specimen (fig. 15 herein). AMNH 56113a is also labeled “type” (although the last two letters have been lost with a portion of the lip) and is a syntype. A second specimen in AMNH 56113a (now removed as 56113b) is not a syntype, because it is labeled with the Jay catalog #4651 for “Melania laeta var.” (Jay, 1850: 274). The whereabouts of additional syntypes (if any) are unknown. This species is placed in the genus Elimia H. and A. Adams, 1854 (Burch, 1989: 142), and may possibly be extinct (Turgeon et al., 1998: 317).

Melania (Melanella) nassa Woodward, 1859: 349, pl. 47, fig. 4

  1. Syntypes: AMNH 56117 (2 specimens).

  2. Locality: Lake Tanganyika, Kenya.

  3. Collector: Capt. R. Speke.

  4. Remarks: ex Unknown Collection #11963. This taxon is placed in the genus Lavigeria Bourguignat, 1888 (Brown, 1980: 114).

Melania neglecta Anthony, 1854: 128, pl. 3, fig. 29

  1. Paralectotypes: AMNH 150167 (8 specimens).

  2. Locality: Great Miami River near Dayton, Montgomery Co., Ohio, United States.

  3. Collector: A. Anthony.

  4. Remarks: ex MCZ via Jacobson Collection. The lectotype (MCZ 161784) was selected by Turner (1946: 103, as “holotype”). Additional paralectotypes are in MCZ.

Melania nodicincta Dohrn, 1865: 234

  1. Syntype: AMNH 56112 (1 specimen).

  2. Locality: South end of Lake Nyassa, Malawi.

  3. Collector: Unknown.

  4. Remarks: ex Unknown Collection #19133. This taxon is placed in the genus Melanoides Olivier, 1804 (Brown, 1980: 86, figs. 48a–c).

Melanoides kisangani Pilsbry and Bequaert, 1927: 263, pl. 21, figs. 19–22

  1. Holotype: AMNH 72058 (lost).

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 72059 (1 specimen; lost), 72174 (111 specimens).

  3. Locality: 00°55′N, 25°05′E to 00°50′N, 28°00′E, Tshopo River, Stanleyville (= Kisangani), Belgian Congo (= Zaire = Democratic Republic of the Congo), Africa.

  4. Collector: H. Lang, 1909–1915.

  5. Remarks: Additional paratypes are MCZ 83469 (303 specimens ex AMNH 72174). AMNH 72058 and 72059 were recorded as lost in July 1945.

Melanoides kisangani congo Pilsbry and Bequaert, 1927: 263–264, pl. 21, figs. 23–24

  1. Holotype: AMNH 72062.

  2. Paratype: AMNH 72062a (1 specimen).

  3. Locality: 00°30′N, 25°15′E, near falls of Congo River, Stanleyville (= Kisangani), Belgian Congo (= Zaire = Democratic Republic of the Congo), Africa.

  4. Collector: H. Lang, 1909–1915.

  5. Remarks: Additional paratypes are MCZ 40924 (15 specimens).

Melanoides langi Pilsbry and Bequaert, 1927: 259–260, pl. 22, figs. 1–2

  1. Holotype: AMNH 72057.

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 72175 (90 specimens).

  3. Locality: 00°55′N, 25°05′E to 00°50′N, 28°00′E, Tshopo River, Stanleyville (= Kisangani), Belgian Congo (= Zaire = Democratic Republic of the Congo), Africa.

  4. Collector: H. Lang and J. Chapin, 1909–1915.

  5. Remarks: Additional paratypes are MCZ 40922 (206 specimens ex AMNH 72175).

Melanoides langi zambiensis Pilsbry and Bequaert, 1927: 260, pl. 22, fig. 3

  1. Holotype: AMNH 72056 (lost).

  2. Paratypes: AMNH 72055 (90 specimens).

  3. Locality: 06°00′S, 12°45′E, “about mi