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21 June 2001 NOMENCLATURAL CHANGES IN THE STAPHYLINIDAE (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA)
LEE H. HERMAN
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

More than 775 nomenclatural changes are proposed and nomenclatural problems are discussed for the Staphylinidae.

Two generic names are proposed as replacement names: Torobus for species formerly in Trigonopselaphus, and Ryvkinius for the preoccupied Mesoporus Ryvkin.

Type species are fixed or problems with the type species are discussed for: Entomoculia, Eumegalopsidia (an unavailable name), Anthobium, Lesteva, Phyllodrepoidea, Aleioglyphesthus, Bolitogyrus, Cephalonthus, Diatrechus, Euremus, Indoquedius, Philothalpus, Philonthopsis, Pseudoremus, Leptophius, Stenus (Nestus), Coproporus, and Paratachinus. The type species for Entomoculia, Anthobium, Phyllodrepoidea, Leptophius, and Stenus (Nestus) are fixed under provisions of article 70.3 of the Code.

Emendations are cited or one of multiple original spellings adopted in Bledius, Bryoporus, Carpelimus, Edaphus, Eleusis, Gauropterus, Indosorius, Lispinus, Lithocharodes, Medon, Osorius, Philonthus, Piestus, Pinophilinus, Platydracus, Priochirus, Prognathoides, Quedius, Stenus, and Trigonurus.

New combinations are proposed in Arrhenopeplus (3), Dialycera (2), Eusphalerum (14), Nacaeus (19), Pseudoxyporus (4), Homalotrichus (1), Thinodromus (2), Gabrius (1), Platydracus (57), Torobus (9), Bryophacis (7), Ischnosoma (16), Lordithon (66), Ryvkinius (1), and Sepedophilus (244).

Fifty-nine new synonyms are listed for Micropeplus (1), Anthophagus (2), Eusphalerum (1), Phloeonomus (1), Eleusis (1),

INTRODUCTION

A catalog to the taxa and literature of the beetle family Staphylinidae has been in progress for years (Herman, in press). One result of that project was the discovery of many changes required by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (hereafter, the Code). Among these changes are emendations, replacement of junior homonyms, recognition of new synonyms, resurrection of names, and transfer of species from one genus to another. Rather than make these changes in the body of the catalog, I choose to publish them in a separate article so the changes are more accessible and the issues can be discussed.

The most recent World catalog for the family was published in parts by Bernhauer and Schubert (1910, 1911, 1912, 1914, and 1916) and Bernhauer and Scheerpeltz (1926), along with a supplement by Scheerpeltz (1933, 1934). Since Scheerpeltz's supplement, tens of thousands of changes have been published, including new species, new genera, new combinations, new synonyms, elevations, and resurrections. Many new and old changes have been overlooked and many errors were made. The purpose of this article is to correct errors. The changes are grouped by subfamily within which the genera and species are listed alphabetically. Included herein are changes required in all subfamilies except the Paederinae, Aleocharinae, Scaphidiinae, and Pselaphinae.

Most nomenclatural problems have been resolved by application of provisions of the fourth edition of the Code (ICZN, 1999). Where necessary, the relevant article of the Code is cited. The few cases in which articles were not adhered to are explained. References needed to document the changes proposed herein can be found in a forthcoming catalog of the family (Herman, in press).

Discussed in the present article are five classes of problems. A sixth section treats two miscellaneous problems. They are, in order of presentation, type species designations, emendations, new combinations, new synonyms, homonyms, and special problems. Within each section the subfamilies, generea, and species are listed alphabetically.

The section for type species designations includes the correction of erroneous designations and first-time designations for genera. Erroneous designations are discussed in detail sufficient to present the problem and its resolution. Some genera never had a type species designated. For genera published before 1930, a type species is simply fixed by subsequent designation. After 1930, newly published genus-group names are unavailable unless a type species is fixed at the time the name is published (article 13.3). The first author who validly designates the type species also makes the name available and is the author of the name (article 50.1); the date of that designation is the date of publication for the genus. A few designations are based on misidentified type species. Provisions in the Code permit, in the interests of stability, use of misidentifications as type species, without making application to the Commission. An author is permitted to fix as type species either the taxonomic species actually involved or the misidentified nominal species fixed previously (article 70.3).

A modest number of names require emendation.

Several hundred names are transferred from one genus to another. Most of these are the result of misidentification of the genus in which they were placed. Others are moved because the subgenus was elevated but not all the species were transferred.

Some species currently listed as valid are reduced to junior synonyms, most because names now cited as junior synonyms are older. In a similar vein, most junior homonyms are not problematic and are simply replaced either by the next oldest available synonym that is itself not preoccupied or by a newly proposed name. Some authors described species using a previously published name. Although these homonyms usually require replacement, in some cases there may be reasons to think that the homonymic pair represents the same species. To preclude proposing unnecessary replacement names, but to recognize that the junior name is available, if there are reasons to suspect that homonyms apply to the same species, they are cited as new synonyms with reasons being given for such citations.

Some junior homonyms and junior synonyms are currently listed as valid and have a long history of use. Replacement of these younger names would create nomenclatural instability. The Code has provisions to help maintain prevailing use of such names. Article 23.9.1 requires continued use of a junior synonym or junior homonym if it has been cited as valid by at least 10 authors in at least 25 publications during the last 50 years (article 23.9.1.2) and if the older synonym or homonym has not been used as valid since 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). If these conditions are satisfied, then the names are qualified by the terms nomen protectum and nomen oblitum, respectively (article 23.9.2). To compliance with article 23.9, the list of references supporting the proposed protection of the younger name and the history of the use of the older name slightly altered is; “To comply with …” are provided under the relevant names in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press).

In a few cases the number of articles needed for protecting a name did not quite reach 25; perhaps some 18 or 20 were found, but the name was probably cited in many more publications. For these cases, it is assumed that the requisite number of publications can be found with diligent search. The catalog, which forms the basis and rationale for this nomenclatural article, is not a “complete” catalog; that is, it does not include every published mention of a name, and consequently publications were probably overlooked that would permit protecting a name. For example, many of the multitude of lists of species collected at one or another European site were omitted, as were citations of names mentioned in the comparisons presented with descriptions of new genera and species. Certainly these are two potential sources of further published mention of names proposed for protection.

Articles 23.9.1 and 23.9.2 apply only to cases where the older name is no longer cited as valid. Article 23.9.5 permits continued use of names currently cited as valid, but that are primary homonyms, if they have not been congeneric since 1899. This article forbids automatic replacement of such junior homonyms (application to the Commission is also required) and is essential to retaining some well-known names.

A common problem is an overlooked name, cited as valid, that is the senior name of a homonymic pair, the junior of which is also cited as valid. Alternatively, two homonyms may both be rarely used. In both cases the overlooked names may not have been used since the original description or they may have been used infrequently or not at all for 100 years or more. A type specimen for these names may not even exist. Some of these cases can be dealt with by application of article 23.9.5. For others, although the Code requires replacement, I regarded these neglected names as “forgotten”, ignored the required change, and labeled each “nomen dubium”. The Code supports no such action, but this course seems preferable to creating new names for species that may never be known simply to obey the Code. Others may disagree and elect to effect the required changes, but such action taken without study of the relevant types would solve nothing.

Three problems require separate discussion. One involves the date of publication of a generic name established by Redtenbacher in the second edition of his “Fauna austriaca …”, the other, the type genus of a family group name. The third is a complicated case involving the recently proposed synonymy of two well-known species-group names.

TYPE SPECIES

Leptotyphlinae

Entomoculia

Croissandeau (1891: 150) described Entomoculia and included two species, Entomoculia sublaevis (Fauvel, 1874) (ex Leptotyphlus) and Entomoculia grouvellei (Fauvel, 1890) (ex Leptotyphlus). Blackwelder (1952: 149) designated Entomoculia grouvellei (Fauvel) as the type species of the genus by subsequent designation. According to Coiffait (1955: 66; 1959: 279; 1972: 390) both species were misidentified by Croissandeau. Coiffait, in the same three articles, cited Entomoculia jeanneli Coiffait, 1955, which he named for Croissandeau's misidentification of E. grouvellei, as the type species of the genus. The species named by Fauvel, Leptotyphlus grouvellei, is in Mesotyphlus.

Article 70.3 permits designation of a misidentified species (or the taxonomic species actually involved) as type species. Entomoculia, with more than 120 species, is a commonly used, well-known name that, in the last 50 years, has been cited in at least 34 articles written by 11 authors. In the last 50 years more than 100 nominal species have been described in Entomoculia. To preserve this longstanding use, and with the sanction of article 70.3.2, I propose to accept Coiffait's (1955: 66) designation of E. jeanneli Coiffait (;eq E. grouvellei sensu Croissandeau) as the type species of Entomoculia.

Megalopsidiinae

Eumegalopsidia

Megalopsidia (Eumegalopsidia) is an unavailable name and Megalopinus (Polycyrtopsidia) is a valid subgenus. All the species listed in Megalopsidia (Eumegalopsidia) are hereafter in Megalopsidia (Polycyrtopsidia).

Eumegalopsidia was proposed by Benick (1952: 77) as a subgenus of Megalopsidia Leng, 1918 (;eq Megalopinus); he (1952: 86) included 22 species from Africa and the Indo-Australian region. Scheerpeltz (1972: 95) described a new subgenus, Megalopsidia (Polycyrtopsidia), with one new species, Megalopsidia (Polycyrtopsidia) sanguinitriguttata. Puthz (1974a: 135) transferred Megalopinus sanguinitriguttata Scheerpeltz, 1972, to Megalopinus (Eumegalopsidia). Because M. sanguinitriguttata Scheerpeltz is the type species of Polycyrtopsidia, the two subgenera, Megalopinus (Polycyrtopsidia) and Megalopinus (Eumegalopsidia), are synonyms; Puthz (1974b: 136) listed the former as the junior synonym of the latter.

However, Benick designated no type species for Eumegalopsidia, so his use of the name is unavailable (article 13.3). A type species was published in the 1952 Zoological Record (1953, vol. 89(13): 246), but the designation was anonymous and was done after 1950 and thus is an unavailable act (article 14). If a type species were designated now, the author and date for Eumegalopsidia would be the author and date of the type species designation. No type species is designated herein for Eumegalopsidia and it remains unavailable.

Omaliinae

Anthobium

Anthobium Leach (1819: 175) was published without a description but with one available species, “Omal. melanocephalum”, which was the type species by original designation and monotypy. However, because the species was cited by Leach without an author, there has been confusion about which of two species is the correct type, Staphylinus melanocephalus Fabricius (1787: 222) or Silpha melanocephala Illiger (1794: 596). At the time, both species were reported in Britain by Marsham (1802: 127, 523), who (1802: 127) credited Silpha melanocephala to Panzer, who attributed it to Illiger. In fact, the authorship of the type species was resolved in the original publication. Samouelle (1819: 375, 484) cited Marsham's (1802: 127) use of Silpha melanocephala as the species intended by Leach (1819: 175).

Tottenham (1939: 225) cited “melanocephalum Marsham, 1802” as the type species of Anthobium without stating which of Marsham's usages applied. Later, he (1949: 357) presented the type species of Anthobium as “Anthobium atrocephalum Gyllenhal, 1827 (;eq Silpha melanocephala Marsham, 1802 [nec Illiger, 1794])”. Marsham's use of Silpha melanocephala has been considered a misidentification of Anthobium atrocephalum since at least 1840 (Erichson, 1840: 870). And, whereas Silpha melanocephala sensu Marsham (;eq Anthobium atrocephalum) is known in Britain, according to Pope (1977), neither Phyllodrepa melanocephala (Fabricius, 1787) (ex Staphylinus) nor Anthobium melanocephalum (Illiger, 1794) (ex Silpha) is known.

Blackwelder (1952: 55–56), on the other hand, assigned the authorship of the type species to Fabricius by reasoning that only the Fabrician species lives in Britain. His interpretation is erroneous for two reasons: first, Samouelle (1819) did indicate which species was intended, and second, neither the true Anthobium melanocephalum Illiger (ex Silpha) nor Phyllodrepa melanocephala Fabricius (ex Staphylinus) occurs in Britain (Pope, 1977).

Provisions in the new Code (article 70.3) permit fixation as type species a misidentified nominal species (or the actual taxonomic species) if stability results. In the case of Anthobium, we should accept Omalium atrocephalum Gyllenhal (;eq Silpha melanocephala sensu Marsham, 1802) as type species of the genus (article 70.3.2).

Lesteva

Lesteva Latreille (1797: 75) was described without included species. The first species to be included was Carabus abbreviatus Fabricius (Latreille, 1802: 129), which thus becomes the type species of Lesteva by subsequent monotypy as the first and only included species. However, abbreviatus is currently assigned to Anthophagus Gravenhorst, 1802. By accepting this fixation, Anthophagus would be replaced by Lesteva, and the genus currently referred to as Lesteva would take the name Tevales Casey, 1894, the next oldest available name. However, Lesteva and Anthophagus each have a long history and bibliography as separate genera. To effect a stable classification, Lesteva and Anthophagus should be preserved in their currently applied sense. A petition will be sent to the Commission requesting that Latreille's (1804: 369) designation of Lesteva punctulata Latreille be accepted as the type species of Lesteva.

The fixation of Carabus abbreviatus as type species of Lesteva was rejected by Tottenham (1949a: 358) and Blackwelder (1952: 218). Both thought that because Latreille (1802: 129; 1804: 366) cited Anthophagus as a synonym of Lesteva, the first included species in Lesteva were all the nominal species listed in Anthophagus by Gravenhorst (1802: 120–123, 188–189). For pre-1930 genera established without species, article 67.2.2 of the Code requires that “the nominal species … first subsequently and expressly included … be the only originally included nominal species”. Article 67.2.4 states that the “Mere citation of an available genus-group name as a synonym of another does not constitute inclusion of the nominal species of the former in the latter”. By these edicts the first and only possible originally included species was “Carabus abbreviatus F.”, and no other species is available for designation as type species.

Lesteva was first published by Latreille (1797: 75) with a few characters but without species. Anthophagus was published by Gravenhorst (1802: 120, 188) with eight nominal species (caraboides, abbreviatus, testaceus, armiger, obscurus, plagiatus, dichrous, and alpinus). Latreille (1802: 129) briefly characterized Lesteva and synonymized Anthophagus with it with the following statement: “Gen. Lestève; lesteva. (G. Antophagus. Graven.) Exemple. Carabus abbreviatus. F.” That species thereby became the first species included in Lesteva by name.

Later, Latreille (1804: 366–369) again redescribed Lesteva, listed Anthophagus as a synonym, included by name all the nominal species listed by Gravenhorst (1802) in Anthophagus (see preceding paragraph), and added three more nominal species (Lesteva punctulata Fabricius, Carabus dimidiatus Panzer, and Carabus staphylinoides Marsham). Among the nominal species cited in Lesteva by Latreille in 1804, five (Staphylinus caraboides Linné, Carabus abbreviatus Fabricius, Staphylinus alpinus Fabricius, Anthophagus testaceus Gravenhorst, and Anthophagus armiger Gravenhorst) are currently in Anthophagus, one (Staphylinus plagiatus Fabricius) is the type species of Geodromicus, and one (Anthophagus dichrous Gravenhorst) is the type species of Deleaster. Four (Staphylinus obscurus Paykull, Lesteva punctulata Latreille, Carabus dimidiatus Panzer, and Carabus staphylinoides Marsham) remain in Lesteva where all are junior synonyms of Lesteva longoelytrata (Goeze, 1777) (ex Staphylinus). Latreille (1804: 369), in the paragraph following his description of Lesteva punctulata, designated that species as the type of Lesteva with the statement “C'est d'après cette espèce que j'avois formé ce genre.” This designation was accepted by Tottenham (1949a: 358) but rejected by Blackwelder (1952: 218).

Latreille (1810: 182, 427) again cited a few characters for Lesteva, and in his “Table des genres avec l'indication de l'espèce qui leur sert de type” he listed two species with “Lestève”, Lesteva alpina (Fabricius) and Lesteva dimidiata (Panzer). With two species cited, it is unclear which was meant to be the type species. Blackwelder (1952: 218) claimed the type species to be Lesteva alpina (Fabricius) as a subsequent designation by Latreille, but he presented no reasons for thinking that one was designated in lieu of the other.

I suggest that the Commission set aside the first type species fixation for Lesteva, Carabus abbreviata Fabricius, and accept Latreille's (1804: 369) designation of Lesteva punctulata Latreille. Although formal application needs to be made to the Commission to ratify this suggestion, for purposes of the catalog I have simply cited Lesteva punctulata Latreille as the type species for the reasons outlined above.

Phyllodrepoidea

Phyllodrepoidea Ganglbauer, 1895: 724 was established for one species, Phyllodrepoidea crenata (Gravenhorst, 1802: 114) (ex Omalium), so the type species is fixed by monotypy. However, Gravenhorst did not describe the species; he attributed it to Fabricius. The species named by Fabricius, Staphylinus crenatus Fabricius, 1793: 525, is now a valid species in Acidota, so the use of crenata by Gravenhorst and all later authors are misidentifications.

However, the misidentified species, Phyllodrepoidea crenata is available since it is the type species of the Phyllodrepoidea (articles 11.10, 70.3.1), but the author becomes Ganglbauer, 1895 (articles 11.10, 67.13.1). Also see the species in the section on homonyms in this article.

Staphylininae

Aleioglyphesthus

Aleioglyphesthus Scheerpeltz 1975: 110 was originally described as a subgenus of Glyphesthus Kraatz, 1858. The author included four species: Glyphesthus (Aleioglyphesthus) congoensis Bernhauer, 1931, Glyphesthus (Aleioglyphesthus) neavei Bernhauer, 1927, Glyphesthus (Aleioglyphesthus) hauseri Bernhauer, 1937, and Glyphesthus (Aleioglyphesthus) zimmermani Scheerpeltz, 1975. However, the name is unavailable because Scheerpeltz did not designate a type species (article 13b). I hereby designate Glyphesthus (Aleioglyphesthus) zimmermani Scheerpeltz as the type species of Aleioglyphestus, new subgenus, by original designation. Characters of the subgenus are provided by Scheerpeltz (1975: 110).

Bolitogyrus

The binomen Bolitogyrus cribripennis was first published in a list by Dejean (1836: 76), but neither name was available because no characters were published. Chevrolat (1842: 641) cited Bolitogyrus cribripennis and wrote that he had sent B. cribripennis to Erichson, who identified it as Quedius buphthalmus Erichson, 1840. Chevrolat also presented no characters for B. cribripennis, and thus the name was still not available. However, because he evidently accepted Erichson's view that B. cribripennis and Q. buphthalmus were conspecific, it can be argued that the first included available species in Bolitogyrus was Q. buphthalmus, thereby making the genus-group name Bolitogyrus available by indication (article 12.2.5). Blackwelder (1952: 82) asserted that Bolitogyrus cribripennis was validated by its synonymy with Quedius buphthalmus. According to articles 11.6 and 11.6.1, a name published in synonymy is unavailable unless before 1961 it was treated as an available name and either adopted as the name of a taxon or treated as a senior homonym. Bolitogyrus cribripennis had not been used as the name of a taxon, treated as a senior homonym, or described. Fauvel (1878a: 84) and Blackwelder (1944: 144) included both B. cribripennis and Q. buphthalmus in Cyrtothorax, with the former being a junior synonym of the latter. Smetana (1988: 315) noted that B. cribripennis had not been described, but he accepted Blackwelder's interpretation.

I conclude that (1) having been published without a description and in synonymy, B. cribripennis is unavailable; (2) Chevrolat (1842) included Quedius buphthalmus in Bolitogyrus by virtue of his acceptance of Erichson's view that it and B. cribripennis were conspecific; and (3) B. buphthalmus, an available name, was the first and only included species, thereby making Bolitogyrus Chevrolat, 1842 available by indication (article 12.2.5) and making it the type species by monotypy.

Cephalonthus

Bernhauer (1940b: 635) proposed Cephalonthus as a subgenus of Philonthus Stephens, 1829. He included Philonthus (Cephalonthus) kochianus Bernhauer, 1940, Philonthus (Cephalonthus) lewisius Sharp, 1874, Philonthus (Cephalonthus) caffer Boheman, 1848, and Philonthus (Cephalonthus) ustus Fauvel, 1907; however, because he designated no type species for Cephalonthus, it is unavailable (article 13.3). Blackwelder (1952: 96) designated the type species, thereby making the name available and becoming the author of the name (article 50.1). The type species of Cephalonthus Blackwelder, 1952 is Philonthus (Cephalonthus) caffer Boheman; it was fixed by original designation by Blackwelder.

Diatrechus

Bernhauer (1911a: 89) described Diatrechus and included six nominal species: Diatrechus elatus (Erichson, 1840) (ex Philonthus), Diatrechus anthracinus (Fauvel, 1905) (ex Anisolinus), Diatrechus raffrayi (Fauvel, 1905) (ex Anisolinus), Diatrechus humeralis (Fauvel, 1907) (ex Anisolinus), Diatrechus aethiopicus (Fauvel, 1907) (ex Anisolinus), and Diatrechus bicolor (Bernhauer, 1906a) (ex Anisolinus). Blackwelder (1952: 123) designated Staphylinus compressicollis Klug (now in Diatrechus) as the type species, and Scheerpeltz (1970: 87) cited the same type species. However, S. compressicollis cannot be the type species; it was not among the originally included species (articles 67.2.1, 67.2.3). I hereby designate Philonthus elatus Erichson, 1840 as the type species of Diatrechus by subsequent designation.

Euremus

Bierig (1934: 68) proposed Euremus as a subgenus of Cafius Curtis, 1829, and included Cafius (Euremus) rufifrons Bierig, 1934, Cafius (Euremus) bistriatus (Erichson, 1840) (ex Philonthus), Cafius (Euremus) fonticola (Erichson, 1840) (ex Philonthus), Cafius (Euremus) pacificus (Erichson, 1840) (ex Philonthus), Cafius (Euremus) lithocharinus (LeConte, 1863) (ex Philonthus), and Cafius (Euremus) nauticus (Fairmaire, 1849) (ex Philonthus). Because no type species was designated, the name was unavailable (article 13.3) until Blackwelder (1943: 435) designated, by original designation, Philonthus bistriatus Erichson (Cafius [Euremus]), and thereby became the author of the name in 1943 (article 50.1).

Indoquedius

Cameron (1932: 281) described Indoquedius, now a separate genus, as a subgenus of Quedius Stephens, 1829, and included Quedius (Indoquedius) oculatus Fauvel, 1895, Quedius (Indoquedius) filicornis Eppelsheim, 1895, and Quedius (Indoquedius) bipunctatus Eppelsheim, 1895. The name, however, was unavailable because Cameron failed to designate a type species (article 13.3). Indoquedius was made available by Blackwelder (1952: 199), who became the author of the name in 1952, when he designated “Indoquedius oculatus Fauvel (Quedius)” as the type species by original designation.

Philothalpus

Kraatz (1857: 540) described Philothalpus and included four species by name: Philothalpus fervidus (Erichson, 1840: 505) (ex Philonthus), Philothalpus egregius (Erichson, 1840: 505) (ex Philonthus), Philothalpus viduus (Erichson, 1840: 506) (ex Philonthus), and one unavailable name (sticticus). He also intended the genus to include the five species in “Staphylinus Fam. IX” of Erichson, 1839b: 395 (i.e., Staphylinus luridipes Erichson, 1839, Staphylinus anceps Erichson, 1839, S. a. terminalis, Philonthus fasciatus Nordmann, 1837, and Staphylinus segmentarius Erichson, 1839), but did not list them by name. Neither Kraatz nor anyone else designated a type species until Blackwelder (1943: 451) designated Philothalpus anceps. That designation is invalid. Articles 67.2.1 and 67.2.3 require that the type species be selected from one of the originally included species that was cited by an available name. Philothalpus anceps was not cited in the genus by name and thus was not an originally included nominal species. The three species available for designation are no longer in Philothalpus. They have been moved to Eugastus (fervidus) and Styngetus (egregius and viduus). Philothalpus needs a type species designation. I hereby designate Philonthus fervidus Erichson (Philothalpus), the species now listed in Eugastus, as the type species of Philothalpus Kraatz, 1858, by subsequent designation. This designation makes Eugastus Sharp, (1876: 139) a new synonym of Philothalpus. Oligotergus Bierig (1937: 204), described as a subgenus of Philothalpus, becomes the valid name for the remaining species formerly listed in Philothalpus.

Philonthopsis

Koch (1936: 173, 178) established Philonthopsis as a subgenus of Cafius Curtis, 1829, and included four nominal species: Cafius (Philonthopsis) australis (Redtenbacher, 1867) (ex Ocypus) [and its synonym, Cafius (Philonthopsis) areolatus Fauvel, 1877], Cafius (Philonthopsis) litoreus (Broun, 1880) (ex Staphylinus), and Cafius (Philonthopsis) sabulosus Fauvel, 1877, along with a fourth name, an aberration that was thereby unavailable. He failed to designate a type species, so Philonthopsis was unavailable (article 13.3). Blackwelder (1943: 435) made the name available and became its author when he designated Cafius (Philonthopsis) sabulosus Fauvel as type species of the subgenus. Philonthopsis is a preoccupied name and was replaced by Blackwelder (1952: 198) with Ifacus.

Pseudoremus

Koch (1936: 175, 179) proposed Pseudoremus as a subgenus of Cafius. He included Cafius (Pseudoremus) opacus (LeConte, 1864) (ex Philonthus), Cafius (Pseudoremus) vestitus (Sharp, 1874) (ex Philonthus), Cafius (Pseudoremus) rufescens Sharp, 1889, Cafius (Pseudoremus) algarum (Sharp, 1874) (ex Philonthus), Cafius (Pseudoremus) histrio (Sharp, 1874) (ex Philonthus), Cafius (Pseudoremus) mimulus (Sharp, 1874) (ex Philonthus), Cafius (Pseudoremus) lithocharinus (LeConte, 1863) (ex Philonthus), Cafius (Pseudoremus) ragazzii Gestro, 1889, and Cafius (Pseudoremus) nauticus (Fairmaire, 1849) (ex Philonthus). However, Koch failed to designate a type species for Pseudoremus and thus the name is unavailable (article 13.3). Blackwelder (1943: 435) designated Cafius (Pseudoremus) lithocharinus (LeConte) (ex Philonthus), thereby making the name available and becoming the author of the name (article 50.1).

Leptophius

Leptophius Coiffait (1983a: 345) was proposed as a replacement name for Leptophallus Coiffait. Coiffait (1956: 57, 59) described Leptophallus as a subgenus of Xantholinus Dejean, 1821, with two nominal species, Xantholinus (Leptophallus) relucens Kraatz (1857: 634), which he designated as the type species, and Xantholinus (Leptophallus) elianae Jarrige (1941: 47), a species now in Lemiganus Bordoni, 1985. Kraatz (1857a: 634) attributed the species to Gravenhorst, but his use of X. relucens was a misidentification according to Coiffait (1972: 257), who cited Xantholinus flavocinctus Hochhuth (1849: 102) as the type species of Leptophallus and listed X. relucens Kraatz as a synonym of X. flavocinctus Hochhuth.

Clearly, Coiffait intended Leptophallus (and Leptophius) to be based on Kraatz's version of Xantholinus relucens, which is a misidentification of Xantholinus flavocinctus Hochhuth. For misidentified type species, article 70.3.2 permits the selection of the taxonomic species actually involved in the misidentification, so the type species of Leptophius is Xantholinus flavocinctus Hochhuth (;eq Xantholinus relucens sensu Kraatz).

Steninae

Stenus (Nestus)

Blackwelder (1952: 262) cited Stenus (Nestus) buphthalmus Gravenhorst, 1802 as the type species of Nestus Rey, 1884: 246. Gravenhorst did not describe S. buphthalmus; he attributed it to Schrank, but S. buphthalmus Gravenhorst was treated by many earlier authors as a valid species. Ganglbauer (1895: 572) seems to have been the first to link S. buphthalmus Gravenhorst with Stenus boops Ljungh, 1810: 158, when he listed S. boops as the junior name; others followed his treatment (e.g., see Scheerpeltz, 1933: 1149). Stenus buphthalmus sensu Gravenhorst is a misidentification of S. boops Ljungh and is an unavailable name. Stenus boops has also been cited as the type species of Stenus (Nestus) (Tottenham, 1940: 49), but it was not among the originally included nominal species. Rey (1884: 246–315) included 44 species, including “Stenus buphthalmus Gravenhorst” in Stenus (Nestus).

In cases of misidentification of the type species, article 70.3.2 permits selection of the taxonomic species actually involved. In this case we can accept Tottenham's (1940: 49) designation of Stenus (Nestus) boops Ljungh (;eq buphthalmus sensu Gravenhorst) as the type species of Stenus (Nestus).

Tachyporinae

Coproporus

Coproporus Kraatz, 1857 is a junior synonym of Erchomus Motschulsky, 1858 according to Blackwelder (1952: 106, 150). Blackwelder accepted Motschulsky's argument that Erchomus Motschulsky has priority over Coproporus Kraatz because he (i.e., Motschulsky) sent Erchomus to press before Kraatz's Coproporus was published. Campbell (1975: 179) quoted Motschulsky's 1859 discussion of the issue and disagreed with Blackwelder's conclusion, accepting Coproporus as the senior name. I follow Campbell's action.

Kraatz (1857a: 399) included no species in Coproporus by name but cited the genus as equivalent to Erichson's (1839b: 244) “Fam. I” of Tachinus. From this group of 18 species (see Erichson, 1839b: 245–253) Blackwelder (1938: 2) selected Coproporus rutilus Erichson, 1839 (ex Tachinus) as the type species of Coproporus; that designation is invalid. Articles 67.2.1 and 67.2.3 require that the type species be selected from one of the originally included species that was cited by available name. The first explicit citation of nominal species was by Kraatz (1858b: cxc), who included three names, Coproporus colchicus Kraatz, 1858, Coproporus ventriculus (Say, 1832) (ex Tachyporus), and Coproporus gibbulus (Erichson, 1839) (ex Tachinus). It is from among these three species that the type species must be chosen. R. Lucas (1920: 201) fixed C. colchicus (Kraatz) as the type species by subsequent designation.

Paratachinus

Cameron (1932: 396) proposed Paratachinus for two species, Paratachinus laticollis Cameron, 1932 and Paratachinus monticola Cameron, 1932. The generic name was unavailable (article 13.3), however, because no type species was designated. Blackwelder (1952: 293) designated Paratachinus laticollis Cameron as the type species by subsequent designation (Blackwelder, 1952: 293) and continued to attribute the name to Cameron. Because Blackwelder first made the name available, he is the author of Paratachinus (article 50.1), and the type species was fixed by original designation. Currently, Paratachinus is a junior synonym of Tachinus (Tachinoderus). Tachinus laticollis (Cameron) is a junior secondary homonym that was replaced by Tachinus oblongopunctatus Ullrich, 1975.

SPELLING CHANGES

Osoriinae

Indosorius peguanus: Bernhauer (1914b: 87) spelled the name Indosorius pequanus, but this was a lapsus since the name is based on Pegu. Other authors cited the name in the emended form, which is adopted here (see Cameron, 1930d: 298; Scheerpeltz, 1933: 1135).

Priochirus corneensis: Cameron (1928b: 425) described Priochirus corneensis from Borneo. The name is certainly a typographical error and should be Priochirus borneensis. Other authors cited the name in its emended form (e.g., Scheerpeltz, 1933: 1002); that spelling is adopted here.

Oxytelinae

Bledius viriosis Herman (1983) is the correct original spelling, not Bledius viriosus. Herman's use of “viriosis” on page 73 was a lapsus; the intended spelling was used on pages 4, 11, 21, 74, 75, 77, 107, 133, and 145 and is adopted under the “first reviser” provisions of article 24.2.3.

Carpelimus wendeleri: Herman (1970: 394) proposed the name to replace the preoccupied Carpelimus oculatus Wendeler, but he misspelled the name as Carpelimus wendleri. The name was intended to be a patronym based on H. Wendeler, so the name Carpelimus wendleri is a lapsus and is emended herein to Carpelimus wendeleri.

Piestinae

Piestus aper: Scheerpeltz (1952: 292) emended the spelling of Piestus aper Sharp to Piestus asper. Sharp (1876: 39, 403, 408) cited Piestus aper three times, so I assume it was the intended spelling, thereby making Scheerpeltz's alteration an unjustified emendation.

Staphylininae

Philonthus heilougjiangensis: J. Li (1993: 60) used Philonthus heilougjiangensis as the spelling of the name at the beginning of the description, but in the caption to the figures on the same pages the name is spelled with an “n” rather than a “u”. The name is certainly based on Heilongjiang, the province from which the species was collected. Philonthus heilongjiangensis J. Li is adopted here under the first reviser provisions of article 24.2.3.

Philonthus khouzestanicus: Boháč (1981: 356) used Philonthus knouzestanicus at the head of the description of the species, but in the abstract (p. 358) the spelling was Philonthus khouzestanicus. The name of the species was based on one of the collecting sites, Khouzestan, Iran. Philonthus khouzestanicus is adopted herein under the first reviser provisions of article 24.2.3.

Quedius poggii: Coiffait (1972b: 80) used the name Quedius pogii for a new species, but in the abstract (p. 79) he used Quedius poggii. The collector's name was Poggi, and I assume the species was named for that person. Under provisions of article 24.2.3 the name is corrected to Quedius poggii.

Umlauts

According to article 32.5.2.1, for names that include an umlaut, the umlaut is deleted without further modification of the name unless it was published before 1985 and based on a German word or name. The following were published before 1985 with an umlaut but were based on non-Germanic names.

1. mjöbergi. This name was used as the original spelling for species now in Edaphus, Eleusis, Medon, Osorius, Philonthus, Priochirus, Prognathoides, and Stenus. Some authors subsequently spelled it in its original form with an umlaut (see Edaphus, Eleusis, Lispinus, Osorius, Philonthus, Priochirus, and Stenus), some as mjoebergi (see Prognathoides and Stenus), or some as mjobergi (see Edaphus, Eleusis, Priochirus, and Prognathoides). In Osorius and Lispinus, Cameron used mjobergi, but the name was cited subsequently as mjöbergi. The name mjöbergi is based on a Swedish name (E. Mjöberg), so the correct spelling should be mjobergi. The name mjoebergi was an original spelling for a species now in Dibelonetes, and since it was originally published without diacritics no emendation is required.

2. mjöbergianus. This name was an original spelling in Priochirus and is a patronym in honor of E. Mjöberg. The name is emended herein to mjobergianus.

3. sjöstedti. This name was an original spelling for species now in Gauropterus, Lithocharodes, Pinophilinus, and Platydracus and is based on a Swedish name (Y. Sjöstedt). The correct spelling should be sjostedti. The name sjoestedti was the original spelling for species now in Gigarthrus and Paederus, and since they were originally published without diacritics no emendation is required.

4. m;auaklini. This name was an original spelling for species now in Bryoporu and was not based on a German name (F. M;auaklin). The correct spelling should be maklini. The name maeklini was the original spelling for species now in Mycetoporus, Proteinus, and Stenus. Because the name was originally published without diacritics no emendation is required.

5. Lispinus pondo;auensis is emended to Lispinus pondoensis.

NEW COMBINATIONS

Micropeplinae

Arrhenopeplus: Coiffait (1982a: 127) evidently elevated Arrhenopeplus but listed only two species in the genus. However, three other species had been listed in the subgenus and thus should be moved. The following species are new combinations transferred herein to Arrhenopeplus from Micropeplus: Arrhenopeplus denticollis (Coiffait, 1958) (note that this name is preoccupied and is replaced herein; see Homonyms), Arrhenopeplus thracicus (Coiffait, 1958), and Arrhenopeplus turcicus (Coiffait, 1958).

Omaliinae

Dialycera, formerly a subgenus of Phyllodrepa or Hapalaraea, was elevated (Zanetti, 1987: 202). Dialycera armena (Khnzorian, 1959) (ex Phyllodrepa) and Dialycera striatipennis (Aubé, 1850) (ex Omalium) were included in Phyllodrepa (Dialycera) and are herein transferred as new combinations to Dialycera.

Eusphalerum: Many species in Anthobium were moved to Eusphalerum after changes proposed by Tottenham (1939, 1949a), who noted that Anthobium had been misidentified because of confusion about the type species. Species formerly in Lathrimaeum took the generic name Anthobium. Many species were explicitly moved; some that should have been moved were not and are therefore moved herein. The following species are transferred from Anthobium to Eusphalerum and are new combinations: Eusphalerum birmanum (Scheerpeltz, 1965), E. bolivari (Koch, 1940), E. crebrepunctatum (Scheerpeltz, 1976), E. heydeni (Bernhauer, 1902), E. hispanicum (Brisout, 1866), E. kambaitiense (Scheerpeltz, 1965), E. lacinipenne (Scheerpeltz, 1976), E. lindbergi (Bernhauer, 1931), E. malaisei (Scheerpeltz, 1965), E. nepalense (Scheerpeltz, 1976), E. parvulum (Scheerpeltz, 1976), E. pfefferi (Roubal, 1941), E. rectangulum (Baudi, 1870), and E. sikkimi (Fauvel, 1904).

Osoriinae

Nacaeus: Blackwelder (1942: 79, 89; 1943: 120) listed 33 species in Pseudolispinodes Bernhauer, 1926, and he named four new subgenera: Liberiella, Liberiana, Rumeba, and Nacaeus. Later, he discovered he had misidentified the type species of Pseudolispinodes (Blackwelder, 1952: 373, see Tannea), a species that actually belonged in Lispinus. He (1952: 256) used Nacaeus for the group of species he had previously referred to as Pseudolispinodes and renamed the misidentified subgenus Pseudolispinodes as Tannea. He moved the species from Pseudolispinodes to Nacaeus by implication, rather than transferring them by name, so some of the species continue to be cited in Lispinus. To prevent further misunderstanding, the following species are new combinations in Nacaeus: Nacaeus aethiops (Eppelsheim, 1895) (ex Lispinus), N. beesoni (Cameron, 1924) (ex Lispinus), N. birmanus (Fauvel, 1895) (ex Lispinus), N. coarcticollis (Kraatz, 1859) (ex Lispinus), N. curtipennis (Bernhauer, 1929) (ex Lispinus), N. danforthi (Blackwelder, 1943) (ex Pseudolispinodes), N. fulvus (Motschulsky) (ex Lispinus), 1857, N. guadeloupae (Blackwelder, 1943) (ex Pseudolispinodes), N. impar (Cameron, 1913) (ex Lispinus), N. jyeri (Bernhauer, 1914) (ex Lispinus), N. luzonicus (Bernhauer, 1929) (ex Lispinus), N. morugae (Blackwelder, 1943) (ex Pseudolispinodes), N. nigrifrons (Fauvel, 1863) (ex Lispinus), N. nitidissimus (Bernhauer, 1905) (ex Ancaeus), N. reversus (Blackwelder, 1943) (ex Pseudolispinodes), N. rubidus (Cameron, 1925) (ex Lispinus), N. sericeiventris (Bernhauer, 1914) (ex Lispinus), N. sericeus (Coiffait, 1981) (ex Pseudolispinodes), and N. specularis (Bernhauer, 1904) (ex Lispinus). Pseudolispinodes is currently a subgenus of Lispinus.

Oxyporinae

Pseudoxyporus Nakane and Sawada 1956: 116, 120, originally described as a genus, was reduced by Campbell (1969: 230) to a subgenus of Oxyporus. The most recent citation for Pseudoxyporus listed it as a separate genus (Ito, 1999), and it has been so listed consistently in Japan. Consequently, several species must be transferred from Oxyporus to Pseudoxyporus and are new combinations. Pseudoxyporus lateralis (Gravenhorst, 1802), with synonym P. brevis (Melsheimer, 1844), P. occipitalis (Fauvel, 1864), P. quinquemaculatus (LeConte, 1895), and P. smithi (Bernhauer, 1895) are all transferred from Oxyporus.

Oxytelinae

Homalotrichus parvipennis (Scheerpeltz, 1972a: 64) is a new combination transferred from Coprophilus. This species is described from Argentina and, although I have not examined it, the species is moved because all Coprophilus-like species in South America are in Homalotrichus.

Thinodromus andicola (Fairmaire and Germain, 1861: 450) is a new combination transferred from Carpelimus. The species, now listed as valid, was a synonym of Carpelimus luteipes when C. luteipes was moved from Trogophloeus to Thinodromus. I assume that T. andicola is similar to C. luteipes, and I therefore transfer it herein from Carpelimus to Thinodromus.

Thinodromus smithi (Bernhauer, 1909: 229) is a new combination transferred from Carpelimus. This species is moved to Thinodromus because Thinodromus smithianus Scheerpeltz, a junior synonym of T. smithi Bernhauer, was transferred to Thinodromus previously.

Staphylininae

Gabrius perexcelsus (Tottenham, 1939) is a new combination transferred from Philonthus. Schillhammer (1997: 34) moved the junior synonym, Philonthus excelsus Cameron, 1932, to Gabrius. Cameron's species is preoccupied and Philonthus perexcelsus (Tottenham) is a replacement name, so it follows to transfer of Gabrius excelsus.

Platydracus: The species included below were all cited in Staphylinus (Platydracus). Platydracus is now recognized as a valid genus, and thus the following species are transferred from Staphylinus to Platydracus and are new combinations in the latter: Platydracus acupunctipennis (Bernhauer, 1907), P. associatus (Bernhauer, 1937), P. aurichalceus (Cameron, 1941), P. auroaeneus (Cameron, 1938), P. auronotatus (Fauvel, 1895), P. basicornis (Fauvel, 1895), P. bengalensis (Bernhauer, 1914), P. biguttatus (Bernhauer, 1937), P. bocandei (Fagel, 1951), P. bodongi (Bernhauer, 1906), P. bredoi (Fagel, 1950), P. bruchi (Bernhauer, 1934), P. bryanti (Cameron, 1918), P. cantharophagus (Fagel, 1950), P. chrysotrichopterus (Scheerpeltz, 1933) with its synonym P. chrysopterus (Brullé, 1842), P. contiguus (Cameron, 1938), P. cordilleranus (Bernhauer, 1917), P. curticollis (Bernhauer, 1917), P. decipiens (Kraatz, 1859), P. drescheri (Bernhauer, 1937), P. dudgeoni (Cameron, 1932), P. erichsoni (Boheman, 1848), P. falcimaculatus (Bernhauer, 1937), P. fauvelianus (Fagel, 1958), P. flavopilosus (Cameron, 1932), P. gabiruensis (Bernhauer, 1934), P. gemmatus (Fauvel, 1895), P. guineensis (Cameron, 1950), P. insolitus (Sharp, 1884), P. insularis (Cameron, 1941), P. javanus (Bernhauer, 1934), P. jeanneli (Chapman, 1939), P. latecarinatus (Bernhauer, 1937), P. lefevrei (Bernhauer, 1936), P. lewisi (Cameron, 1932), P. marmorellus (Fauvel, 1895), P. mimeticus (Bernhauer, 1917), P. mongendensis (Bernhauer, 1929), P. nigripennis (Cameron, 1941), P. nigriventris (Boheman, 1848), P. notativentris (Fauvel, 1905), P. pallidipes (Bernhauer, 1917), P. panamensis (Bernhauer and Schubert, 1914) and its synonym P. tarsalis (Sharp, 1884), P. philippinus (Cameron, 1941), P. prasinivariegatus (Bernhauer, 1921), P. preangeranus (Bernhauer, 1937), P. procerus (Gahan, 1893) with its synonyms P. leroyi (Bernhauer, 1938), P. purpurascens (Cameron, 1920), P. purpureoaureus (Bernhauer, 1915) with its synonyms P. basicornis (Bernhauer, 1932) and P. initicornis (Scheerpeltz, 1933), P. ruandae (Bernhauer, 1934), P. semiviolaceus (Cameron, 1932), P. subirideus (Kraatz, 1859), P. suspectus (Fauvel, 1904), P. suspiciosus (Bernhauer, 1937), P. uheheanus (Bernhauer, 1937), P. virgulatus (Fauvel, 1895), P. wittei (Fagel, 1950), and P. zavattarii (Gridelli, 1939).

Tachyporinae

Bryophacis: The following species were most recently cited in Bryoporus (Bryophacis) and are herein transferred as new combinations to Bryophacis, which Campbell (1993: 6, 10, 38) cited as a valid genus: Bryophacis crassicornis (Mäklin, 1847) (ex Mycetoporus), B. fasciatus (Fauvel, 1891) (ex Megacronus), B. konecznii (Scheerpeltz, 1959) (ex Bryoporus), B. punctipennis (Thomson, 1861) (ex Lordithon) with its synonym B. plagiatus Eppelsheim, 1893, B. rufus (Erichson, 1839) (ex Bolitobius), B. strigellus (Reitter, 1909) (ex Bryoporus), and B. tirolensis (Jatzentkovsky, 1910) (ex Bryoporus) with its synonym B. gracilis (Luze, 1903) (ex Bryoporus).

Ischnosoma was originally described as a genus; however, with a few exceptions (e.g., Thomson, 1859, 1861; Rey, 1883) during most of its use, it has been listed as a subgenus or synonym of Mycetoporus. Recent authors, beginning with Campbell (1991), have recognized the two as separate genera. Some species were moved by name to Ischnosoma, whereas others listed in Mycetoporus (Ischnosoma) were not explicitly transferred. I herein move those species from Mycetoporus to Ischnosoma. The following are new combinations: Ischnosoma bolitobioides (Bernhauer, 1923), I. cassagnaui (Coiffait, 1984), I. chinense (Bernhauer, 1939), I. convexum (Sharp, 1888), I. discoidale (Sharp, 1888), I. duplicatum (Sharp, 1888), I. fusciventre (Tikhomirova, 1973), I. himalayicum (Cameron, 1926), I. indicum (Cameron, 1926), I. jaljalense (Coiffait, 1983), I. kilimandscharense (Bernhauer, 1915), I. maderi (Bernhauer, 1943), I. malaisei (Scheerpeltz, 1965), I. mandschuricum (Bernhauer, 1923), I. nepalense (Scheerpeltz, 1976), and I. simile (Tikhomirova, 1973).

Lordithon: Tottenham (1949a: 379) and Blackwelder (1952: 79) pointed out that Bolitobius was misidentified by many previous workers, that the name actually applied to Bryocharis, and that Lordithon was the correct name for the most of the species included in Bolitobius. Bolitobius and Bryocharis are objective synonyms, with the type species of both having been in Bryocharis. Bolitobius has priority over the genus listed as Bryocharis in the catalogs of Bernhauer and Schubert (1916: 463) and Scheerpeltz (1933: 1491; 1968: 103). The species that these authors listed in Bolitobius (Bernhauer and Schubert, 1916: 458; Scheerpeltz, 1933: 1487; 1968: 101) take the next available name, Lordithon. Most names that should be listed in Lordithon were never formally transferred, and some writers continued to use Bolitobius in the sense of Lordithon. Most of the following species were included in Bolitobius by Bernhauer and Schubert (1916), Scheerpeltz (1933, 1968), and by others. The species described before Tottenham (1949a) pointed out the misuse of Bolitobius, but after the above-cited catalogs, are transferred because I assume that the authors were using the older, erroneous concept of the genus. I am transferring the species described after the works of Tottenham (1949) and Blackwelder (1952) because the authors (Bernhauer, Cameron, Coiffait, Last, and Scheerpeltz) had used Bolitobius in the sense of Lordithon in other works, and thus I assume they continued doing so when describing their new species. Obviously some species may be transferred erroneously. Most of the species listed below were described in Bolitobius, a few as noted were described in other genera, but all were in Bolitobius prior to the present article. The following are transferred from Bolitobius to Lordithon as new combinations: Lordithon affinis (Cameron, 1950), L. apicicornis (Bernhauer, 1920), L. beesoni (Cameron, 1932), L. biplagiatus (Cameron, 1932), L. bipustulatus (Cameron, 1937), L. birmanus (Cameron, 1932), L. centralis (Cameron, 1932), L. championi (Cameron, 1932), L. cinctiventris (Sharp, 1888), L. copulatus (Luze, 1902), L. decipiens (Cameron, 1932), L. decipiens (Cameron, 1937) (note that this name is replaced in the section on homonyms in the present article), L. difficilis (Cameron, 1932), L. distinctus (Schubert, 1906), L. dohertyi (Cameron, 1932), L. drescheri (Cameron, 1937), L. elegans (Cameron, 1932), L. femoralis (Cameron, 1932), L. flaviceps (Cameron, 1932), L. franzi (Coiffait, 1981), L. freyi (Bernhauer, 1939), L. frigidus (Rey, 1883), L. gratellus (Cameron, 1932), L. humeralis (Cameron, 1926), L. imitator (Luze, 1901), L. indicus (Bernhauer, 1917), L. indubius (Luze, 1901), L. japonicus (Sharp, 1874), L. javanus (Cameron, 1937), L. kantschiederi (Bernhauer, 1915), L. kashmiricus (Cameron, 1932), L. lambda (Fauvel, 1895) (ex Megacronus), L. lgockii (Bernhauer, 1928), L. limbifer (Fauvel, 1901), L. luteolunatoides (Scheerpeltz, 1965), L. melanurus (Fauvel, 1901), L. luteolunatus (Scheerpeltz, 1965), L. luzei (Bernhauer, 1929), L. maacki (Solsky, 1871), L. malaisei (Scheerpeltz, 1965), L. monticola (Cameron, 1926), L. nigricollis (J. Sahlberg, 1880), L. nigriventris (Cameron, 1944), L. niponensis (Cameron, 1933), L. nitidus (Motschulsky, 1858), L. patagonicus (Scheerpeltz, 1972), L. philippinus (Cameron, 1941), L. praenobilis (Kraatz, 1879), L. preangeranus (Cameron, 1937), L. proximus (Cameron, 1926), L. pulcher (Bernhauer, 1908), L. rostratus (Motschulsky, 1860), L. ruficeps (Bernhauer, 1938), L. scapularis (Cameron, 1932), L. semiflavus (Scheerpeltz, 1965), L. seriaticollis (Coiffait and Saiz, 1968), L. sharpianus (Scheerpeltz, 1933) and its synonym L. sharpi (Cameron, 1930), L. simlaensis (Cameron, 1926), L. simulans (Cameron, 1932), L. spinipes (Champion, 1922), L. sulciventris Coiffait, 1982, L. suturalis (Cameron, 1937) with its synonym L. collaris (Cameron, 1937), L. tarsalis (Cameron, 1932), L. transversulus (Reitter, 1909), L. variatus (Bernhauer and Schubert, 1916) (ex Bryoporus), L. vittula (Fauvel, 1895) (ex Megacronus), and L. xanthopterus (Champion, 1922).

Sepedophilus: Because the type species of Conurus (bipustulatus Fabricius, 1793), as well as its replacement names, Conosoma and Conosomus, is a species of Tachinus, the species described under those names must take the name of the next available name for the group, Sepedophilus. Most of the following species were described in Conurus, Conosoma, or Conosomus. Because the type species of these three genus-group names is in Tachinus, then without formal transfer they are all assigned to Tachinus. The following species are transferred from Tachinus to Sepedophilus where they are new combinations: Sepedophilus abdominalis (Cameron, 1919) (ex Conosoma), S. aberdarensis (Cameron, 1952) (ex Conosoma), S. abnormalis (Bernhauer, 1917) (ex Conosoma), S. activus (Olliff, 1886) (ex Conosoma), S. acutus (Fauvel, 1889) (ex Conurus), S. aestivus (Rey, 1882) (ex Conurus), S. aethiopicus (Bernhauer, 1931) (ex Conosoma), S. africanus (Cameron, 1959) (ex Conosoma), S. alexandrovi (Bernhauer, 1938) (ex Conosoma), S. alienus (Cameron, 1947) (ex Conosoma), S. alluaudi (Fauvel, 1898) (ex Conurus), S. ambiguus (Olliff, 1886) (ex Conosoma), S. analis (Fauvel, 1895) (ex Conurus), S. andinus (Bernhauer, 1917) (ex Conosoma), S. andrewesi (Cameron, 1932) (ex Conosoma), S. angustiformis (Bernhauer, 1908) (ex Conosoma), S. antennalis (Broun, 1921) (ex Conurus), S. antennarius (Bernhauer, 1902) (ex Conurus), S. apicicornis (Fauvel, 1903) (ex Conurus), S. apiciventris (Fairmaire and Germain, 1861) (ex Conurus), S. asperellus (Broun, 1914) (ex Conurus), S. aureiventris (Cameron, 1941) (ex Conosomus), S. australis (Erichson, 1839) (ex Conurus), S. australicus (Cameron, 1943) (ex Conurus), S. badius (Broun, 1880) (ex Conurus), S. barycephalus (Lea, 1910) (ex Conosoma), S. basiflavus (Cameron, 1959) (ex Conosoma), S. basipennis (Bernhauer, 1941) (ex Conosoma), S. beesoni (Cameron, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. bicolor (Bernhauer, 1910) (ex Conosoma), S. bilineatus (Bernhauer, 1917) (ex Conosoma), S. bipartitus (Lea, 1910) (ex Conosoma), S. birmanus (Fauvel, 1895) (ex Conurus), S. brasilianus (Wendeler, 1956) (ex Conosoma), S. brevipennis (Motschulsky, 1860) (ex Conosomus), S. brevis (Fauvel, 1895) (ex Conurus), S. burgeoni (Bernhauer, 1932) (ex Conosoma), S. buruensis (Bernhauer, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. calceatus (Peyerimhoff, 1923) (ex Conosoma), S. capensis (Tottenham, 1957) (ex Conosomus), S. celebensis (Cameron, 1942) (ex Conosoma), S. championi (Cameron, 1919) (ex Conosoma), S. circumflexus (Fauvel, 1878) (ex Conurus), S. collarti (Cameron, 1937) (ex Conosoma), S. commarti (Cameron, 1949) (ex Conosoma), S. confusus (Cameron, 1950) (ex Conosoma), S. conicicollis (Scheerpeltz, 1974) (ex Conosoma), S. connexus (Fauvel, 1905) (ex Conurus), S. convexiusculus (Wasmann, 1902) (ex Conosoma), S. convexus (Bernhauer, 1941) (ex Conosoma), S. corpulentus (Bernhauer, 1939) (ex Conosoma), S. c-rufum (Cameron, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. curticornis (Bernhauer, 1934) (ex Conosoma), S. cylindricus (Cameron, 1945) (ex Conosoma), S. deceptivus (Cameron, 1950) (ex Conosoma), S. decimus (Lea, 1899) (ex Conosoma), S. decipiens (Wendeler, 1956) (ex Conosoma), S. decoratus (Fauvel, 1907) (ex Conurus), S. decurtatus (Eppelsheim, 1892) (ex Conurus), S. difficilis (Cameron, 1950) (ex Conosoma), S. diffinis (Sharp, 1884) (ex Conosoma), S. dilutus (Bernhauer, 1915) (ex Conosoma), S. dimerus (Fauvel, 1895) (ex Conurus), S. discolor (Bernhauer, 1915) (ex Conosoma), S. discus (Fauvel, 1878) (ex Conurus), S. dubius (Bernhauer, 1940) (ex Conosoma), S. elegantulus (Cameron, 1941) (ex Conosoma), S. enixus (Olliff, 1886) (ex Conosoma), S. errans (Tottenham, 1957) (ex Conosomus), S. erythrinus (Hochhuth, 1872) (ex Conosoma), S. eximius (Olliff, 1886) (ex Conosoma), S. fasciipennis (Eppelsheim, 1895) (ex Conurus), S. fenestratus (Bernhauer, 1928) (ex Conosoma), S. ferrugatus (Cameron, 1950) (ex Conosoma), S. ferrugineus (Bernhauer, 1920) (ex Conosoma), S. festivus (Cameron, 1950) (ex Conosoma), S. filicornis (Scheerpeltz, 1974) (ex Conosoma), S. flavicornis (Cameron, 1948) (ex Conosoma), S. flavofasciatus (Bernhauer, 1915) (ex Conosoma), S. flavorufus (Cameron, 1932) (ex Conosoma), S. flavus (Iskakov, 1981) (ex Conosoma), S. fugitans (Tottenham, 1957) (ex Conosomus), S. fumatus (Erichson, 1839) (ex Conurus), S. fumigatus (Scheerpeltz, 1965) (ex Conosoma), S. gedyei (Cameron, 1952) (ex Conosoma), S. ghesquierei (Bernhauer, 1939) (ex Conosoma), S. glaberrimus (Bernhauer, 1920) (ex Coproporus), S. globicolis (Bernhauer, 1934) (ex Conosoma), S. gracilicornis (Fauvel, 1905) (ex Conurus), S. grandicolis (Bernhauer, 1934) (ex Conosoma), S. gravidus (Sharp, 1884) (ex Conosoma), S. grossus (Erichson, 1839) (ex Conurus), S. haemisphaericus (Bernhauer, 1915) (ex Conosoma), S. hattahensis (Oke, 1933) (ex Conosoma), S. himalayicus (Cameron, 1932) (ex Conosoma), S. hottentottus (Eichelbaum, 1913) (ex Conosoma), S. hubrichi (Bernhauer, 1923) (ex Conosoma), S. hudsoni (Cameron, 1945) (ex Conosoma), S. ignobilis (Cameron, 1950) (ex Conosoma), S. impennis (Fauvel, 1878) (ex Conurus), S. instabilis (Blackburn, 1888) (ex Conurus), S. interruptus (Erichson, 1839) (ex Conurus), S. kashmiricus (Bernhauer, 1915) (ex Conosoma), S. kobensis (Cameron, 1933) (ex Conosoma) laeviceps (Fauvel, 1879) (ex Conurus), S. lanceolatus (Lea, 1899) (ex Conosoma), S. lateripennis (Lea, 1912) (ex Conosoma), S. laticollis (Cameron, 1943) (ex Conosoma), S. latus (Sharp, 1876) (ex Conurus), S. ledouxi (Tronquet, 1981) (ex Conosoma), S. limnorioides (Lea, 1899) (ex Conosoma), S. linnavuorii (Scheerpeltz, 1974) (ex Conosoma), S. longepilosus (Tottenham, 1956) (ex Conosomus), S. loquax (Tottenham, 1957) (ex Conosomus), S. luniger (Fauvel, 1898) (ex Conurus), S. maculicollis (Cameron, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. maculipennis (Solier, 1849) (ex Tachyporus), S. malayanus (Cameron, 1920) (ex Conosoma), S. maorinus (Broun, 1893) (ex Conurus), S. marginatus (Cameron, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. medialis (Sharp, 1884) (ex Conosoma), S. micans (Scheerpeltz, 1974) (ex Conosoma), S. micantoides (Scheerpeltz, 1974) (ex Conosoma), S. mirabilis (Cameron, 1937) (ex Conosoma), S. montalbensis (Cameron, 1941) (ex Conosoma), S. morosus (Broun, 1921) (ex Conurus), S. morsitans (Tottenham, 1957) (ex Conosomus), S. myrmecophilus (Lea, 1910) (ex Conosoma), S. nigerrimus (Cameron, 1944) (ex Conosoma), S. nigromaculatus (Cameron, 1919) (ex Conosoma), S. nigropictus (Eppelsheim, 1884) (ex Conurus), S. nigrosetosus (Cameron, 1950) (ex Conosoma), S. nigrovestitus (Bernhauer, 1917) (ex Conosoma), S. niticollis (Broun, 1893) (ex Conurus), S. nitidicollis (Jarrige, 1957) (ex Conurus), S. nitidulus (Scheerpeltz, 1974) (ex Conosoma), S. nonus (Lea, 1899) (ex Conosoma), S. notatus (Fauvel, 1895) (ex Conurus), S. obesus (Boheman, 1848) (ex Conurus), S. oblongoguttatus (Scheerpeltz, 1965) (ex Conosoma), S. obscurevittatus (Cameron, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. obscuripennis (Fairmaire and Germain, 1861) (ex Conurus), S. obscurus (Cameron, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. obsoletus (Erichson, 1839) (ex Conurus), S. ocellarius (Fauvel, 1879) (ex Conurus), S. ochraceus (Cameron, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. octavus (Lea, 1899) (ex Conosoma), S. orientalis (Cameron, 1950) (ex Conosoma), S. ornatus (Sharp, 1884) (ex Conosoma), S. orthodoxus (Lea, 1910) (ex Conosoma), S. papuanus (Cameron, 1937) (ex Conosoma), S. parcepunctatus (Bernhauer, 1917) (ex Conosoma), S. parcus (Sharp, 1884) (ex Conosoma), S. parkeri (Cameron, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. parvipennis (Scheerpeltz, 1974) (ex Conosoma), S. penangensis (Cameron, 1950) (ex Conosoma), S. periculus (Tottenham, 1956) (ex Conosomus), S. perplexus (Cameron, 1919) (ex Conosoma), S. persimilis (Cameron, 1932) (ex Conosoma), S. personatus (Fauvel, 1878) (ex Conurus), S. peruvianus (Bernhauer, 1917) (ex Conosoma), S. phoxus (Olliff, 1886) (ex Conosoma), S. picticollis (Fauvel, 1898) (ex Conurus), S. pictipennis (Kraatz, 1859) (ex Conosoma), S. pictus (Oke, 1933) (ex Conosoma), S. pilosicornis (Bernhauer, 1917) (ex Conosoma), S. plebeius (Sharp, 1884) (ex Conosoma), S. postpictus (Cameron, 1932) (ex Conosoma), S. primus (Lea, 1899) (ex Conosoma), S. pseudohimalayicus (Scheerpeltz, 1965) (ex Conosoma), S. pseudolitoreus (Bernhauer, 1938) (ex Conosoma), S. pulchricolor (Fauvel, 1905) (ex Conurus), S. pulchricornis (Fauvel, 1889) (ex Conurus), S. puncticollis (Cameron, 1952) (ex Conosoma), S. pustulatus (Bernhauer, 1908) (ex Conosoma), S. pustulifer (Bernhauer and Schubert, 1916) (ex Conosoma), S. pyrrhopterus (Stephens, 1835) (ex Conurus), S. quadrifasciatus (Cameron, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. quadrimaculatus (Cameron, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. quartus (Lea, 1899) (ex Conosoma), S. quinqueguttatus (Bernhauer, 1915) (ex Conosoma), S. quintus (Lea, 1899) (ex Conosoma), S. reptans (Tottenham, 1956) (ex Conosomus), S. roblensis (Coiffait and Saiz, 1968) (ex Conosomus), S. rudepunctatus (Scheerpeltz, 1965) (ex Conosoma), S. rufescens (Tottenham, 1956) (ex Conosomus), S. ruficeps (Cameron, 1925) (ex Conosoma), S. rufipalpis (MacLeay, 1873) (ex Conurus), S. rufiventris (Fauvel, 1898) (ex Conurus), S. rufobrunneus (Cameron, 1919) (ex Conosoma), S. rufoguttatus (Cameron, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. rufotestaceus (Cameron, 1919) (ex Conosoma), S. rufus (Kraatz, 1859) (ex Conosoma), S. scapularis (Scheerpeltz, 1974) (ex Conosoma), S. sclopetus (Tottenham, 1956) (ex Conosomus), S. scutellaris (Lea, 1899) (ex Conosoma), S. secundus (Lea, 1899) (ex Conosoma), S. selangorensis (Cameron, 1950) (ex Conosoma), S. seminudus (Broun, 1921) (ex Conurus), S. senegalensis (Cameron, 1939) (ex Conosoma), S. separatus (Cameron, 1947) (ex Conosoma), S. septimus (Lea, 1899) (ex Conosoma), S. sericeivestis (Scheerpeltz, 1974) (ex Conosoma), S. setigerus (Cameron, 1952) (ex Conosoma), S. setiventris (Cameron, 1943) (ex Conosoma), S. setosus (Cameron, 1941) (ex Conosoma), S. sextus (Lea, 1899) (ex Conosoma), S. signatus (Bernhauer, 1942) (ex Conosoma), S. similis (Cameron, 1932) (ex Conosoma), S. simillimus (Bernhauer, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. singularis (Last, 1972) (ex Conosomus), S. solidus (Last, 1972) (ex Conosomus), S. solieri (Coiffait and Saiz, 1968) (ex Conosomus), S. sparsepunctatus (Tottenham, 1957) (ex Conosomus), S. sparsus (Cameron, 1932) (ex Conosoma), S. suavis (Fauvel, 1895) (ex Conurus), S. subdepressus (Cameron, 1941) (ex Conosoma), S. subgracilis (Cameron, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. subguttatus (Cameron, 1950) (ex Conosoma), S. subornatus (Sharp, 1884) (ex Conosoma), S. subparallelus (Bernhauer, 1935) (ex Conosoma), S. subpubescens (Schubert, 1902) (ex Conurus), S. subruber (Broun, 1880) (ex Conurus), S. subtestaceus (Cameron, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. sumbaensis (Scheerpeltz, 1957) (ex Conosoma), S. tenuicornis (Lindberg, 1953) (ex Conosomus), S. tenuicornis (Scheerpeltz, 1974) (ex Conosoma) (note that this name is replaced in the section on homonyms of the present article), S. termitophilus (Wasmann, 1902) (ex Conosoma), S. testaceoangulatus (Scheerpeltz, 1965) (ex Conosoma), S. transversicollis (Scheerpeltz, 1974) (ex Conosoma), S. triangulus (Fauvel, 1878) (ex Conurus), S. trimaculatus (Scheerpeltz, 1974) (ex Conosoma), S. tristis (Cameron, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. tropicus (Fauvel, 1900) (ex Conurus), S. tumidus (Erichson, 1839) (ex Conurus), S. unculus (Tottenham, 1956) (ex Conosomus), S. unicolor (Cameron, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. variabilis (Cameron, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. varius (Erichson, 1839) (ex Conurus), S. venustulus (Erichson, 1839) (ex Conurus), S. virgula (Fauvel, 1895) (ex Conurus), S. vittatus (Cameron, 1926) (ex Conosoma), S. walkeri (Cameron, 1919) (ex Conosoma), and S. zealandicus (Bernhauer, 1941) (ex Conosoma).

SYNONYMS

Euaesthetinae

Edaphus LeConte 1861: 67 is a junior synonymic homonym of Edaphus Motschulsky 1857a: 7; they share the same type species. LeConte's use of Edaphus has been cited as having been originated by LeConte (Bernhauer and Schubert, 1911: 187), or as a subsequent use of Motschulsky's name (Puthz, 1974: 911). LeConte (1861: 67) did not refer to Motschulsky's use of the name and he later (1863: 25) specifically referred the name to himself.

Edaphus nitidus LeConte, 1861: 68 is a junior primary homonym and junior synonym of Edaphus nitidus Motschulsky, 1857: 7. The reference to LeConte's name is often cited as a subsequent reference for nitidus Motschulsky, and I assume that the two names represent the same species. Further support for the contention herein that the species are the same is the fact that some of the material studied by LeConte came from Motschulsky (LeConte, 1863b: 50).

Stenaesthetus microphthalmus Orousset, 1988: 163, proposed as an emendation of Stenaesthetus microphtalmus Jarrige, 1968: 873, is an unjustified emendation and junior synonym of the latter. There is no evidence that the name used by Jarrige was an incorrect original spelling (article 33.3.2), and thus the original spelling must be accepted.

Micropeplinae

Micropeplus maillei Laporte, 1840: 193 is a junior primary homonym of Micropeplus maillei Guérin-Méneville, 1829: pl. 10, fig. 4. The name used by Guérin-Méneville's is a synonym of Micropeplus staphylinoides Marsham, 1802. M. maillei Laporte's designated name was not cited after the original description. Although Laporte did not mention the species named by Guérin-Méneville, Bernhauer and Schubert (1910: 29) listed Laporte's name as a subsequent reference of Micropeplus maillei Guérin-Méneville, so the two may be the same species. Micropeplus maillei Laporte is a new synonym of Micropeplus staphylinoides Marsham.

Omaliinae

Amphichroum canaliculatum (Erichson, 1840: 871) has an older synonym, Amphichroum dentipes (Heer, 1839: 181) that has been cited as a junior synonym of Amphichroum canaliculatum since 1858 and was not used as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 27 articles by 22 authors have been published listing Amphichroum canaliculatum Erichson as a valid (article 23.9.1.2); 22 of the articles are listed in a forthcoming catalog (Herman, in press), and the other five are cited herein (Franz, 1970: 288; Hugentobler, 1966: 59; Peez and Kahlen, 1977: 130; Schiller, 1989: 1039; Wörndle, 1950: 129). Amphichroum canaliculatum (Erichson) is a nomen protectum and A. dentipes (Heer) and is a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Anthophagus alpinus (Fabricius, 1793: 526) (ex Staphylinus) is a new synonym of Anthophagus alpinus (Paykull, 1790: 134) (ex Staphylinus). Although Paykull's name is older, when he cited Staphylinus alpinus again in 1800, he attributed it to Fabricius, and thus the Fabricius and Paykull species are probably the same.

Anthophagus angusticollis (Mannerheim, 1830: 56) has two older synonyms, Anthophagus fulvus (De Geer, 1774: 25) and Anthophagus abbreviatus (Fabricius, 1779: 263). Anthophagus fulvus has been cited as a synonym of Anthophagus caraboides (Linné, 1758) or Anthophagus angusticollis since 1789 and was not used a valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). Anthophagus abbreviatus was listed as a junior synonym of Anthophagus caraboides for brief periods in the 1800s; in 1933 it was listed as a junior synonym of Anthophagus caraboides, and from 1964 to the present it has been cited as a junior synonym of A. angusticollis. However, A. abbreviatus was listed as valid from 1895 through at least 1909 (Luze, 1902: 516; Bernhauer and Schubert, 1910: 78; Reitter, 1909: 183) and does not satisfy the provisions of article 23.9.1.1. In the last 50 years at least 29 articles by 23 authors have been published listing Anthophagus angusticollis (Mannerheim) as a valid name (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Although A. fulvus was not cited as valid after 1899, it and A. angusticollis were listed as synonyms only once in 1933 by Koch, so the synonymy needs verification. Anthophagus abbreviatus was cited as valid after 1899, but its synonymy with A. angusticollis also needs verification because Boháč (1993: 42) cited A. abbreviatus as a misidentification of A. angusticollis. Until the taxonomic problems have been resolved, it is premature to replace A. angusticollis. Furthermore, because resurrection of one of the older synonyms would compromise stability, the use of A. angusticollis will be maintained pending a ruling by the Commission under provisions of article 23.9.3.

Anthophagus fallax M;auarkel and Kiesenwetter, 1848: 326 is a primary junior homonym and a new synonym of Anthophagus fallax Kiesenwetter, 1848: 18. They both have the same type locality and essentially the same description. The name by M;auarkel and Kiesenwetter is usually cited as the original reference, but Kiesenwetter's article was published in September and M;auarkel and Kiesenwetter's in November.

Eusphalerum foveicolle (Fauvel, 1871a: 73) has an older synonym, Eusphalerum cribricolle (Baudi, 1870: 403). Baudi's name was not used as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In a forthcoming catalog (Herman, in press), A. foveicolle is listed with only four references in the last 50 years, falling short of satisfying provisions of article 29.9.1.2. However, since diligent search will likely result in the required number of references, it is premature to resurrect a name that is essentially forgotten.

Eusphalerum rectangulum (Fauvel, 1871a: 17) is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Eusphalerum rectangulum (Baudi, 1870: 404). Baudi cited the species as “rectangulum Fauvel, in litt”, so the later description of Anthobium rectangulum by Fauvel is probably the same species. Fauvel (1871b: 78) referred to Anthobium rectangulum (Baudi) as a subsequent reference of Anthobium rectangulum Fauvel.

Eusphalerum sorbi (Gyllenhal, 1810: 206) has an older synonym, Eusphalerum testaceum (Gravenhorst, 1806: 218). Eusphalerum testaceum (Gravenhorst) has been a synonym of Eusphalerum sorbi (Gyllenhal) since 1839 and, until 1996, was not used as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 28 articles by 26 authors have been published listing Eusphalerum sorbi as valid a name (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). However, Adám (1996: 237) resurrected E. testaceum, thereby compromising application of article 23.9.1. Use of the older name will create significant instability. The younger name has been cited as valid in many publications and is known by many workers, and thus its use should be maintained. The matter will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is to be maintained (article 23.9.3).

Lesteva punctata Erichson, 1839a: 618 has an older synonym, Lesteva villosa (Waltl, 1838: 268). Lesteva villosa has been a synonym of Lesteva punctata since 1840 and, until 1996, was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 29 articles by 21 authors have been published listing Lesteva punctata Erichson as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). However, Ádám (1996b: 47) resurrected L. villosa, thereby compromising application of article 23.9.1. Use of the older name, which is essentially forgotten one, will create significant instability. The younger name has been cited as valid in many publications and is known by many workers, and thus its use should be maintained. The matter will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is to be maintained (article 23.9.3).

Omalium rivulare (Paykull, 1789: 65) has an older synonym, Omalium cursor (O. Müller, 1776: 97). Omalium cursor has been a junior synonym of Omalium rivulare since 1840 and, until 1996, was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 54 articles by 47 authors have been published listing Omalium rivulare (Paykull) as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). However, Ádám (1996a: 238) resurrected O. cursor, thereby compromising application of article 23.9.1. Use of the older name, which is essentially forgotten one, will create significant instability. The younger name has been cited as valid in many publications and is known by many workers, so its use should be maintained. The matter will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is to be maintained (article 23.9.3).

Phloeonomus chlorizans Bernhauer, 1905: 10 is a junior secondary homonym and new synonym of Phloeonomus chlorizans (Fauvel, 1904: 89). At the end of his description of the species, Bernhauer wrote that the species was based on a specimen labelled as “chlorizans Fauv. i.l.” Presumably, Bernhauer published what he thought was a manuscript name, and I assume the two names are the same species.

Phloeostiba plana (Paykull, 1792: 145) has an older synonym, Phloeostiba flavipes (Linné, 1758). Phloeostiba flavipes (Linné) has been attributed erroneously to Fabricius, 1793, by most workers, but Fabricius attributed the species to Linné. Phloeostiba flavipes has been a synonym of Phloeostiba plana since 1839 and, until 1996, was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 33 articles by 30 authors have been published listing Phloeostiba plana (Paykull) as a valid species (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). However, Ádám (1996a: 238) resurrected P. plana, thereby compromising application of article 23.9.1. Use of the older name will create significant instability. The younger name has been cited as valid in many publications and is known by many workers, so its use should be maintained. The matter will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is to be maintained (article 23.9.3).

Phyllodrepoidea crenata Ganglbauer, 1895: 724 has an older synonym, Phyllodrepoidea creatoris (Gozis, 1886: 15). Gozis proposed the name to replace Gravenhorst's misidentification of Omalium crenatum (1802: 114). Gravenhorst redescribed Staphylinus crenatus Fabricius (1793: 525), attributed the species to that author, and moved the name to Omalium. All subsequent authors attributed the omaliine species to Gravenhorst. However, the species attributed to Gravenhorst is a misidentification. The true Staphylinus crenatus Fabricius is a valid species in Acidota. Although a misidentification, because P. crenata is the type species of Phyllodrepoidea, its use can be maintained under provisions of article 70.3.1, but the authorship and date of publication become Gravenhorst in 1895 (articles 11.10, 67.13.1). Gozis replaced Gravenhorst's misidentification with Phyllodrepoidea creatoris, but the name has been virtually unused. In a forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press) it is cited only once, as a junior synonymm of P. crenata, after its original proposal. On the other hand, P. crenata has been cited at least 25 times by 23 authors in the last 50 years. Under provisions of article 70.3.2, Phyllodrepoidea crenata Ganglbauer (;eq crenata sensu Gravenhorst) is the type species of Phyllodrepoidea.

Xylodromus testaceus (Erichson, 1840: 885) (ex Omalium), a junior primary homonym of Eusphalerum testaceum (Gravenhorst, 1806: 218) (ex Omalium), has an older synonym, Xylodromus pygmaeus (Gravenhorst, 1806: 206). Xylodromus pygmaeus (Gravenhorst) has been a junior synonym of Xylodromus testaceus since 1840 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 27 articles by 21 authors have been published listing Xylodromus testaceus (Erichson) as a valid species (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). However, Ádám (1996a: 238) resurrected another junior synonym, Xylodromus heterocerus (Flori, 1900: 90), thereby compromising application of article 23.9.1. Adám's action was taken because X. testaceus (Erichson) is a junior primary homonym of Eusphalerum testaceum (Gravenhorst). Although E. testaceum is a junior synonym of Eusphalerum sorbi (Gyllenhal, 1810), the two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899 (article 23.9.5). Xylodromus testaceus has been cited as valid in many publications and is known by many workers, so its use should be maintained. The matter will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is to be maintained (article 23.9.3).

Osoriinae

Eleusis kraatzi Fauvel, 1878b: 207, an unnecessary replacement name, is a new synonym of Eleusis terminata Fauvel, 1869: 494. Both names were proposed to replace the Eleusis apicipennis (Kraatz, 1859: 183) (ex Isomalus), which is a junior primary homonym of E. apicipennis (Fairmaire, 1849) (ex Isomalus).

Leptochirus laeviventris Bernhauer, 1903: 121, 126 is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Leptochirus laeviventris Fauvel, 1902: 16. Bernhauer wrote that the species was based on a specimen labelled as “laeviventris Fauv. i.l.”. Presumably, Bernhauer published what he thought was a manuscript name, and thus I assume the two names are the same species. Bernhauer and Schubert (1910: 13) cited Bernhauer's use of the name as a subsequent reference of Fauvel's name.

Neolosus tenuicornis (Bernhauer, 1904: 13) (ex Holosus) is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Neolosus tenuicornis (Fauvel, 1903: 236) (ex Holosus). Bernhauer and Schubert (1910: 20) cited the reference to Holosus tenuicornis Bernhauer as a subsequent citation for Holosus tenuicornis Fauvel, 1903. I assume the two names represent the same species.

Osorius: In 1941, Cameron published a series of articles describing new species of Staphylinidae from the Philippines. In the first of that series (Cameron, 1941b: 430–447) he wrote that he purchased a collection of Philippine Staphylinidae that had been examined by Max Bernhauer. He further stated that “Many of these were new and have now been described by that authority [Bernhauer]; of the others no descriptions have yet appeared, and in this paper. I describe these species, retaining the manuscript names used by him.” In his descriptions Cameron included the phrase “(Bernh. in litt.)” beside most of the new Philippine species. In 1942, Bernhauer published 41 new species of Osorius from the Philippines; some of them were homonyms of Osorius species described by Cameron the previous year. Evidence supports recognizing the homonyms described by Bernhauer and by Cameron as homonymic synonyms.

Osorius basipennis Bernhauer, 1942b: 221 is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Osorius basipennis Cameron, 1941b: 494.

Osorius brunneipennis Bernhauer, 1942a: 223 is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Osorius brunneipennis Cameron, 1941c: 495.

Osorius impressiceps Bernhauer, 1942b: 222 is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Osorius impressiceps Cameron, 1941c: 493.

Osorius mephistopheles Bernhauer, 1942b: 218 is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Osorius mephistopheles Cameron, 1941c: 493.

Osorius unicornis Bernhauer, 1942b: 216 is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Osorius unicornis Cameron, 1941c: 494.

Priochirus cameroni Scheerpeltz, 1933: 1002 is an unnecessary replacement name for and a new synonym of Priochirus difficilis Cameron, 1928b: 426, 427. Scheerpeltz proposed Priochirus cameroni for P. difficilis Cameron, 1928 because he thought it was a junior homonym of another species named by Cameron (1920: 142). There was no such name on that page, nor was there a specimen of the species said to be described in 1920 in the Cameron collection at the Natural History Museum, London.

Oxytelinae

Anotylus inornatus (Cameron, 1929b: 445) (ex Oxytelus) is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Anotylus inornatus (Cameron, 1928a: 104, 105) (ex Oxytelus). The descriptions of the two are essentially the same.

Anotylus rugosus (Fabricius, 1775: 267) has an older synonym, Anotylus striatus (Ström, 1768: 333). Anotylus striatus has been a synonym of Anotylus rugosus since 1840 and, until 1996, was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 53 articles by 49 authors have been published listing Anotylus rugosus Fabricius as a valid species (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). However, Ádám (1996a: 240) resurrected A. striatus, thereby compromising application of article 23.9.1. Use of the older name will create significant instability. The younger name has been cited as valid in many publications and is known by many workers, and thus its use should be maintained. The matter will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is to be maintained (article 23.9.3).

Bledius graellsi Fauvel, 1865: 309, has an older synonym, Bledius antilope Peyron, 1858: 431. Bledius antilope Peyron has been a junior synonym of Bledius graellsi Fauvel since 1872 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 9 articles by 8 authors (see Herman, in press) have been published listing Bledius graellsi Fauvel as a valid species; however, the number of citations do not conform to requirements of article 23.9.1.2. Use of the older name will create significant instability. The younger name has been cited as valid in many older publications and diligent search will likely result in finding more articles citing B. graellsi in the last 50 years. The species is known to many workers, and thus its use should be maintained. The matter will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is to be maintained (article 23.9.3).

Bledius verticalis Notman, 1921: 148, is a new synonym of Bledius turgidus Casey, 1889: 52. In a revision (Herman, 1983: 97) of the North American species, the type of Bledius verticalis was unavailable for study, but since then the holotype, which is in the Staten Island Museum of Art and Science in New York City, has been examined. Bledius verticalis was collected from within the known geographical range of Bledius turgidus and differs from the latter in no appreciable way.

Carpelimus despectus (Mulsant and Rey, 1870: 113) (ex Trogophloeus) is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Carpelimus despectus (Baudi, 1870: 400) (ex Trogophloeus). Both were described in Trogophloeus, but Bernhauer and Schubert (1911: 106) listed Mulsant and Rey's description as a subsequent citation for Carpelimus despectus (Baudi), so the two are probably synonyms.

Carpelimus elongatulus (Erichson, 1839a: 601) has an older synonym, Carpelimus bicolon Stephens, 1834: 324, which has been a synonym of Carpelimus elongatulus since 1858 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 32 articles by 29 authors have been published listing Carpelimus elongatulus (Erichson) as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Carpelimus elongatulus (Erichson) is a nomen protectum and C. bicolon Stephens a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Carpelimus rivularis (Motschulsky, 1860a: 552) has an older synonym, Carpelimus obscurus Stephens, 1834: 326, which has been a synonym of Carpelimus bilineatus Erichson or Carpelimus rivularis since 1858 and, until 1996, was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 45 articles by 35 authors have been published listing Carpelimus rivularis (Motschulsky) (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). However, Ádám (1996a: 239) resurrected C. obscurus, thereby compromising application of article 23.9.1. Use of the older name will create significant instability. The younger name has been cited as valid in many publications and is known by many workers, and thus its use should be maintained. The matter will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is to be maintained (article 23.9.3).

Deleaster dichrous (Gravenhorst, 1802: 188) has an older synonym, Deleaster brassicae (Scopoli, 1763: 102), which has been a synonym of Deleaster dichrous since 1840 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 36 articles by 32 authors have been published listing Deleaster dichrous Gravenhorst as a valid species (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Deleaster dichrous (Gravenhorst) is a nomen protectum and D. brassicae (Scopoli) a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Ochthephilus planus (LeConte, 1877: 241) (ex Ancyrophorus) is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Ochthephilus planus (LeConte, 1861: 69) (ex Ancyrophorus). LeConte noted (1877: 242) that O. planus (as Ancyrophorus) was included in his 1863 List of Coleoptera, but he wrote that he had neglected to describe it. In fact, he described the species in 1861.

Oxytelus afrus Herman, 1970: 409 is a junior synonym of Oxytelus africanus (Bernhauer, 1912b: 179) (ex Delopsis), which is a junior secondary homonym of Anotylus africanus (Luze, 1904) (ex Oxytelus). Herman replaced Oxytelus africanus (Bernhauer) with Oxytelus afrus. That action contravenes article 59.2 of the Code, so Oxytelus africanus Bernhauer is resurrected (article 59.4).

Rimba microphthalma (Bernhauer, 1905: 12) (ex Delopsis) is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Rimba microphthalma (Fauvel, 1904: 95) (ex Delopsis). At the end of his description of Delopsis microphthalma, Bernhauer wrote that the species was based on specimens determined as Delopsis microphthalma Fauvel. Bernhauer and Schubert (1911: 108) cited Bernhauer's 1905 article as a subsequent reference for Delopsis microphthalma Fauvel.

Proteininae

Proteinus atomarius Erichson, 1840: 904, has an older synonym, Proteinus clavicornis Stephens, 1834: 334. Most workers have listed Proteinus clavicornis Stephens as a synonym of Proteinus atomarius Erichson, but some (e.g., Gemminger and Harold, 1868: 672; Fauvel, 1871b: 57; J. Sahlberg, 1876: 224), recognizing that Proteinus clavicornis is the older name, cited that as the senior name. However, some writers cited Fauvel as the author of Proteinus clavicornis and listed it as a synonym of Proteinus atomarius (e.g., see Mulsant and Rey, 1878c: 231, Ganglbauer, 1895: 760, Bernhauer and Schubert, 1910: 33). After Fauvel was cited as the author of the name, Proteinus clavicornis Stephens disappeared from catalogs. I assume the two species names represent the same species. Proteinus clavicornis Stephens has been a synonym of Proteinus atomarius since at least 1895 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 34 articles by 30 authors have been published listing Proteinus atomarius Erichson as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Proteinus atomarius Erichson is a nomen protectum and P. clavicornis Stephens a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Staphylininae

Apoquedius Scheerpeltz, 1972: 24, 25, is a new synonym of Loncovilius Germain, 1903: 439. Scheerpeltz described Apoquedius as a subgenus of Quedius, included two species, Quedius (Apoquedius) aeneipennis Fairmaire and Germain, 1861: 428, and Quedius (Apoquedius) piciformis Bernhauer, 1912a: 177, and designated the former as type species of the subgenus. Earlier, Coiffait and Saiz (1966: 404; 1968: 365) moved Quedius heeri Blackwelder, a replacement name for Quedius aeneipennis Fairmaire and Germain, from Quedius to Loncovilius. Scheerpeltz neither commented on the transfer by Coiffait and Saiz, nor cited their 1966 or 1968 articles, so he probably overlooked the transfer. I continue to include aeneipennis in Loncovilius rather than move it back to Quedius. Because Loncovilius aeneipennis is the type species of Apoquedius, Apoquedius is a junior synonym of Loncovilius.

Bisnius puella (Nordmann, 1837: 101) has three older synonyms, Bisnius watsoni (Stephens, 1832: 240), Bisnius minax (Stephens, 1833: 241), and Bisnius impressicollis (Stephens, 1835: 436). Bisnius watsoni has been a synonym of Bisnius minax or Bisnius puella since 1854. Bisnius minax and Bisnius impressicollis Stephens have been synonyms of Bisnius puella since 1858 and 1854, respectively. None of the three names was cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 34 articles by 29 authors have been published listing Bisnius puella Nordmann as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Bisnius puella (Nordmann) is a nomen protectum and B. watsoni (Stephens), B. minax (Stephens), and B. impressicollis (Stephens) are nomina oblita (article 23.9.2).

Diatrechus cameroni Scheerpeltz, 1970: 88, is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Diatrechus cameroni Tottenham, 1956: 310. Scheerpeltz proposed D. cameroni as a replacement name for Diatrechus paederomimus Cameron, 1933: 43, but the name had already been replaced by D. cameroni Tottenham.

Erichsonius coloratus (Cameron, 1959: 115) (ex Actobius) is a junior secondary homonym and new synonym of Erichsonius coloratus Tottenham, 1956: 262. Tottenham attributed the species to Cameron but validated it first in a key.

Erichsonius dundoensis (Cameron, 1959: 115) (ex Actobius) is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Erichsonius dundoensis Tottenham, 1956: 225, 263. Tottenham attributed the species to Cameron but validated it first in a key.

Gabrius flavimanus (Gemminger and Harold, 1868: 588) is a new synonym of Gabrius osseticus (Kolenati, 1846: 20). Gemminger and Harold proposed Philonthus flavimanus to replace Philonthus flavipes (Motschulsky, 1860: 567) (ex Gabrius), which at the time was a junior secondary homonym of Philonthus flavipes Kraatz, 1859: 88. Schillhammer (1997: 77) cited Gabrius flavimanus as a synonym of Gabrius femoralis (Hochhuth, 1851: 19) and G. flavipes Motschulsky as a junior synonym of G. osseticus (Schillhammer, 1997: 80). Because Philonthus flavimanus was a replacement name for Philonthus flavipes Motschulsky, it follows the disposition of that name.

Gabrius osseticus (Kolenati, 1946: 20) has two older synonyms, Gabrius vernalis (Gravenhorst, 1806: 75) (ex Staphylinus) and Gabrius suaveolens Stephens, 1833: 249. Gabrius vernalis (Gravenhorst), which is a junior primary homonym of Tachyporus vernalis (O. Müller, 1776) (ex Staphylinus), was used as the valid name for the species until at least 1977, when G. osseticus was resurrected to replace it. G. suaveolens is older than G. osseticus but has not been cited as valid since 1858 (article 23.9.1.1) and is effectively a forgotten name. However, because G. osseticus was so recently ressurected, finding a sufficient number of references to satisfy provisions of article 23.9.1.2 might be difficult. In a forthcoming catalog (Herman, in press) 11 articles by 11 authors are cited, but certainly more can be found with further searching. Because G. osseticus has been the name recently applied to the species and because G. suaveolens is a forgotten name, it is appropriate to continue using the younger name.

Gabrius subnigritulus Smetana, 1956: 171 is a new synonym of Gabrius appendiculatus Sharp, 1910. Most authors attributed Gabrius subnigritulus to Reitter, 1909, who used the name in Philonthus (Gabrius) as an aberration of Philonthus nigritulus (Gravenhorst, 1802). Reitter used an rewritten unavailable name (articles 1.3.4, 45.5). Smetana (1956) seems to have been the first to make the name available when he cited it (with Reitter as the author) as the senior synonym to Gabrius appendiculatus Sharp; however, because Smetana made the name available and Sharp's name is older, then G. subnigritulus Smetana is a junior synonym of G. appendiculatus.

Gastrisus opulentus (Bernhauer, 1911a: 417) (ex Trigonopselaphus) is a junior secondary homonym and new synonym of Gastrisus opulentus (Erichson, 1840: 497) (ex Philonthus). Scheerpeltz (1933: 1415) transferred Trigonopselaphus opulentus Bernhauer to Gastrisus, but on page 1417 he listed Bernhauer's use of the name (T. opulentus) as a subsequent reference of Gastrisus opulentus (Erichson). Both names are from the same type locality, and Bernhauer and Erichson used essentially the same characters to describe their respective species. Bernhauer described his species using specimens from the collection of Apels and stated that it was under “opulentus Er.” in that collection.

Hesperus luluanus Scheerpeltz, 1971: 184, is a new synonym of Hesperus luluanus Scheerpeltz, 1956: 23. Both were described from Congo, both were cited as “nov spec. (Bernhauer i.l.)”, and the characters cited seem to be similar.

Hesperus natalensis Scheerpeltz, 1971: 188, is a new synonym of Hesperus natalensis Scheerpeltz, 1956: 22. Both are from Natal and are similar in size and described characters, evidently representing the same species.

Heterothops binotatus Erichson, 1840: 516, is a junior secondary homonym and new synonym of Heterothops binotatus (Gravenhorst, 1802: 28) (ex Staphylinus). Bernhauer and Schubert (1916: 412) listed Heterothops binotatus Erichson as a subsequent citation of Heterothops binotatus (Gravenhorst). Erichson described the species without attribution to another author, but the two are probably the same.

Heterothops xantholinoides (MacLeay, 1873: 141) (ex Philonthus) is a new synonym of Heterothops fauveli Bernhauer and Schubert, 1916: 412. Heterothops fauveli is a replacement name for the junior primary homonym Heterothops flavicollis Fauvel, 1878b: 559. Lea (1925: 230) cited H. flavicollis Fauvel as a synonym of Heterothops xantholinoides (MacLeay), which is a junior primary homonym of Neobisnius xantholinoides (Wollaston, 1864: 577) (ex Philonthus). Because Heterothops flavicollis is a synonym of Heterothops xantholinoides (MacLeay) and both are junior homonyms, the latter is thus a junior synonym of Heterothops fauveli, the replacement name for Heterothops flavicollis.

Leptacinus batychrus (Gyllenhal, 1827: 480) has an older synonym, Leptacinus diaphanus (Marsham, 1802: 514), which has been a synonym of Leptacinus batychrus since 1858 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 43 articles by 33 authors have been published listing Leptacinus batychrus Gyllenhal as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Leptacinus batychrus (Gyllenhal) is a nomen protectum and L. diaphanus (Marsham) a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Leptacinus filum Olliff, 1887: 477, is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Leptacinus blackburni Lea, 1925: 215. Lea proposed L. blackburni to replace Leptacinus filum Blackburn, 1888: 7, which was a junior primary homonym of Leptacinus filum Kraatz, 1859: 111. However, although Olliff (1887) cited Blackburn as the author of L. filum, his article was published before Blackburn's. The two species are presumably the same since both authors used essentially the same characters and their specimens are from the same type locality.

Loncovilius germaini (Scheerpeltz, 1933: 1344) is a junior synonym of the older species, Loncovilius chilensis Bernhauer and Schubert, 1914: 332. Both names were proposed to replace the junior primary homonym Loncovilius cribripennis (Germain, 1903: 412) (ex Philonthus).

Loncovilius heeri (Blackwelder, 1944: 144) (ex Quedius) is an unnecessary replacement name for Loncovilius aeneipennis (Fairmaire and Germain, 1861: 428) (ex Quedius). Blackwelder replaced the Fairmaire and Germain name because he thought it to be a junior secondary homonym of Quedius aeneipennis (Heer, 1834: 75) (ex Staphylinus). However, Heer's name is a nomen nudum, as there was no description, definition, or indication (article 12.1). Loncovilius aeneipennis (Fairmaire and Germain) is resurrected.

Megalinus glabratus (Gravenhorst, 1802: 178) has an older synonym, Megalinus ferrugineus (Rossi, 1790: 248). Megalinus ferrugineus (Rossi) has been a synonym of Megalinus glabratus since 1840 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 37 articles by 26 authors have been published listing Megalinus glabratus Gravenhorst as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Megalinus glabratus (Gravenhorst) is a nomen protectum and M. ferrugineus (Rossi) a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Neobisnius villosulus (Stephens, 1833: 251) has an older synonym, Neobisnius palmula (Gravenhorst, 1802: 49). Neobisnius palmula has been a synonym of Neobisnius villosulus since 1868 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 26 articles by 23 authors have been published listing Neobisnius villosulus (Stephens) as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Neobisnius villosulus (Stephens) is a nomen protectum and N. palmula (Gravenhorst) a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Notolinus picticornis (Olliff, 1887: 476) (ex Leptacinus) is a junior primarly homonym and new synonym of Notolinus socius (Fauvel, 1877: 247). Blackburn described Notolinus picticornis (Blackburn, 1888: 7) (ex Leptacinus), a species that is now a synonym of Notolinus socius. The description of Leptacinus picticornis Olliff appeared the year before Blackburn's species of the same name. Olliff attributed the species to Blackburn and used the same characters, and thus the two species are certainly the same.

Ocypus fulvipennis Erichson, 1840: 413 has two older synonyms, Ocypus picipennis (Lacordaire, 1835: 374) and Ocypus vagans (Heer, 1839: 255). Ocypus vagans has been a synonym of Ocypus fulvipennis since 1849. Ocypus picipennis is a junior secondary homonym and has been a junior synonym of O. fulvipennis since 1895. Neither name was cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 30 articles by 26 authors have been published listing Ocypus fulvipennis Erichson as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Ocypus fulvipennis Erichson is a nomen protectum and O. vagans (Heer) and O. picipennis (Lacordaire) are nomina oblita (article 23.9.2).

Ocypus picipennis (Fabricius, 1793: 521) has an older synonym, Ocypus penetrans (O. Muller, 1776: 97), which has been a synonym of Ocypus picipennis since 1840 and, until 1996, was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 40 articles by 25 authors have been published listing Ocypus picipennis Fabricius as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). However, Ádám (1996a: 246) resurrected O. penetrans, thereby compromising application of article 23.9.1. Use of the older name will create significant instability. The younger name has been cited as valid in many publications and is known by many workers, and thus its use should be maintained. The matter will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is to be maintained (article 23.9.3).

Phallolinus Ádám, 1987: 135, 148 is a new synonym of Xantholinus (Paraphallus) Bordoni, 1972: 162, 197. Both genus-group names share the same type species, Xantholinus longiventris Heer.

Philonthus intermedius (Lacordaire, 1835: 388) has an older synonym, Philonthus aeratus Stephens, 1832: 228. Philonthus aeratus has been a synonym of Philonthus chalceus Stephens or Philonthus intermedius (Lacordaire) since 1854 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 42 articles by 31 authors have been published listing Philonthus intermedius (Lacordaire) as a valid species (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Philonthus intermedius (Lacordaire) is a nomen protectum and P. aeratus Stephens a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Philonthus klugi Bordoni, 1984: 344 is a new synonym of Philonthus sanamus Tottenham, 1955: 163. Bordoni proposed P. klugi to replace the junior secondary homonym Philonthus nitidicollis Klug, 1855: 644, but Tottenham had already published a new name.

Philonthus laminatus (Creutzer, 1799: 128) has an older synonym, Philonthus aeneus (De Geer, 1774: 23). Philonthus aeneus has been cited as a synonym of Philonthus laminatus since 1802 (some authors erroneously cited Marsham, 1802, as author) and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 41 articles by 32 authors have been published listing Philonthus laminatus (Creutzer) as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Philonthus laminatus (Creutzer) is a nomen protectum and P. aeneus (De Geer) a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Philonthus manaiaensis (Broun, 1910: 15) and Philonthus brounianus Bernhauer and Schubert, 1914: 330, are new synonyms of Philonthus novaezeelandiae Duvivier, 1883: 147. All three names were replacements for Philonthus ruficornis Broun, 1880: 111, for which a name had been proposed by Duvivier.

Philonthus marginatus (Fabricius, 1775: 266) (ex Staphylinus) and Philonthus marginatus (Ström, 1768: 313) (ex Staphylinus) are junior primary homonyms and new synonyms of Philonthus marginatus (O. Müller, 1764: 23) (ex Staphylinus). Goeze (1777: 726) listed the three citations as referring to the same species. Fabricius (1781: 336) cited his earlier listing and those of or that of Ström as referring to the same species. Erichson (1840: 444) attributed the name to Fabricius and treated the use by O. Müller and Ström as subsequent citations. From Gravenhorst (1802) until 1895 most authors cited Fabricius as the author of P. marginatus; from Ganglbauer (1895: 448) to present, most authors have cited Ström as author. It seems likely that the three names represent the same species, and therefore O. Müller is the author.

Philonthus obscuratus Cameron, 1951: 402, is a new synonym of Philonthus debiliformis Cameron, 1951: 402. Philonthus obscuratus Cameron, 1951 is a junior primary homonym of Gabrius obscuratus (Cameron, 1950a: 41) (ex Philonthus). Tottenham (1962: 195) wrote “… I am of the opinion that it [obscuratus Cameron] is identical with P. debiliformis Cameron …”; he was writing about the 1951 name, but he took no action. I accept Tottenham's surmise that P. obscuratus is a synonym of P. debiliformis.

Philonthus pheres Smetana, 1963: 74 is a new synonym of Philonthus renominatus Cameron, 1937: 5. Both names were proposed to replace the junior primary homonym Philonthus vicinus Cameron, 1933b: 389.

Philonthus rufimanus Erichson, 1840: 476 is a new synonym of rufimanus Heer, 1839: 266. Redtenbacher (1849: 703; 1857: 193) and Kraatz (1857: 609) cited the Heer and Erichson descriptions as referring to the same species.

Philonthus splendens (Fabricius, 1793: 523) has an older synonym, Philonthus niger (O. Müller, 1764: 23), that has been a synonym of Philonthus splendens since 1840 and, until 1996, was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 36 articles by 31 authors have been published listing Philonthus splendens Fabricius as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). However, Ádám (1996: 244) resurrected P. niger, thereby compromising application of article 23.9.1. Use of the older name will create significant instability. The younger name has been cited as valid in many publications and is known by many workers, and thus its use should be maintained. The matter will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is to be maintained (article 23.9.3).

Philonthus succicola Thomson, 1860: 157 has an older synonym, Philonthus nigritus (Runde, 1835: 7), which has been a junior synonym of Philonthus carbonarius (Gravenhorst, 1802), Philonthus chalceus Stephens, 1832, or Philonthus succicola Thomson since 1840 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 27 articles by 21 authors have been published citing Philonthus succicola Thomson as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Philonthus succicola Thomson is a nomen protectum and P. nigritus (Runde) a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Platydracus immaculatus (Mannerheim, 1830: 22) is resurrected to replace the more recently named Platydracus vulpinus (Nordmann, 1837: 53). Smetana and Davies (2000: 25) had not examined the relevant types and had doubts that they were conspecific, but Newton (personal commun.), who has studied the types, regards them to be the same.

Polyphematiana E. Strand, 1915: 122 is a new synonym of Trigonopselaphus Gemminger and Harold, 1868: 597. Trigonopselaphus was proposed by Gemminger and Harold (1868: 597) to replace Trigonophorus Nordmann, 1837: 8 (not Stephens, 1829, or Hope, 1831). Nordmann included only Trigonophorus myrtillinus Nordmann, 1837: 8, in Trigonophorus, so that is the type species of the genus by monotypy and is also the type species of Trigonopselaphus by objective synonymy with Trigonophorus. Bernhauer (1921: 19) moved T. myrtillinus to Polyphemus Bernhauer, 1914: 397 (not Mueller, 1776), which had already been replaced by Polyphematiana E. Strand, 1915: 122. Scheerpeltz (1933: 1415; 1972: 35) also included the species in Polyphematiana, but still listed Trigonopselaphus as a valid genus, excluding only T. myrtillinus. Two checklists (Blackwelder, 1944: 141; Moore and Legner, 1975: 45) continued to list myrtillinus in Trigonopselaphus. If the transfer of T. myrtillinus to Polyphematiana is accepted, then Trigonopselaphus Gemminger and Harold, 1868, must replace Polyphematiana E. Strand, 1915. All the species remaining in Trigonopselaphus after the removal of T. myrtillinus require a new generic name. Torobus, new genus is proposed for the species included in Trigonopselaphus by Scheerpeltz (1972: 40). The characters cited by Scheerpeltz (1972: 37–30) for Trigonopselaphus in a comparison of that genus to related ones apply to Torobus (article 13.1.2). Torobus includes the following new combinations: Torobus badiipennis (Nordmann, 1837: 25) (ex Creophilus), T. brasilianus (Bernhauer, 1906a: 327) (ex “Trigonurus” [sic]), T. chloris (Nordmann, 1837: 26) (ex Creophilus), T. erithacus (Nordmann, 1837: 25) (ex Creophilus), T. fassli (Bernhauer, 1917a: 113) (ex Trigonopselaphus), T. laetipes (Bernhauer, 1911a: 418) (ex Trigonopselaphus), T. mautnermarkhofi (Scheerpeltz, 1972a: 43) (ex Trigonopselaphus), T. principalis (Bernhauer, 1911: 416) (ex Trigonopselaphus), and T. purpurascens (Nordmann, 1837: 47) (ex Staphylinus). The type species is Torobus purpurascens (Nordmann), fixed by original designation. The name is masculine and a random combination of letters.

Quedius assimilis (Nordmann, 1837: 78) was chosen by Tottenham (1939: 237) to replace the junior primary homonym Quedius fulgidus (Fabricius, 1793: 525, not Fabricius, 1787) (ex Staphylinus), but there are six older synonyms, Quedius rufitarsis (Marsham, 1802: 512), Quedius iracundus (Say, 1830: 35), Quedius haemopterus Stephens, 1832: 217, Quedius haemorrhoidalis Stephens, 1832: 218, Quedius nigricornis Stephens, 1832: 218, and Quedius distinctus (Runde, 1835: 222). Tottenham rejected Quedius rufitarsis, Quedius haemopterus, and Quedius iracundus as not being conspecific with Quedius fulgidus, but he did not discuss the other three names. Despite Tottenham's replacement of Quedius fulgidus with Quedius assimilis in 1939, most authors continued to use Quedius fulgidus. From 1941 to 1998 more than 40 articles were published using Quedius fulgidus as the valid name. At least 14 others listed Q. assimilis as the valid name. Quedius rufitarsis (Marsham) was cited as a synonym of Quedius fulgidus from 1840 to 1990, after which four publications (Nowosad, 1990: 136; Smetana, 1993: 50; Ciceroni and Zanetti, 1995: 33; Ádám, 1996: 247) cited it as valid. Quedius iracundus (Say) and Quedius distinctus (Runde) have been synonyms of Quedius fulgidus since 1840. Quedius haemopterus Stephens has been a synonym of Quedius fulgidus since 1854. Quedius haemorrhoidalis Stephens and Quedius nigricornis Stephens have been synonyms of Quedius fulgidus since 1858. Of these six names only two, Q. assimilis and Q. rufitarsis, were cited as valid after 1899; the other four were not (article 23.9.1.1). In recent literature various authors use either Q. fulgidus (Fabricius), Q. assimilis (Nordmann), or Q. rufitarsis (Marsham) as the valid name for the same species. To stabilize the name for the species, the matter will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of Q. assimilis (Nordmann) should be maintained (article 23.9.3).

Quedius caseyi Scheerpeltz, 1933: 1435 is a junior synonym of Quedius uteanus (Casey, 1915: 415). Quedius caseyi Scheerpeltz was established as a replacement name for the junior secondary homonym Quedius curtipennis (Casey, 1915: 414), but there are three older synonyms, Quedius uteanus (Casey, 1915: 415), Quedius divergens (Casey, 1915: 415), and Quedius parvipennis Bernhauer, 1917: 249.

Quedius cinctus (Paykull, 1790: 137) has an older synonym, Quedius flavescens (Linné, 1758: 422). Quedius flavescens has been a synonym of Quedius impressus (Panzer, 1796) or Quedius cinctus since 1857 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). Most authors have erroneously attributed Quedius flavescens to Fabricius, who attributed it to Linné. The error in authorship helps to explain how a 1758 Linnean name can be a synonym; it is only one of two such synonyms in the family. In the last 50 years at least 54 articles by 35 authors have been published listing Quedius cinctus (Paykull) as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Quedius cinctus (Paykull) is a nomen protectum and Q. flavescens (Linné) a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2). However, note that Ádám (1996: 247) cited Distichalius flavicornis (Gmelin, 1790: 2036) (ex Staphylinus) as the valid name and Distichalius cinctus (Paykull) as the junior synonym. Several factors contradict Ádám's action. Both names were published in 1790, and there is no evidence that the Gmelin name preceded that of Paykull. Staphylinus flavicornis Gmelin had never before been cited in Quedius or Distichalius, and Gmelin's name may be unknowable. For these reasons Q. cinctus should continued to be used as the valid name of the species.

Quedius deuveianus Coiffait, 1983: 346 is a new synonym of Quedius kashmirensis Cameron, 1944: 13, because it was proposed as a replacment name for Quedius deuvei Coiffait, 1983a: 168, which was synonymized with Q. kashmirensis.

Quedius horsti Coiffait, 1978: 222 is an unnecessary replacement name for and junior synonym of Quedius smetanai Korge, 1971: 47. The name regarded as older, Quedius molochinus aberration smetanai Roubal, 1949: 45, was described as an aberration and is therefore unavailable.

Quedius iablokofi Coiffait, 1967: 396 is an unnecessary replacement name for and junior synonym of Quedius transcaucasicus Iablokov-Khnzorian, 1961: 146. Quedius transcaucasicus Gemminger and Harold, 1868: 572, which Coiffait thought was the senior homonym, is an unavailable name.

Quedius limbatus (Heer, 1839: 281) has an older synonym, Quedius attenuatus (Gravenhorst, 1802: 27), which has been a synonym of Quedius maurorufus Gravenhorst or Quedius limbatus since 1849 and which was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 29 articles by 20 authors have been published listing Quedius limbatus (Heer) as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Quedius limbatus (Heer) is a nomen protectum and Q. attenuatus (Gravenhorst) a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Quedius luteomaculatus Scheerpeltz, 1958: 23 is a junior synonym of the older Quedius gridellii Scheerpeltz, 1933: 1442, which is a replacement name for Quedius picicornis Gridelli, 1922: 128, 131. Coiffait (1978: 262) listed Quedius gridellii and Q. picicornis as junior synonyms of Q. luteomaculatus.

Quedius nitipennis (Stephens, 1833: 242) has an older synonym, Quedius quadripunctatus (Zetterstedt, 1828: 76), which has been a synonym of Q. attenuatus (sensu Gyllenhal, 1810: 311) since 1860 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). Gyllenhal's use of Q. attenuatus is a misidentification of Q. attenuatus (Gravenhorst, 1802: 27) but has been cited erroneously as a valid, available name by many authors; the Gravenhorst name is a junior synonym of Quedius limbatus (Heer, 1839). In the last 50 years at least 31 articles by 25 authors have been published listing Quedius nitipennis (Stephens) as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Quedius nitipennis (Stephens) is a nomen protectum and Q. quadripunctatus (Zetterstedt) a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Quedius nouristanicus Coiffait, 1979a: 559 is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Quedius nouristanicus Coiffait, 1978: 158. Coiffait described the same species twice; the type locality, size, characters cited, and aedeagal illustrations are the same for both species.

Quedius plagiatus Mannerheim, 1843a: 231 has two older synonyms, Quedius glaber (O. Müller, 1776: 98) and Quedius flavopterus (Geoffroy, 1785: 166), both of which have been synonyms of either Quedius laevigatus Gyllenhal, 1810: 306 or Quedius plagiatus since 1840 and, until 1996, neither was cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 26 articles by 21 authors have been published listing Quedius plagiatus Mannerheim as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). However, Ádám (1996: 247) resurrected Quedius glaber, thereby compromising application of article 23.9.1. Use of the older name will create significant instability. The younger name has been cited as valid in many publications and is known by many workers, and thus its use should be maintained. The matter will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is to be maintained (article 23.9.3).

Quedius puncticollis (Thomson, 1867: 164) has an older synonym, Quedius variabilis (Gyllenhal, 1810: 303). Quedius variabilis has been a synonym of Quedius fulgidus Fabricius, Quedius puncticollis Thomson, or Quedius othiniensis Johansen since 1854 and has not been cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 29 articles by 24 authors have been published listing Quedius puncticollis (Thomson) as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Quedius puncticollis (Thomson) is a nomen protectum and Q. variabilis (Gyllenhal) a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Quedius quadripunctus Cameron, 1945b: 788, is a new synonym of Quedius quadripunctus Bernhauer, 1941: 32. Cameron cited the species as “quadripunctus, sp. n (Bern. in litt.)”, so the two are probably the same species.

Quedius scitus (Gravenhorst, 1806: 50) has an older synonym, Quedius analis (Fabricius, 1787: 221). Quedius analis has been cited as a synonym of Quedius scitus since 1840 and, until 1996, was not cited as valid in Quedius after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 32 articles by 24 authors have been published listing Quedius scitus (Gravenhorst) as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). However, Ádám (1996: 247) and Sch;auulke (1999: 982) resurrected Quedius analis, thereby compromising application of article 23.9.1. Use of the older name will create significant instability. The younger name has been cited as valid in many publications and is known by many workers, and thus its use should be maintained. The matter will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is to be maintained (article 23.9.3).

Quedius sturanyi Ganglbauer, 1895: 404 has an older synonym, Quedius brevipennis Motschulsky, 1858: 656, but the validity of this synonymy is in doubt (Assing, personal commun.); therefore, until the status of Q. brevipennis has been corroborated, it is considered to be a nomen dubium and is not resurrected to replace Q. sturanyi.

Quedius tripunctatus Cameron, 1945b: 787 is a new synonym of tripunctatus Bernhauer, 1941: 31. Cameron cited the species as “tripunctatus, sp. n (Bern. in litt.)”, so the two are probably the same species.

Quedius uludaghensis Drugmand, 1989: 174 is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Quedius uludaghensis Drugmand, 1988: 263. The description, illustrations, and type locality for the two are the same.

Staphylinus kublaikhani Muona, 1977: 15 is an unnecessary replacement name and new synonym of Staphylinus trimaculatus Fauvel, 1895: 252. Muona proposed that S. kublaikhani replace S. trimaculatus Fauvel because he thought Fauvel's name was a junior primary homonym of Staphylinus trimaculatus cited by Paykull, 1800: 422. However, Paykull did not describe the species as new: instead, he attributed it to Fabricius but erroneously indicated that Fabricius used the name in Staphylinus. Fabricius described the species as Oxyporus trimaculatus, which is currently in Lordithon.

Staphylinus suturalis Matsumura, 1911: 113, which is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus suturalis (Marsham, 1802: 509) (ex Staphylinus), is a new synonym of Hadropinus fossor Sharp, 1889: 116. Both species were described in Staphylinus. According to Nakane (1963: 239), “Staphylinus suturalis Matsumura … is probably a synonym of … [Hadropinus fossor Sharp, 1889]”; however, he took no action. I accept Nakane's opinion that the two are conspecific.

Tasgius eppelsheimianus (Jakobson, 1909: 510) has an older synonym, Tasgius obscuripes (Bernhauer, 1900: 55). The two may be different species (Smetana, personal commun.), so no change is made.

Tasgius globulifer sicanus (Coiffait, 1964: 106) is a new synonym of Tasgius globulifer evitendus (Tottenham, 1945: 71). Both are replacement names for Tasgius siculus Stierlin, 1864: 146) (ex Ocypus), a junior primary homonym of Tasgius siculus (Aubé, 1842: 234) (ex Ocypus).

Tasgius melanarius (Heer, 1839: 256) has four older synonyms, Tasgius similis (Paykull, 1789: 10), Tasgius kirbyi (Stephens, 1832: 210), Tasgius angustatus (Lacordaire, 1835: 369), and Tasgius obscurus (Runde, 1835: 4). Tasgius kirbyi has been a synonym of either Tasgius ater Gravenhorst, Tasgius morio Gravenhorst, or Tasgius melanarius Heer since 1854. Tasgius angustatus has been a synonym of Tasgius morio Gravenhorst, Tasgius globulifer Geoffroy, or Tasgius melanarius Heer since 1839. Tasgius similis and T. obscurus are both junior primary homonyms, with species named in Staphylinus, and have been cited as junior synonyms since 1839. None of the four older names was cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 31 articles by 26 authors have been published listing Tasgius melanarius Heer as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Tasgius melanarius (Heer) is a nomen protectum and T. similis (Paykull), T. kirbyi (Stephens), T. angustatus (Lacordaire), and T. obscurus (Runde) are nomina oblita (article 23.9.2).

Tasgius winkleri (Bernhauer, 1906: 126) has three older synonyms, Tasgius morio (Gravenhorst, 1802: 6), Tasgius picipes (Stephens, 1832: 212), and Tasgius erosicollis (Reiche and Saulcy, 1856: 364). Tasgius morio has been a synonym of either Tasgius globulifer Geoffroy or T. winkleri Bernhauer since 1895. Tasgius picipes has been a synonym of T. morio Gravenhorst since 1854. Tasgius erosicollis has been a synonym of T. edentulus Block, T. globulifer Gravenhorst, or T. winkleri Bernhauer since 1874. None of the three older names was cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 33 articles by 22 authors have been published listing T. winkleri Bernhauer as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Tasgius winkleri (Bernhauer) is a nomen protectum and T. morio (Gravenhorst), T. picipes (Stephens), and T. erosicollis (Reiche and Saulcy) are nomina oblita (article 23.9.2).

Thyreocephalus eppelsheimi (Bernhauer and Schubert, 1914: 302), proposed as a replacement name for the junior primary homonym Thyreocephalus rudis (Eppelsheim, 1895: 62) (ex Xantholinus), is a junior synonym of the older Thyreocephalus gestroi (Fauvel, 1895: 243), which was first listed as a synonym of T. rudis by Cameron (1932: 39).

Triacrus superbus (Erichson, 1839a: 398) is a junior synonym of the older Triacrus dilatus Nordmann, 1837: 19.

Xantholinus ilgazensis Coiffait, 1971: 434, is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Xantholinus ilgazensis Coiffait, 1966: 23. Both were cited as new species, but the 1966 description was not mentioned in the 1971 article. The aedeagal illustrations and type localities are the same for both, and the characters used to describe the species are essentially the same.

Xantholinus schweigeri Coiffait, 1971: 431, is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Xantholinus schweigeri Coiffait, 1966: 22. Both were cited as new species, but the 1966 description was not mentioned in the 1971 article. The aedeagal illustrations and type localities are the same for both, and the characters used to describe the species are essentially the same.

Xantholinus vagepunctus (Gravenhorst, 1806: 88) is a new synonym of Xantholinus vagopunctatus (Latreille, 1804: 301). Latreille commented, referring to his species, vagopunctatus, that Gravenhorst named this species in his collection; Gravenhorst (1806: 88) made a similar statement about the specimens he described. It seems probable that the two are the same species.

Steninae

Stenus ater Lacordaire, 1835: 447, is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Stenus ater Mannerheim, 1830: 42. Stenus ater Lacordaire is rarely used. Erichson (1840: 696) listed Lacordaire's use of S. ater as a subsequent citation of Mannerheim's species, so the two are probably synonymous.

Stenus cameroni Scheerpeltz, 1933: 1150 is an unnecessary replacement name and junior synonym of Stenus carinatus Cameron, 1914: 532. Scheerpeltz proposed that S. cameroni replace S. carinatus Cameron, which he thought to be a junior primary homonym of Stenus carinatus Haglund, 1914: 105. However, S. carinatus Haglund, currently a junior synonym of Stenus hyperboreus J. Sahlberg, 1876, was published on June 29, 1914, and S. carinatus Cameron was published on January 21, 1914.

Stenus cameronianus Scheerpeltz, 1933: 1187 is an unnecessary replacement name for and junior synonym of Stenus pallidipes Cameron, 1930b: 328. Scheerpeltz cited Stenus pallidipes Cameron as a junior primary homonym of Stenus pallidipes Sainte-Claire Deville, 1910: 109, 125. The name cited by Sainte-Claire Deville was a misspelling of Stenus pallipes Gravenhorst (not a new species), and is an unavailable name, not a homonym.

Stenus cautus Erichson, 1839: 553, has an older synonym, Stenus submarginatus Stephens, 1833: 295. Stenus submarginatus Stephens has been a synonym of Stenus vafellus Erichson, 1839, since 1888 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). Stenus vafellus is currently a junior synonym of S. cautus. In the last 50 years at least 31 articles by 20 authors have been published listing Stenus cautus Erichson as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Stenu cautus Erichson is a nomen protectum and S. submarginatus Stephens a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Stenus cephallenicus Bernhauer, 1915d: 265, is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Stenus callidus cephallenicus Bernhauer, 1913a: 222. Bernhauer cited both names as new species, but the 1915 name has been cited as a subsequent reference to the 1913 name by Scheerpeltz (1933: 1151) and Puthz (1967: 18), so the two are probably conspecific.

Stenus cursorius L. Benick, 1921: 193, is reduced to a subspecies of the older species Stenus rorellus Fauvel, 1907: 17, which is currently listed as a subspecies of S. cursorius and has been either cited as a species or subspecies since its original description.

Stenus geniculatus Gravenhorst, 1806: 228 has an older synonym, Stenus proboscidens (Olivier, 1795: (44): 6), which has been a synonym of S. geniculatus since 1895 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). Gyllenhal is often cited as the author of S. proboscidens, but Gyllenhal attributed it to Olivier. In the last 50 years at least 28 articles by 23 authors have been published listing Stenus geniculatus Gravenhorst as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Stenus geniculatus Gravenhorst is a nomen protectum and S. proboscidens (Olivier) a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Stenus gibbifrons L. Benick, 1928a [Nov.]: 243, is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Stenus sondaicus Bernhauer, 1911: 58. In an earlier article, L. Benick (1928b [Aug.]: 459) also described Stenus gibbifrons. He used essentially the same characters for the two names and cited the same type locality for both; Scheerpeltz (1933: 1178) cited Benick's 1928a paper as a subsequent reference of his 1928b one. Stenus gibbifrons L. Benick, 1928b was listed as a synonym of S. sondaicus Bernhauer by Puthz (1970: 306) and Rougemont (1984: 238). Evidence supports considering both of Benick's uses of S. gibbifrons as the same species, so both are synonyms of S. sondaicus.

Stenus lentus Sharp, 1889: 326 is a junior synonym of the older species Stenus indagator Eppelsheim, 1887: 428.

Stenus longitarsis Thomson, 1857: 222 is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Stenus longitarsis Thomson, 1851: 133, 134. Thomson (1857) cited S. longitarsis as a new species without reference to his 1851 description. Bernhauer and Schubert (1911: 161) listed the 1857 publication as the original description of the species and neglected to mention the earlier description, but Gemminger and Harold (1868: 637) cited 1851 as the original description.

Stenus meyeri L. Benick, 1928a [Nov.]: 244 is a new synonym of Stenus meyeri L. Benick, 1928b [Aug.]: 458. The two descriptions are essentially the same and the species are from the same type localities. Scheerpeltz (1933: 1192) cited the 1928a paper as a subsequent reference of Benick's 1928b one.

Stenus mjobergi L. Benick, 1928a [Nov.]: 236, is a junior primary homonym and new synonym of Stenus flavidulus Sharp, 1889: 334. Stenus mjobergi Benick, 1928b [Aug.]: 453, was described as new and used essentially the same characters and in the 1928a article. Scheerpeltz (1933: 1180) cited Benick's 1928a reference as a subsequent reference of the 1928b use. Puthz (1967a: 143) synonymized the 1928b use with Stenus flavidulus Sharp, so Benick's 1928a use should be listed as a junior synonym also since the two Benick names are probably the same species.

Stenus nigritulus Zetterstedt, 1828: 91, is a new synonym of Stenus nigritulus Gyllenhal, 1827: 502. Erichson (1840: 719) cited Zetterstedt's use as a subsequent citation of S. nigritulus Gyllenhal, so the two may be the same species.

Stenus scaber Fauvel, 1871: 20 has two older synonyms, Stenus bituberculosus Motschulsky, 1857a: 511 and Stenus italicus Baudi, 1870: 397. Both names have been listed as synonyms of Stenus scaber since 1873 and neither was cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, Herman (in press) cited only 12 articles by 4 authors published in the last 50 years that used S. scaber as valid, so the name cannot be protected by the provisions of article 23.9.1. However, more citations may likely be found with diligent search. It is premature to replace S. scaber, a name cited as valid since 1871, with a name that has not been cited as valid in more than 125 years. Stenus scaber can probably be retained as valid by application to the Commission (article 23.9.3).

Stenus scrutator Erichson, 1840: 708 has an older synonym, Stenus femoralis Erichson, 1839: 547. Erichson seemed to propose S. scrutator as a replacement name for S. femoralis Erichson, but the latter is not a junior homonym. Although the replacement is unjustified, Stenus femoralis has been a synonym of Stenus scrutator since 1840 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 27 articles by 19 authors have been published listing Stenus scrutator Erichson as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Stenus scrutator Erichson is a nomen protectum and S. femoralis Erichson a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Stenus stigmula Erichson, 1840: 693 has an older synonym, Stenus maculipes Heer, 1839: 215, which has been a synonym of Stenus stigmula since 1856 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 26 articles by 19 authors have been published listing Stenus stigmula Erichson as valid species (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Stenus stigmula Erichson is a nomen protectum and S. maculipes Heer a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Stenus subaeneus Erichson, 1840: 727 has an older synonym, Stenus gonymelas Stephens, 1833: 291, which has been a synonym of Stenus subaeneus since 1873 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 25 articles by 14 authors have been published listing Stenus subaeneus Erichson as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Stenus subaeneus Erichson is a nomen protectum and S. gonymelas a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Tachyporinae

Bolitobius cingulatus Mannerheim, 1830: 64 has an older synonym, Bolitobius bicolor (Rossi, 1790: 253). Bolitobius bicolor (Rossi) has been a synonym of Bolitobius cingulatus or Bolitobius analis Fabricius since 1802 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 29 articles by 26 authors have been published listing Bolitobius cingulatus Mannerheim as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Bolitobius cingulatus Mannerheim is a nomen protectum and B. bicolor (Rossi) a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Lamprinodes fairmairei (Leprieur, 1853: lx) was proposed as a replacement name for the junior primary homonym Lamprinodes pictus (Fairmaire, 1852: 71). Neither name is cited frequently, so the senior name is ressurected herein.

Lordithon exoletus (Erichson, 1839: 409) has an older synonym, Lordithon angularis (Stephens, 1832: 173), which has been a synonym of Lordithon exoletus or Lordithon trinotatus since 1858 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 37 articles by 29 authors have been published listing Lordithon exoletus Erichson as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Lordithon exoletus (Erichson) is a nomen protectum and L. angularis (Stephens) a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Lordithon mexicanus (Bernhauer, 1910: 384) (ex Bolitobius) is affirmed to be a junior synonym of its replacement name, Bolitobius variatus (Bernhauer and Schubert, 1916: 458) (ex Bryoporus). Scheerpeltz (1933: 1489) thought that L. mexicanus (Bernhauer) was not a junior homonym and that the replacement name was therefore unnecessary. Lordithon mexicanus (Bernhauer), Bryoporus mexicanus (Sharp, 1887: 782) (ex Megacronus), and Bryoporus mexicanus (Schubert, 1909: 289) (ex Megacronus) were all in Bryoporus when the Bernhauer name was replaced as a junior secondary homonym of the other two names. Because Lordithon mexicanus (Bernhauer) was replaced before 1961, it is permanently invalid (article 59.3).

Mycetoporus baudueri Mulsant and Rey, 1875: 200 has an older synonym, Mycetoporus phaedrus (Kolenati, 1846: 14). Mycetoporus phaedrus was cited by subsequent authors as a valid species (Hochhuth, 1849: 97), as a form (Luze, 1901: 727), and as a junior synonym (Bernhauer and Schubert, 1916: 449) of M. baudueri. It was cited as valid once (as a form) after 1899, so the provisions of article 23.9.1.1 are not strictly met. In the last 50 years at least 28 articles by 24 authors have been published citing Mycetoporus baudueri Mulsant and Rey as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Although M. phaedrus was cited as a form in 1901, it makes no sense to replace M. baudueri with a name that has scarcely been used. Greater nomenclatural stability will result from regarding Mycetoporus baudueri Mulsant and Rey as a nomen protectum and M. phaedrus (Kolenati) as a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2) rather than resurrecting a name cited once as valid after 1899.

Mycetoporus mulsanti Ganglbauer, 1895: 375 is a junior synonym of Mycetoporus tenuis Mulsant and Rey, 1853: 54. Ganglbauer proposed M. mulsanti to replace M. tenuis Mulsant and Rey because, at the time, Ischnosoma tenuis sensu Stephens, 1832 was cited as an available name. However, Stephens used tenuis, which was unavailable; the species was attributed by him to Fabricius and has been treated by most authors as a misidentification of Ischnosoma splendidum (Gravenhorst, 1806: 24). Mycetoporus mulsanti Ganglbauer is an unnecessary replacement name, and M. tenuis Mulsant and Rey is resurrected as the valid name for the species.

Sepedophilus jacobsoni (Scheerpeltz, 1933: 1496) is a new synonym of Sepedophilus pustulifer (Bernhauer and Schubert, 1916: 470). Scheerpeltz proposed the name to replace the junior primary homonym Sepedophilus pustulatus (Bernhauer, 1915b: 238), which had already been replaced by S. pustulifer (Bernhauer and Schubert).

Tachinus flavipennis Blatchley, 1910: 445 is a new synonym of Tachinus luridus Erichson, 1840: 920. Blatchley attributed Tachinus flavipennis to Dejean, who cited it in his 1836 list of species in his collection. Henshaw (1885: 39) used T. flavipennis in his list of North American beetles; he also regarded Horn's use of T. luridus Erichson to be a misidentification and he listed it as a junior synonym of T. flavipennis Dejean. Tachinus flavipennis, as used by Dejean and Henshaw without a description, is an unavailable name (article 12.1). Blatchley's publication of characters validated T. flavipennis, making him the author. Campbell (1973: 40) cited T. flavipennis as used by Dejean, Henshaw, Blatchley, and others as referring to T. luridus, but he attributed the name to no particular author.

Tachinus laciniatus Eppelsheim, 1890: 166 has an older synonym, Tachinus caucasicus Kolenati, 1846: 13. However, these two names were questionably synonymized by Ullrich (1975: 224); until the synonymy is confirmed, T. laciniatus should remain the valid name.

Tachinus sharpi Bernhauer and Schubert, 1916: 486 is a junior synonym of Tachinus gelidus Eppelsheim, 1893: 41. Tachinus sharpi was a replacement name for the junior primary homonym Tachinus luridus Sharp, 1888: 381. Ullrich (1975a: 94) synonymized T. gelidus with T. sharpi, but the former is older than the latter and is resurrected herein.

Tachyporus formosus A. Matthews, 1838: 197 has two older synonyms, Tachyporus flavescens Stephens, 1832: 178 and Tachyporus subtestaceus Stephens, 1832: 183, both of which have been synonyms of Tachyporus formosus since 1858 and were not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 29 articles by 24 authors have been published listing Tachyporus formosus A. Matthews as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Tachyporus formosus A. Matthews is a nomen protectum and T. flavescens Stephens and T. subtestaceus Stephens are nomina oblita (article 23.9.2).

Tachyporus solutus Erichson, 1839a: 236 has an older synonym, Tachyporus marginellus Stephens, 1832: 182, which has been a synonym of Tachyporus solutus since 1858 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 40 articles by 31 authors have been published listing Tachyporus solutus Erichson as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Tachyporus solutus Erichson is a nomen protectum and T. marginellus Stephens a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

HOMONYMS

Euaesthetinae

Euaesthetus duplex, new name, is proposed for Euaesthetus brevipennis Casey, 1884a: 20, which is a junior primary homonym of Euaesthetus brevipennis Mulsant and Rey, 1878a: 308. Mulsant and Rey's name is a junior synonym of Euaesthetus bipunctatus (Ljungh, 1804). The replacement name is based on the Latin for double (duplex).

Leptotyphlinae

Leptotyphlus sardiniensis, new name, is proposed for Leptotyphlus doderoi Coiffait, 1957: 77, which is a junior primary homonym of Paratyphlus doderoi (Normand, 1910: 88) (ex Leptotyphlus). The replacement name is based on the type locality of L. doderoi Coiffait.

Micropeplinae

Micropeplus editus, new name, is proposed for Micropeplus denticollis Coiffait, 1982: 126, which is a junior primary homonym of Arrhenopeplus denticollis (Coiffait, 1958: 413) (ex Micropeplus). The new name is based on the Latin for high or lofty (editus), referring to the high elevation from which the species was described in Nepal.

Omaliinae

Eusphalerum afghanicum, new name, is proposed for Eusphalerum nuristanicum Coiffait, 1982b: 77, which is a junior secondary homonym of Eusphalerum nuristanicum (Scheerpeltz, 1961: 35) (ex Anthobium); the latter species is transferred herein to Eusphalerum (see New Combinations). The replacement name is based on Afghanistan, the country of origin of the species.

Eusphalerum alpinum (Heer, 1839: 180) (ex Omalium) is a junior primary homonym of Pycnoglypta alpina (Zetterstedt, 1838: 53) (ex Omalium). Pycnoglypta alpina (Zetterstedt) has been a junior synonym of Pycnoglypta lurida (Gyllenhal, 1813) since 1857 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 29 articles by 25 authors have been published listing Eusphalerum alpinum (Heer) as valid (article 23.9.1.2); 24 of these articles are listed in a forthcoming catalog (Herman, in press), and the other five are cited herein (Franz, 1970: 273; Hugentobler, 1966: 55; Peez and Kahlen, 1977: 124; Schiller, 1989: 1034; Wörndle, 1950: 122). Eusphalerum alpinum (Heer) is a nomen protectum and Pycnoglypta alpina (Zetterstedt) a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Eusphalerum longipenne (Erichson, 1839: 640) (ex Anthobium) is a junior primary homonym of Anthobium longipenne Stephens, 1834: 342. Anthobium longipenne Stephens has been a junior synonym of Anthobium atrocephalum (Gyllenhal, 1827) since 1854 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 25 articles by 22 authors have been published listing Eusphalerum longipenne (Erichson) as valid (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). However, Ádám (1996: 237) resurrected Eusphalerum imhoffii (Heer, 1839: 184), a junior synonym of E. longipenne (Erichson), thereby compromising application of article 23.9.1. Use of the resurrected name will create significant instability. The name in current use has been cited as valid in many publications and is known by many workers, and thus its use should be maintained. The matter will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is to be maintained (article 23.9.3). Furthermore, the two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, which would permit application of article 23.9.5.

Eusphalerum subsolanum, new name, is proposed for Eusphalerum nigriventre (Motschulsky, 1860: 544) (ex Anthobius), which is a junior primary homonym of Eusphalerum nigriventre (Stephens, 1834: 343) (ex Anthobium). Eusphalerum nigriventre (Stephens) is a synonym of Eusphalerum torquatum (Marsham, 1802). The replacement name is based on the Latin for eastern (subsolanus), referring to the presence of the species in eastern Asia.

Hapalaraea pygmaea (Paykull, 1800: 410) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Staphylinus pygmaeus Villers, 1789: 420, but the latter species has not been cited since the original description. Hapalaraea pygmaea (Paykull), on the other hand, is a well-known species for which at least 31 articles by 22 authors have been published in the last 50 years listing it as a valid species (Herman, in press). The senior name has not been cited since its original description (Herman, in press) and should be considered a nomen dubium, with the required replacement being ignored. Furthermore, the two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, which would permit application of article 23.9.5.

Lesteva fontinalis gustavi, new name, is proposed for Lesteva fontinalis truncata Lohse, 1960: 5, which is a junior primary homonym of Unamis truncata (Casey, 1885: 322) (ex Lesteva). The replacement name is a patronym based on the given name of G. A. Lohse.

Mannerheimia brevipennis (Motschulsky, 1860: 545) (ex Omalium) is a junior primary homonym of Micralymma brevipenne (Gyllenhal, 1810: 234) (ex Omalium). Micralymma brevipenne (Gyllenhal) is a synonym of Micralymma marinum (Ström, 1783) and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, the number of articles citing Mannerheimia brevipennis (Motschulsky) as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it under article 23.9.1. The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; and meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Olophrum henryi, new name, is proposed for Olophrum interglaciale Wickham, 1917: 145, which is a junior primary homonym of Olophrum interglaciale Mjöberg, 1904: 493. Both are fossil species. The replacement name is a patronym based on the given name of H. F. Wickham.

Omaliomimus robustus (Broun, 1911: 96) (ex Omalium) is a junior primary homonym of Eusphalerum robustum (Heer, 1839: 179) (ex Omalium). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Omaliopsis rufa (Sachse, 1852: 148) (ex Omalium) is a junior primary homonym of Acidota rufa (Gravenhorst, 1802: 115) (ex Omalium). Acidota rufa (Gravenhorst) is a synonym of Acidota crenata (Fabricius, 1793) and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, the number of articles citing Omaliopsis rufa (Sachse) as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it under article 23.9.1. The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899; however, because the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Omalium crassicorne Lea, 1906: 212, is a junior primary homonym of Phyllodrepa crassicornis (A. Matthews, 1863: 8650) (ex Omalium). Phyllodrepa crassicornis (A. Matthews) is a synonym of Phyllodrepa salicis (Gyllenhal, 1810) and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, the number of articles citing Omalium crassicornis Lea as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it under article 23.9.1 (see Herman, in press). The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899; however, because the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Omalium cursor Gravenhorst, 1806: 208 is a junior secondary homonym of Omalium cursor (O. Müller, 1776: 97) (ex Staphylinus). Omalium cursor Gravenhorst is a rarely cited species. In a forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press), two subsequent references are cited, the most recent of which is from 1906. Erichson (1840: 890) stated it to be a “species dubia” and he noted that the type was damaged beyond recognition. Omalium cursor (O. Müller) has been a synonym of Omalium rivulare (Paykull, 1789) since 1840. Although Omalium cursor Gravenhorst is cited as valid, but is a junior homonym, it should be regarded a nomen dubium and the required replacement ignored.

Omalium fuscum Stephens, 1834: 355 is a junior primary homonym of Olophrum fuscum (Gravenhorst, 1806: 211) (ex Omalium). Olophrum fuscum (Gravenhorst) is a valid species. Omalium fuscum Stephens is listed as a valid species but has been cited only once since its original description, and thus it should be regarded a nomen dubium and its required replacement ignored. The type was not found at the Natural History Museum (London) in 1989 (M. Thayer, personal commun). Both names are currently used as valid, but they were not congeneric after 1899.

Omalium marginatum Cameron, 1941: 58 is a junior primary homonym of Eusphalerum marginatum (Say, 1832: 50) (ex Omalium) and Olophrum marginatum (Kirby, 1837: 89) (ex Omalium). Olophrum marginatum Kirby is a synonym of Olophrum consimile (Gyllenhal, 1810); the Say name is currently used as valid. The three names were not congeneric after 1899. Replacement of the junior homonym seems unnecessary, as it has never been cited in the same genus with the other two names. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Omalium maxi, new name, is proposed for Omalium obscurum Bernhauer, 1940: 130, which is a junior primary homonym of Phloeonomus obscurus (Kraatz, 1859: 181) (ex Omalium). The replacement name is a patronym based on the given name of M. Bernhauer.

Omalium montivagum (Eppelsheim, 1878: 128) is a junior primary homonym of Eusphalerum montivagum (Heer, 1839: 184) (ex Omalium). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899. Replacement of the junior homonym seems unnecessary since the names have never been cited together in the same genus. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Omalium nigrum Coiffait, 1982: 151 is a junior primary homonym of Phyllodrepa nigra (Gravenhorst, 1806: 212) (ex Omalium). Both names are currently used as valid. Replacement of the junior homonym seems unnecessary since the species were never congeneric and since the Gravenhorst name was moved out of Omalium before 1899. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Omalium subsolanum, new name, is proposed for Omalium clavatum Luze, 1906: 522, which is a junior primary homonym of Omalium clavatum Fauvel, 1869: 493. Fauvel's name is a synonym of Omalium septentrionis Thomson, 1857. The replacement name is based on the Latin for eastern (subsolanus), referring to the east Asian distribution of the species.

Phyllodrepa atra (Casey, 1894: 420) (ex Omalium) is a junior primary homonym of Eusphalerum atrum (Heer, 1839: 178) (ex Omalium). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899. Replacement of the junior homonym seems unnecessary since the two names have never been cited together in the same genus. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Phyllodrepa melanocephala (Fabricius, 1787: 222) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Staphylinus melanocephalus (Geoffroy, 1785: 172). Phyllodrepa melanocephala (Fabricius) is a moderately well-known species that has been cited as valid at least 30 times by 25 authors in the last 50 years; a list of these articles is provided in a forthcoming catalog (Herman, in press). Staphylinus melanocephalus (Geoffroy) has been cited once since 1789 and, although a valid species, it should be regarded as a nomen dubium and the required change should be ignored. Furthermore, the two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, which permits application of article 23.9.5.

Pycnoglypta denticollis (Sharp, 1889: 475) (ex Omalium) is a junior primary homonym of Megarthrus denticollis (Beck, 1817: 26) (ex Omalium). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Xylodromus concinnus (Marsham, 1802: 510) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus concinnus (Gravenhorst, 1802: 21) (ex Staphylinus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). However, Silfverberg (1992: 22) ressurected Xylodromus brunnipennis (Stephens, 1834: 348) to replace X. concinnus (Marsham). At least two other works (Hansen, 1996: 94; Assing et al., 1998: 124) did the same. However, according to M. Thayer (personal commun.), Xylodromus brunnipennis (Stephens) and X. concinnus (Marsham) are not conspecific, so the former should not replace the latter. Because Marsham's name is a junior primary homonym, the case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Osoriinae

Clavilispinus jeani, new name, is proposed for Clavilispinus piceus (Jarrige, 1957: 110) (ex Paralispinus), which is a junior secondary homonym of Clavilispinus piceus (Fauvel, 1902: 27) (ex Ancaeus). C. piceus (Fauvel) is currently a junior synonym of Clavilispinus exiguus (Erichson, 1840). The replacement name is a patronym based on the given name of J. Jarrige.

Clavilispinus rufescens (Hatch, 1957: 245) (ex Paralispinus) is a junior secondary homonym of Clavilispinus rufescens (LeConte, 1863a: 59) (ex Lispinus). Clavilispinus rufescens (LeConte) is now a junior synonym of Clavilispinus exiguus (Erichson, 1840). However, Newton (personal commun.) will move C. rufescens (Hatch) to a new genus in a forthcoming article, so no new name is proposed here.

Eleusis ghumensis, new name, is proposed for Eleusis inermis Cameron, 1940: 210, which is a junior primary homonym of Eleusis inermis Bernhauer, 1902: 171. The replacement name is based on the name of the village in India from which the species was originally described.

Eleusis pierrei, new name, is proposed for Eleusis basilewskyi Scheerpeltz, 1961a: 240, which is a junior primary homonym of Eleusis basilewskyi Cameron, 1956: 177. The replacement name is a patronym based on the first name of P. Basilewsky, the person for whom the species was originally named.

Eleusis teestaensis, new name, is proposed for Eleusis sikkimensis Scheerpeltz, 1965: 128, which is a junior primary homonym of Eleusis sikkimensis Cameron, 1945: 63. The replacement name is based on the name of a river that flows through Sikkim and near which the species was originally collected.

Holotrochus conformalis, new name, is proposed for Holotrochus similis Irmler, 1982: 389, which is a junior primary homonym of Holotrochus similis Wendeler, 1955: 196, a synonym of Holotrochus antennatus Wendeler, 1955: 195. The replacement name is based on the Latin for similar (conformalis).

Holotrochus irmleri, new name, is proposed for Holotrochus lineatocollis Irmler, 1987: 103, which is a junior primary homonym of Heterotrochinus lineatocollis (Cameron, 1936: 202) (ex Holotrochus). The replacement name is a patronym based on U. Irmler.

Holotrochus tahitiensis, new name, is proposed for Holotrochus brevipennis Coiffait, 1976: 235, which is a junior primary homonym of Paratorchus brevipennis (Broun, 1893: 1034) (ex Holotrochus) and Holotrochus brevipennis Bernhauer, 1905: 15. Holotrochus brevipennis Bernhauer was replaced by Holotrochus brasiliensis Bernhauer and Schubert, 1911. The replacement name is based on Tahiti, the place where the species was collected.

Leptochirus maxi, new name, is proposed for Leptochirus costaricensis Bernhauer, 1942: 1, which is a junior primary homonym of Leptochirus costaricensis Wendeler, 1927: 2. The replacement name is a patronym based on the first name of M. Bernhauer.

Lispinus elongatus Irmler, 1994: 63, is a junior primary homonym of Lispinus elongatus Bernhauer, 1904: 12, and it will be replaced in a forthcoming article by Irmler.

Lispinus fungosus, new name, is proposed for Lispinus puncticollis Bernhauer, 1929: 84, which is a junior primary homonym of Lispinus puncticollis Bernhauer, 1926: 260, and Lispinus puncticollis Bernhauer, 1929a: 346. Bernhauer used the name for three species: one from China, one from the Philippines, and one from the Congo. The Chinese name is the oldest. The name for the species from the Philippines (Bernhauer, 1929: 346) was replaced by Lispinus punctiger Scheerpeltz, 1933; the African name (Bernhauer, 1929: 84) needs replacement. The replacement name is based on the Latin for full of holes (fungosus).

Lispinus kenyanus, new name, is proposed for Lispinus alutaceipennis Bernhauer, 1937: 289, which is a junior primary homonym of Lispinus alutaceipennis Scheerpeltz, 1933: 1012. The replacement name is based on the species' country of origin, Kenya.

Lispinus luzonensis, new name, is proposed for Lispinus longipennis Bernhauer, 1926: 259, which is a junior primary homonym of Lispinus longipennis Bernhauer, 1915c: 251. The replacement name is based on the name of the island from which the species was collected.

Lispinus prodigiosus, new name, is proposed for Lispinus paradoxus (Cameron, 1945a: 141) (ex Pseudolispinodes), which is a junior secondary homonym of Lispinus paradoxus Bernhauer, 1934c: 484. The replacement name is based on the Latin for wonderful or extraordinary (prodigiosus).

Osorius banyosensis, new name, is proposed for Osorius luzonicus Bernhauer, 1942a: 223, which is a junior primary homonym of Osorius luzonicus Bernhauer, 1915: 118. The replacement name is based on Los Baños, one of the localities reported for the species in the original description.

Osorius darjeelingensis, new name, is proposed for Osorius fraternus Cameron, 1942: 110, which is a junior primary homonym of Osorius fraternus Cameron, 1937a: 91. The replacement name is based on the name of the district from which the species was collected.

Osorius jingkei, new name, is proposed for Osorius chinensis J. Li, 1993: 157, which is a junior primary homonym of Osorius chinensis Bernhauer, 1934: 4. The replacement name is a patronym based on the given name of Li Jingke.

Osorius larutensis, new name, is proposed for Osorius pendleburyi Cameron, 1950: 8, which is a junior primary homonym of Osorius pendleburyi Cameron, 1945a: 145. Both were described from the same type locality, but Cameron compared each to different species and used different characters, and thus it is difficult to know from the description whether the same species was described twice. The replacement name is based on the type locality cited for both species.

Priochirus greensladei, new name, is proposed for Priochirus minor Greenslade, 1971: 184, which is a junior primary homonym of Priochirus minor Bernhauer, 1928: 3, and Priochirus minor Cameron, 1928a: 430. Priochirus minor Bernhauer is a junior synonym of Priochirus exaratus Eppelsheim, 1895; Priochirus minor Cameron was replaced by Priochirus minusculus Scheerpeltz, 1933. The replacement name is a patronym for P.J.M. Greenslade, who originally described the species.

Priochirus yakushimensis, new name, is proposed for Priochirus bicornis (Nakane and Sawada, 1960: A121) (ex Borolinus), which is a junior secondary homonym of Priochirus bicornis (Fauvel, 1864: 16) (ex Leptochirus). The replacement name is based on the type locality of the species.

Thoracochirus brochus, new name, is proposed for Thoracochirus denticollis Coiffait, 1984: 138, which is a junior primary homonym of Thoracochirus denticollis Cameron, 1945: 64. The replacement name is based on the Latin for with projecting teeth (brochus).

Oxytelinae

Anotylus bogorensis, new name, is proposed for Anotylus longicornis (Fauvel, 1905: 80) (ex Oxytelus), which is a junior primary homonym of Oxytelus longicornis Mannerheim, 1830: 48. Oxytelus longicornis Mannerheim is a junior synonym of Oxytelus sculptus Gravenhorst, 1806. The replacement name is based on Bogor, the current name for the type locality, Buitenzorg.

Anotylus cornutus (Bernhauer, 1936a: 86) (ex Oxytelus) is a junior primary homonym of Platystethus cornutus (Gravenhorst, 1802: 109) (ex Oxytelus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899. Replacement of the junior homonym seems unnecessary since the two species have never been congeneric, so its use should be maintained. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Anotylus kinangopensis, new name, is proposed for Anotylus parasitus (Bernhauer, 1936b: 213) (ex Oncoparia), which is a junior secondary homonym of Anotylus parasitus (Motschulsky, 1860) (ex Oxytelus). The replacement name is based on the type locality for the species.

Anotylus pusillimus (Kraatz, 1859: 177) is resurrected from synonymy with Anotylus pygmaeus (Kraatz, 1859: 176) (ex Oxytelus), which is a junior primary homonym of Anotylus pygmaeus (Melsheimer, 1844: 41) (ex Oxytelus). Anotylus pygmaeus (Melsheimer) is a junior synonym of Anotylus exiguus Erichson, 1840.

Bledius atricapillus (Germar, 1825: 4) (ex Oxytelus) is a junior primary homonym of Oxytelus atricapillus Nicolai, 1822: 40. Both names are currently cited as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). Nicolai's taxon name has not been used since its original description and is best regarded a nomen dubium, and the required replacement of Germar's name should be ignored. Furthermore, article 23.9.5 can be applied if necessary.

Bledius bicornis (Germar, 1823: 15) (ex Oxytelus) is a junior primary homonym of Piestus bicornis (Olivier, 1811: 615) (ex Oxytelus). Muona (1979: 19) resurrected Bledius dama Motschulsky, 1857 to replace “bicornis (Germar, 1822 nec Block, 1799)”. Several authors (e.g., Bohác[inv. caret], 1993: 43; Ciceroni and Zanetti, 1995: 13; Hansen, 1996: 100) followed that action, but at least 6 others did not, and in the last 50 years at least 25 articles by 20 authors have cited Bledius bicornis as the valid name of the species (Herman, in press). Note that the name that Block used was described in Staphylinus; that name is used for a valid species in Anthophagus and seems never to have been used in Bledius. Bledius bicornis (Germar) was described in 1823, several years after Piestus bicornis (Olivier) had been moved to Piestus. Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). Although Bledius dama Motschulsky was resurrected to replace B. bicornis (Germar), only a few authors have followed that action so far, and all such uses were in regional checklists. Bledius bicornis is a common, well-know, widespread species about which much as been written (Herman, in press). It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for almost 200 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Carpelimus kathmanduensis, new name, is proposed for Carpelimus nepalicus (Coiffait, 1984a: 385) (ex Trogophloeus), which is a junior primary homonym of Carpelimus nepalicus (Coiffait, 1982: 161) (ex Trogophloeus). Because one species is larger than the other, different characters are used to describe them, and because they are from different localities in Nepal, they are probably different species. The replacement name is based on the place from which the species was collected.

Carpelimus obscurus (Solier, 1849: 324) (ex Homalotrichus) is a junior secondary homonym of Carpelimus obscurus Stephens, 1834: 326. Carpelimus obscurus Stephens is a synonym of Carpelimus rivularis (Motschulsky, 1860). Coiffait and Saiz (1968: 438) included C. obscurus (Solier) in Trogophloeus (Paracarpalimus), a subgenus that is now included in Thinodromus. Since the Solier and Stephens taxa may not belong in the same genus, and since they are secondary homonyms, it is premature to resurrect the junior synonym of C. obscurus (Solier) to replace it.

Carpelimus parvulus (Mulsant and Rey, 1861: 175) (ex Oxytelus) is a junior primary homonym of Anotylus parvulus (Melsheimer, 1844: 41) (ex Oxytelus). Anotylus parvulus (Melsheimer) is a synonym of Anotylus exiguus (Erichson, 1840) and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, the number of articles citing C. parvulus (Mulsant and Rey) as valid in the last 50 years is insufficient to protect it under article 23.9.1 (see Herman, in press). The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names for taxa that have never been congeneric. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Carpelimus singaporensis, new name, is proposed for Carpelimus littoralis (Cameron, 1918: 63) (ex Trogophloeus), which is a junior primary homonym of Carpelimus littoralis (Mulsant and Rey, 1878: 756) (ex Trogophloeus). Carpelimus littoralis (Mulsant and Rey) is a junior synonym of Carpelimus gracilis (Mannerheim, 1830). The replacement name is based on the type locality of the species.

Oxytelus pallipennis Grimmer, 1841: 33 is a junior primary homonym of Bledius pallipennis (Say, 1823: 155) (ex Oxytelus). Oxytelus pallipennis Grimmer is valid but has not been cited since its original description. The Grimmer name is regarded to be a nomen dubium, so the required replacement (of B. pallipennis (Say)) should be ignored. Furthermore, the two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, which permits application of article 23.9.5.

Platystethus cameroni, new name, is proposed for Platystethus longicornis Cameron, 1942: 108, which is a junior primary homonym of Platystethus longicornis P. Lucas, 1846: 126. Platystethus longicornis P. Lucas is a junior synonym of Platystethus nitens (C. Sahlberg, 1832). The replacement name is a patronym for Malcolm Cameron.

Staphylininae

Atanygnathus andamanensis, new name, is proposed for Atanygnathus collaris Coiffait, 1981: 338, which is a junior secondary homonym of Atanygnathus collaris (Erichson, 1839a: 289) (ex Tanygnathus). The replacement name is based on the group of islands from which the species was collected.

Belonuchus haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius, 1801: 596) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Staphylinus haemorrhoidalis Gmelin, 1790: 2036 and Staphylinus haemorrhoidalis Olivier, 1795: (42): 11. Staphylinus haemorrhoidalis Olivier was replaced by Staphylinus gmelini Blackwelder, 1944, and S. haemorrhoidalis Gmelin, a rarely used name, is a nomen dubium. Two of the names are currently cited as valid and were not congeneric after 1899. Replacement of the junior homonym seems unnecessary since B. haemorroidalis (Fabricius) has not been in the same genus with the other two names for more than 160 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Belonuchus terminalis (Laporte, 1840: 176) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Oligotergus terminalis (Erichson, 1839a: 396) (ex Staphylinus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899. Although neither species is commonly cited, replacement of the junior homonym seems unnecessary since the two have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Bisnius attiguus, new name, is proposed for Bisnius propinquus (/Kirshenblat, 1950/: 238) (ex Philonthus), which is a junior primary homonym of Paederomimus propinquus (Sharp, 1876: 176) (ex Philonthus) and Gabrius propinquus (Cameron, 1933b: 389) (ex Philonthus). The replacement name is based on the Latin for touching or contiguous (attiguus).

Bisnius cephalotes (Gravenhorst, 1802: 22) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Staphylinus cephalotes Gmelin, 1790: 2036. Bisnius cephalotes (Gravenhorst) has been cited in at least 40 articles by 31 authors in the last 50 years. Staphylinus cephalotes Gmelin is a valid species that has not been cited since its original description, so it is regarded as a nomen dubium and required replacement should be ignored. Furthermore, the two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, which would permit application of article 23.9.5.

Bisnius nitidulus (Gravenhorst, 1802: 27) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Tachyporus nitidulus (Fabricius, 1781: 337) (ex Staphylinus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Cafius litoreus (Broun, 1880: 108) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Sepedophilus littoreus (Linné, 1758: 422) (ex Staphylinus) (see article 58.7). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899. Replacement of the junior homonym seems unnecessary since the two taxa were never in the same genus. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Cafius mimulus (Sharp, 1874: 38) (ex Philonthus) is a junior primary homonym of Gabronthus mimulus (Rottenberg, 1870: 30) (ex Philonthus). Gabronthus mimulus (Rottenburg) is a synonym of Gabronthus maritimus (Motschulsky, 1858) and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, the number of articles citing C. mimulus (Sharp) as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it using article 23.9.1. The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Cheilocolpus angustatus (Solier, 1849: 320) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Staphylinus angustatus Schrank, 1781: 233, Rugilus angustatus (Geoffroy, 1785: 172) (ex Staphylinus), and Astenus angustatus (Paykull, 1789: 36) (ex Staphylinus). Astenus angustatus (Paykull) is a synonym of Astenus gracilis (Paykull, 1789); the others are used as valid. Cheilocolpus angustatus (Solier) was not congeneric with the other taxa after after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Diatrechus haemorrhoidalis (Brancsik, 1893: 220) (ex Philonthus) is a junior primary homonym of Hesperus haemorrhoidalis (MacLeay, 1873: 140) (ex Philonthus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Diochus petilus, new name, is proposed for Diochus longicornis Cameron, 1952: 328, which is a junior primary homonym of Diochus longicornis Sharp, 1876: 184. Diochus longicornis Sharp is a junior synonym of Diochus nanus Erichson, 1839. The replacement name is based on the Latin for slender (petilus).

Endeius punctipennis (Solier, 1849: 319) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Othius punctipennis (Lacordaire, 1835: 409) (ex Staphylinus). Othius punctipennis (Lacordaire) is a junior synonym of Othius laeviusculus Stephens, 1833, and it was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, the number of articles citing E. punctipennis (Solier) as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it under article 23.9.1 (Herman, in press). The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Gabrius chiriquiensis, new name, is proposed for Gabrius pilipes (Bierig, 1940: 142) (ex Philonthus), which is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus pilipes Stephens, 1832: 231. Philonthus pilipes Stephens, 1832 is a synonym of Philonthus atratus (Gravenhorst, 1802). The replacement name is based on the type locality for Gabrius pilipes Bierig.

Gabrius eremius, new name, is proposed for Gabrius horni (Bernhauer and Schubert, 1914: 341) (ex Philonthus), which is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus horni Scudder, 1900: 56. Gabrius horni (Bernhauer and Schubert) is a replacement name for Gabrius parvus Horn, which was a junior secondary homonym when it was replaced. Philonthus horni Scudder is a fossil species. The replacement name is based on the Latin for solitude or desert (eremia).

Gabrius marshalli (Cameron, 1951: 402) (ex Philonthus) is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus marshalli Tottenham, 1949a: 335. The species are from the same locality and some of the stated characters are the same. The two may be the same species, but Cameron's description is so lacking in detail that comparison of the descriptions is difficult; furthermore, the two authors contrasted their new taxa to different species. Examination of the types is needed to determine their conspecificity. Until such study takes place, and since the two species are no longer congeneric, it seems appropriate to continue to recognize the junior homonym as valid.

Gabrius montanus (Bernhauer, 1934a: 237) (ex Philonthus) is a junior primary homonym of Quedius montanus (Heer, 1839: 277) (ex Philonthus). Quedius montanus (Heer) is a junior synonym of Quedius dubius (Heer, 1839) and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, the number of articles citing Gabrius montanus (Bernhauer) as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it under article 23.9.1 (Herman, in press). The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Gabrius picipennis (Mäklin, 1852: 313) (ex Philonthus) is a junior primary homonym of Quedius picipennis (Heer, 1839: 279) (ex Philonthus). Quedius picipennis (Heer) is a synonym of Quedius fulvicollis (Stephens, 1833: 244), but was cited as valid from 1888 to 1914. They were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Gabrius propinquus (Cameron, 1933b: 389) (ex Philonthus) is a junior primary homonym of Paederomimus propinquus (Sharp, 1876: 176) (ex Philonthus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Gabrius pullatus, new name, is proposed for Gabrius turneri (Cameron, 1951: 403) (ex Philonthus), which is a junior primary homonym of Gabronthus turneri (Tottenham, 1949a: 344) (ex Philonthus). The replacement name is based on the Latin for clothed in black garments (pullatus).

Gabrius punctatellus (Horn, 1884: 215) (ex Philonthus) is a junior primary homonym of Quedius punctatellus (Heer, 1839: 275) (ex Philonthus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Gabrius viduus (Cameron, 1933a: 346) (ex Philonthus) is a junior primary homonym of Styngetus viduus (Erichson, 1840: 506) (ex Philonthus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Hesperus gratus (Cameron, 1943: 342) (ex Philonthus) is a junior primary homonym of Neobisnius gratus (LeConte, 1863a: 38) (ex Philonthus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Hesperus mirificus, new name, is proposed for Hesperus mirus Last, 1981: 132, which is a junior primary homonym of Hesperus mirus Bernhauer, 1915a: 146. The replacement name is based on the Latin for causing wonder (mirificus).

Hesperus rufipennis (Gravenhorst, 1802: 40) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Belonuchus rufipennis (Fabricius, 1801: 597) (ex Staphylinus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Hesperus septuosus, new name, is proposed for Hesperus obscuricollis Scheerpeltz, 1971: 168, which is a junior primary homonym of Hesperus obscuricollis Cameron, 1941b: 379. One species account included the phrase “Bernhauer i.l.” and the other “Bernhauer in litt.” Both species are from the Philippines, but from different islands, and they have some different features. The replacement name is based on the Latin for obscure (septuosus).

Heterothops tumulus, new name, is proposed for Heterothops montanus Last, 1975: 434, which is a junior primary homonym of Heterothops montanus Iablokov-Khnzorian, 1966: 174. The replacement name is based on the Latin for raised mound of earth (tumulus).

Leptacinus debilis Cameron, 1950a: 28 is a junior primary homonym of Somoleptus debilis (Erichson, 1839a: 336) (ex Leptacinus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Leptacinus hariolus, new name, is proposed for Leptacinus sinuatocollis Scheerpeltz, 1974: 118, which is a junior primary homonym of Leptacinus sinuatocollis Scheerpeltz, 1957: 233. The replacement name is based on the Latin for prophet (hariolus).

Leptacinus lipposus, new name, is proposed for Leptacinus microps Coiffait, 1968: 139, which is a junior primary homonym of Paulianella microps (Jarrige, 1951: 335) (ex Leptacinus). The replacement name is based on the Latin for bleary-eyed (lipposus).

Leptacinus paulus, new name, is proposed for Leptacinus minutus Coiffait, 1968: 138, which is a junior secondary homonym of Leptacinus minutus (Lacordaire, 1835: 417) (ex Xantholinus). Leptacinus minutus (Lacordaire) is a synonym of Leptacinus pusillus (Stephens, 1833). The replacement name is based on the Latin for little (paulus).

Nordus testaceus (Fabricius, 1801: 595) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Lobrathium testaceum (Paykull, 1789: 28) (ex Staphylinus). Lobrathium testaceum (Paykull) is a synonym of Lobrathium multipunctum (Gravenhorst, 1802) and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, the number of articles citing Nordus testaceus (Fabricius) as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it using article 23.9.1 (Herman, in press). The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Ocypus atavus (Oustalet, 1874: 162) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Staphylinus atavus Heer, 1862: 48. Both are fossils. The names are rarely cited and have been in different genera since at least 1907 (not quite long enough ago to satisfy provisions of article 23.9.5) and perhaps longer, so it seems appropriate to forego proposing a new name now.

Paederomimus cognatus (Sharp, 1876: 169) (ex Philonthus) is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus cognatus Stephens, 1833: 229. Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Philonthus aberrans Cameron, 1932: 111 is a junior primary homonym of Paederomimus aberrans (Sharp, 1876: 174) (ex Philonthus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Philonthus aeolus, new name, is proposed for Philonthus temporalis (Coiffait, 1977: 221) (ex Paragabrius), which is a junior secondary homonym of Philonthus temporalis Mulsant and Rey, 1853: 61. The replacement name is based on the Latin for god of the winds (Aeolus).

Philonthus antennarius, new name, is proposed for Philonthus antennalis Cameron, 1937: 7, which is a junior secondary homonym of Philonthus antennalis (Cameron, 1932: 262) (ex Philonthopsis), which is a junior synonym of Philonthus distincticornis Cameron, 1932. The replacement name is based on the Latin, antenna.

Philonthus arabiensis, new name, is proposed for Philonthus thoracicus (Coiffait, 1979: 165) (ex Paragabrius), which is a junior secondary homonym of Philonthus thoracicus (Gravenhorst, 1802: 170) (ex Staphylinus) and a junior primary homonym of Bisnius thoracicus (Melsheimer, 1844: 36) (ex Philonthus). Melsheimer's name is now a synonym of Bisnius blandus (Gravenhorst, 1806: 72). The replacement name is based on the type locality.

Philonthus argus, new name, is proposed for Philonthus tucumanensis Bernhauer, 1934a: 118, which is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus tucumanensis Bernhauer, 1927a: 245. The replacement name is based on the Latin for the name of the hundred-eyed guardian of Io (Argus).

Philonthus argutus, new name, is proposed for Philonthus nitens Kraatz, 1859: 82, which is a junior secondary homonym of Philonthus nitens (Gravenhorst, 1802: 26) (ex Staphylinus). Philonthus nitens (Gravenhorst) is now a junior synonym of Philonthus varians (Paykull, 1789). The replacement name is based on the Latin for shiny or bright (argutus).

Philonthus austellus, new name, is proposed for Philonthus rufipes Boheman, 1848: 284, which is a junior secondary homonym of Philonthus rufipes (Stephens, 1832: 222) (ex Quedius). The replacement name is based on the Latin for gentle south wind (austellus).

Philonthus australis Cameron, 1943: 342, is a junior primary homonym of Hesperus australis (MacLeay, 1873: 139) (ex Philonthus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Philonthus bhutanensis, new name, is proposed for Philonthus gabrioides Coiffait, 1984a: 376, which is a junior primary homonym of Gabrius gabrioides (Bernhauer, 1913: 131) (ex Philonthus). The replacement name is based on the type locality.

Philonthus bicolor Fauvel, 1903: 240 is a junior primary homonym of Quedius bicolor (Redtenbacher, 1849: 710) (ex Philonthus). Quedius bicolor (Redtenbacher) is a synonym of Quedius assimilis (Nordmann, 1837) and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, the number of articles citing Philonthus bicolor Fauvel as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it under article 23.9.1 (Herman, in press). The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Philonthus binotatus (Gravenhorst, 1806: 73) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Heterothops binotatus (Gravenhorst, 1802: 28) (ex Staphylinus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Philonthus curvabilis, new name, is proposed for Philonthus sinuatus Tottenham, 1949a: 341, which is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus sinuatus Wollaston, 1867: 239. Philonthus sinuatus Wollaston is a synonym of Philonthus quisquiliarius (Gyllenhal, 1810). The replacement name is based on the Latin for flexible or bendable (curvabilis).

Philonthus humilis Cameron, 1932: 106 is a junior primary homonym of Neobisnius humilis (Erichson, 1840: 512) (ex Philonthus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Philonthus hybridus Cameron, 1930a: 163 is a junior primary homonym of Quedius hybridus (Erichson, 1840: 432) (ex Philonthus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Philonthus lubomiri, new name, is proposed for Philonthus simonae Hromádka, 1992: 99, which is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus simonae Levasseur, 1962: 238. The replacement name is a patronym based on Hromádka's first name.

Philonthus malcolmi, new name, is proposed for Philonthus cameroni Pajni and Kohli, 1977: 513, which is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus cameroni Scheerpeltz, 1933: 1335. The replacement name is based on the first name of M. Cameron, for whom the species was originally named.

Philonthus nigriceps Eppelsheim, 1885: 112 is a junior primary homonym of Erichsonius nigriceps (Gemminger and Harold, 1868: 590) (ex Philonthus). Erichsonius nigriceps (Gemminger and Harold), a replacement name for Erichsonius melanocephalus (Hochhuth), is currently a synonym of Erichsonius cinerascens (Gravenhorst, 1802) and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, the number of articles citing Philonthus nigriceps Eppelsheim as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it under article 23.9.1 (Herman, in press). The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Philonthus obscurus (Gravenhorst, 1802: 174) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Staphylinus obscurus (Herbst, 1784: 149), Lesteva obscura (Paykull, 1800: 388) (ex Staphylinus), and Zyras obscurus (Fabricius, 1801: 595) (ex Staphylinus). Lesteva obscura (Paykull) is a synonym of Lesteva longoelytrata (Goeze, 1777), and Staphylinus obscurus Herbst is a nomen dubium. Zyras obscurus (Fabricius) is currently valid and was not congeneric with P. obscurus (Gravenhorst) after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Philonthus ottoi, new name, is proposed for Philonthus trapeziceps Scheerpeltz, 1965: 213, which is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus trapeziceps Scheerpeltz, 1960: 107. The replacement name is a patronym based on the first name of O. Scheerpeltz.

Philonthus picipes Fauvel, 1875: xxxi is a junior secondary homonym of Philonthus picipes (Stephens, 1832: 221) (ex Quedius) and will be replaced by Schillhammer (personal commun.) in a forthcoming article.

Philonthus proselytus, new name, is proposed for Philonthus tamulus Tottenham, 1949a: 358, which is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus tamulus Cameron, 1932: 91. The replacement name is based on the Latin for convert (proselytus).

Philonthus thoracicus (Gravenhorst, 1802: 170) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Paederidus thoracicus (Geoffroy, 1785: 170) (ex Staphylinus) and Staphylinus thoracicus Villers, 1789: 420. Paederidus thoracicus is a junior synonym of Paederidus rubrothoracicus (Goeze, 1777) and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). Staphylinus thoracicus Villers seems not to have been cited after its original description and is labelled a nomen dubium (Herman, in press). The three homonyms were not congeneric after 1899. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of three names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Philonthus repetitus, new name, is proposed for Philonthus renominatus Cameron, 1951: 402, which is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus renominatus Cameron, 1937: 5. In 1937, Cameron proposed Philonthus renominatus to replace the junior primary homonym Philonthus vicinus Cameron, 1933, and later, in 1951, he used the name for a new species. The replacement name is based on the Latin for again or anew (repetitus).

Philonthus rivularis Cameron, 1932: 138 is a junior primary homonym of Erichsonius rivularis (Kiesenwetter, 1858: 61) (ex Philonthus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Philonthus secus, new name, is proposed for Philonthus distinguendus Cameron, 1951: 400, which is a junior primary homonym of Gabrius distinguendus (Cameron, 1950a: 41) (ex Philonthus). The replacement name is based on the Latin for different (secus).

Philonthus serenus, new name, is proposed for Philonthus parvicornis Fauvel, 1907: 40, which is a junior secondary homonym of Philonthus parvicornis (Gravenhorst, 1802: 23) (ex Staphylinus). The replacement name is based on the Latin for clear or bright (serenus).

Philonthus sublucanus, new name, is proposed for Philonthus sericans Sharp, 1874: 45, which is a junior secondary homonym of Philonthus sericans (Gravenhorst, 1802: 171) (ex Staphylinus). Philonthus sericans (Gravenhorst) was described in Staphylinus. The replacement name is based on the Latin for toward morning (sublucanus).

Philonthus supernus, new name, is proposed for Philonthus excelsus Bernhauer, 1941a: 287, which is a junior secondary homonym of Philonthus excelsus (Cameron, 1931: 361) (ex Hesperus) and a junior primary homonym of Gabrius excelsus (Cameron, 1932: 147) (ex Philonthus). Gabrius excelsus (Cameron, 1932) was replaced by Gabrius perexcelsus (Tottenham, 1939). The replacement name for P. excelsus Bernhauer is based on the Latin for on high (supernus).

Philonthus transbaicalia Hochhuth, 1851: 10, is resurrected from synonymy with Philonthus suturalis Nordmann, 1837, which is a junior secondary homonym of Philonthus suturalis (Marsham, 1802: 509) (ex Staphylinus) and Philonthus suturalis (Stephens, 1832: 223) (ex Quedius). Both of the older homonyms are synonyms of Philonthus discoideus (Gravenhorst, 1802).

Philonthus trunculus, new name, is proposed for Philonthus analis Fauvel, 1907: 46, which is a junior primary homonym of Gabrius analis (Heer, 1839: 268) (ex Philonthus) and Xenopygus analis (Erichson, 1840: 495) (ex Philonthus). Gabrius analis (Heer) is a synonym of Gabrius splendidulus Gravenhorst, 1802. The replacement name is based on the Latin for tip, end, or extremity of the body (trunculus).

Philonthus vertumnus, new name, is proposed for Philonthus planus Last, 1987: 27, which is a junior secondary homonym of Philonthus planus (Lacordaire, 1835: 401) (ex Staphylinus), a synonym of Philonthus corruscus (Gravenhorst, 1802). The replacement name is based on the Latin for the god of change and trade (Vertumnus).

Platydracus biguttatus (Bernhauer, 1937: 304) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Stenus biguttatus (Linné, 1758: 422) (ex Staphylinus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Platydracus purpurascens (Cameron, 1920: 217) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Trigonopselaphus purpurascens (Nordmann, 1837: 47) (ex Staphylinus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Platydracus tomentosus (Gravenhorst, 1802: 161) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Sepedophilus tomentosus (Rossi, 1792: 97) (ex Staphylinus). Sepedophilus tomentosus (Rossi) is a junior synonym of Sepedophilus littoreus (Linné, 1758) and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, the number of articles citing Platydracus tomentosus (Gravenhorst) as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it under article 23.9.1 (Herman, in press). The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Quedius angulicollis Fauvel, 1891: 60, is resurrected from synonymy with Quedius bicolor Mulsant and Rey, 1876: 738, which is a junior secondary homonym of Quedius bicolor (Redtenbacher, 1849: 710) (ex Philonthus). Quedius bicolor (Redtenbacher) is a synonym of Quedius assimilis (Nordmann, 1837).

Quedius aurorus, new name, is proposed for Quedius laticollis Sharp, 1889: 31, which is a junior secondary homonym of Quedius laticollis (Gravenhorst, 1802: 173) (ex Staphylinus). The replacement name is based on the Latin for dawn (aurora).

Quedius hirtipennis Broun, 1915: 279 is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus hirtipennis (Stephens, 1832: 221) (ex Quedius). Philonthus hirtipennis (Stephens) is a synonym of Philonthus albipes (Gravenhorst, 1802) and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, the number of articles citing Quedius hirtipennis Broun as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it using article 23.9.1 (Herman, in press). The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Quedius manducus, new name, is proposed for Quedius analis (MacLeay, 1873: 142) (ex Staphylinus), which is a junior primary homonym of Quedius analis (Fabricius, 1787: 221) and a junior secondary homonym of Quedius analis Stephens, 1835: 435. Quedius analis Stephens is a synonym of Quedius cruentatus (Olivier, 1795). Quedius analis (Fabricius) is a junior synonym of Quedius scitus (Gravenhorst). The replacement name is based on the Latin for chewer (manducus).

Quedius obscuripennis arvernus, new name, is proposed for Quedius obscuripennis arvernicus Coiffait, 1982c: 233, which is a junior primary homonym of Quedius arvernicus Mulsant and Rey, 1876: 643. Quedius arvernicus Mulsant and Rey is a synonym of Quedius mesomelinus (Marsham, 1802). Quedius obscuripennis pyrenaeicola Coiffait is a valid subspecies and cannot replace Q. obscuripennis arvernicus. The replacement name is based on the Latin for nether world or infernal regions (Arvernus).

Quedius segersi, new name, is proposed for Quedius conicus Segers, 1987: 267, which is a junior primary homonym of Indoquedius conicus (Champion, 1922: 33) (ex Quedius). Indoquedius conicus (Champion) is a synonym of Indoquedius filicornis (Eppelsheim, 1895). The replacement name is a patronym for R. Segers.

Quedius sericopterus (Stephens, 1833: 244) (ex Raphirus) is a junior secondary homonym of Quedius sericopterus Stephens, 1832: 219. Both names were cited only once, in 1839, since the original description. They should be considered nomina dubia and the required replacement ignored.

Quedius suturalis Kiesenwetter, 1845: 225 is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus suturalis (Stephens, 1832: 224) (ex Quedius). Philonthus suturalis (Stephens) has been a synonym of Philonthus discoideus (Gravenhorst, 1802) since 1839 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 27 articles by 24 authors have been published listing Quedius suturalis Kiesenwetter as valid (article 23.9.1.2); 23 articles are listed in a forthcoming catalog (Herman, in press), and the other four are cited herein (Dynort, 1995: 41; Köhler, 1997: 68; Wagner, 1992: 141; Wenzel, 1993: 11). Quedius suturalis is a nomen protectum and Q. suturalis (Stephens) a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Quedius unicolor Kiesenwetter, 1847: 75 is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus unicolor (Stephens, 1832: 224) (ex Quedius). Philonthus unicolor (Stephens) has been a synonym of Philonthus varians (Paykull, 1789) since 1858, except once in 1957, when it was used as the valid name in North America, thus compromising use of article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 25 articles by 19 authors have been published listing Quedius unicolor Kiesenwetter as valid; 21 articles are listed in a forthcoming catalog (Herman, in press), and the other four are cited herein (Hugentobler, 1966: 83; Peez and Kahlen, 1977: 165; Schiller, 1989: 1061; Wörndle, 1950: 156). The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Staphylinus affinis Solsky, 1868: 126 is a junior primary homonym of Atrecus affinis (Paykull, 1789: 24) (ex Staphylinus). S. affinis Solsky will be placed in synonymy (A. Newton, personal commun.). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Staphylinus auricomus Cameron, 1929: 65 is a junior primary homonym of Glenus auricomus (Brullé, 1842: pl. 5, fig. 6) (ex Staphylinus). Glenus auricomus (Brullé) is a synonym of Glenus chrysis (Gravenhorst, 1806) and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, the number of articles citing Staphylinus auricomus Cameron as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it under article 23.9.1 (Herman, in press). The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Staphylinus bicolor Gmelin, 1790: 2027 is a junior primary homonym of Lesteva bicolor (Paykull, 1789: 21) (ex Staphylinus). Lesteva bicolor (Paykull) has been a junior synonym of Lesteva longoelytrata (Goeze, 1777) since 1895, and the two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). Staphylinus bicolor Gmelin has not been cited since its original description, and thus it should be considered a nomen dubium and the required replacement ignored.

Staphylinus chrysis Bernhauer, 1936: 24 is a junior primary homonym of Glenus chrysis (Gravenhorst, 1806: 124) (ex Staphylinus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Staphylinus cursor Grimmer, 1841: 32 is a junior primary homonym of Omalium cursor (O. Müller, 1776: 97) (ex Staphylinus). Omalium cursor (O. Müller) has been a synonym of Omalium rivulare (Paykull, 1789) since 1840 and the two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). Staphylinus cursor Grimmer has been cited once, in 1868, since the original description and, although cited as valid, it should be considered a nomen dubium and the required replacement ignored.

Staphylinus cyanipennis Runde, 1835: 7 is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus cyanipennis (Fabricius, 1793: 525) (ex Staphylinus), and the two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). Staphylinus cyanipennis Runde has not been used since its original description, and thus it should be regarded a nomen dubium and the required replacement ignored.

Staphylinus dimidiatus Laporte, 1835: 115 is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus dimidiatus (C. Sahlberg, 1830: 326) (ex Staphylinus), Philonthus dimidiatus (Say, 1830: 37) (ex Staphylinus), and Philonthus dimidiatus (Lacordaire, 1835: 402) (ex Staphylinus). The species described by C. Sahlberg, Say, and Lacordaire are synonyms of Philonthus caucasicus Nordmann, 1837, Philonthus sericans (Gravenhorst, 1802), and Philonthus quisquiliarius (Gyllenhal, 1810), respectively. Although the Say and Lacordaire names were not cited as valid after 1899, the Sahlberg name was cited as valid by many authors after 1899 (Herman, in press), and thus the requirements of article 23.9.1.1 are not met. Furthermore, the number of articles citing Staphylinus dimidiatus Laporte as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it under article 23.9.1 (Herman, in press). The three older homonyms were not congeneric with S. dimidiatus Laporte after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Staphylinus emeritus, new name, is proposed for Staphylinus priscus Sharp, 1876: 155, which is a junior primary homonym of the fossil Staphylinus priscus Oustalet, 1874: 166. The replacement name is based on the Latin for honorably discharged or retired (emeritus).

Staphylinus fuscomaculatus Laporte, 1835: 113 is a junior primary homonym of Staphylinus fuscomaculatus Goeze, 1777: 730, but it has only been cited a few times. Staphylinus fuscomaculatus Goeze is cited as valid but has not been used since its original description, and thus it should be regarded as a nomen dubium and the required replacement ignored.

Staphylinus giganteus Kraatz, 1899: 112 is a junior primary homonym of Staphylinus giganteus Cuvier, 1833: 196, but it has only been cited a few times. Staphylinus giganteus Cuvier is listed as valid, but it has not been used since its original description, and thus should be considered a nomen dubium and the required replacement ignored.

Staphylinus glaber Gmelin, 1790: 2035 is a junior primary homonym of Quedius glaber (O. Müller, 1776: 98) (ex Staphylinus). Quedius glaber (O. Müller) has been a synonym of Quedius laevigatus (Gyllenhal, 1810) or Quedius plagiatus Mannerheim, 1843 since 1840, and it was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). Staphylinus glaber Gmelin is listed as valid but has not been used since its original description, and thus it should be considered a nomen dubium and the required replacement ignored. Furthermore, the two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press), which permits application of article 23.9.5.

Staphylinus latus O. Müller, 1776: 97 is a junior primary homonym of Staphylinus latus Ström, 1768: 332. Both names are rarely used and should be considered nomina dubia and the required replacement ignored.

Staphylinus limbatus Fabricius, 1801: 600 is a junior primary homonym of Zyras limbatus (Paykull, 1789: 54) (ex Staphylinus). Staphylinus limbatus Fabricius has not been used since its original description, and thus it should be considered a nomen dubium and the required replacement ignored. By 1802, Staphylinus limbatus Paykull had been moved to Aleochara (Gravenhorst, 1802: 69), and it has not been in Staphylinus since. Furthermore, the two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, which permits application of article 23.9.5.

Staphylinus marginatus Cameron, 1944: 11 is a junior primary homonym of Philonthus marginatus (O. Müller, 1764: 23) (ex Staphylinus), Philonthus marginatus (Ström, 1768: 313) (ex Staphylinus), Philonthus marginatus (Fabricius, 1775: 255) (ex Staphylinus), and Tachinus marginatus (Geoffroy, 1785: 169) (ex Staphylinus). Tachinus marginatus (Geoffroy) is a synonym of Tachinus marginellus (Fabricius, 1781). All the names are currently used as valid, and none of the four older names were congeneric with S. marginatus Cameron (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Staphylinus marginellus Gmelin, 1790: 2036 is a junior primary homonym of Tachinus marginellus (Fabricius, 1781: 337) (ex Staphylinus). Staphylinus marginellus Gmelin is listed as valid but has not been used since its original description, and thus it should be regarded as a nomen dubium and the required replacement ignored. Furthermore, the two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press), which permits application of article 23.9.5.

Staphylinus minutus Marsham, 1802: 511 is a junior primary homonym of Acrolocha minuta (Olivier, 1795 (42): 38) (ex Staphylinus). Staphylinus minutus Marsham is listed as valid but has not been cited since its original description, and thus it should be regarded as a nomen dubium and the required replacement ignored. Furthermore, the two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press), which permits application of article 23.9.5.

Staphylinus oculatus O. Müller, 1776: 99 is a junior primary homonym of Creophilus oculatus (Fabricius, 1775: 265) (ex Staphylinus). Staphylinus oculatus O. Müller is listed as a valid species but has not been cited since its original description, and thus it should be regarded as a nomen dubium and the required replacement ignored.

Staphylinus picipennis Nordmann, 1837: 71 is a junior primary homonym of Ocypus picipennis (Fabricius, 1793: 521) (ex Staphylinus). Staphylinus picipennis Nordmann is listed as a valid species but has not been cited since its original description, and thus it should be regarded as a nomen dubium and the required replacement ignored.

Staphylinus ruficornis O. Costa, 1839: 118 is a junior primary homonym of Staphylinus ruficornis Latreille, 1804: 326 and Quedius ruficornis (Gravenhorst, 1802: 50) (ex Staphylinus). Staphylinus ruficornis Latreille was not used after its original description. Quedius ruficornis (Gravenhorst) has been a synonym of Quedius rufipes (Gravenhorst, 1802) or Quedius semiobscurus (Marsham, 1802) since 1840. Staphylinus ruficornis O. Costa is listed as a valid species but has not been used since its original description, and thus it should be considered a nomen dubium and the required replacement ignored.

Staphylinus rufipennis Cameron, 1930: 156 is a junior primary homonym of Belonuchus rufipennis (Fabricius, 1801: 597) (ex Staphylinus), Hesperus rufipennis (Gravenhorst, 1802: 40) (ex Staphylinus), and Philonthus rufipennis (Solier, 1849: 317) (ex Staphylinus). Philonthus rufipennis (Solier) is a synonym of Philonthus hepaticus Erichson, 1840. Staphylinus rufipennis Cameron, B. rufipennis (Fabricius), and Hesperus rufipennis (Gravenhorst) are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Staphylinus rufipes Fabricius, 1793: 529 is a junior primary homonym of Tachinus rufipes (Linné, 1758: 423) (ex Staphylinus). Staphylinus rufipes Fabricius was used three times after its original description (the last time being in 1840) and is currently cited as valid; however, it should be considered a nomen dubium and the required replacement ignored. Furthermore, the two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press), which permits application of article 23.9.5.

Staphylinus sapphirinus Gistel, 1857: 35 is a junior primary homonym of Xanthopygus sapphirinus (Erichson, 1839a: 364) (ex Staphylinus). Staphylinus sapphirinus Gistel was not used after its original description, and thus it should be considered a nomen dubium and the required ignored replacement. Furthermore, the two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press), which permits application of article 23.9.5.

Staphylinus scabrosus (Curtis, 1839: 196) (ex Ocypus) is ressurected from synonymy with Staphylinus fuscicornis Germar, 1824: 33, which is a junior secondary homonym of Staphylinus fuscicornis O. Müller, 1776: 98. Staphylinus fuscicornis O. Müller is listed as valid but has been cited once (in 1790) since its original description (Herman, in press). Blackwelder (1944: 139) replaced Staphylinus fuscicornis Germar with Staphylinus nigrescens Blanchard, 1842, but there are two older names: one, Staphylinus lugubris Nordmann, 1837, is a junior primary homonym so cannot be used; the other, Staphylinus scabrosus (Curtis, 1839), was cited erroneously by Blackwelder (1944: 139) as published in 1843. Staphylinus fuscicornis Germar and Staphylinus nigrescens Blanchard are junior synonyms of Staphylinus scabrosus (Curtis).

Staphylinus semotus, new name, is proposed for Staphylinus subcyaneus Sharp, 1876: 151, which is a junior primary homonym of Ocypus subcyaneus (Heer, 1839: 253) (ex Staphylinus). Ocypus subcyaneus (Heer), described as a variety of Staphylinus cyaneus Paykull, 1789, is a synonym of Ocypus ophthalmicus (Scopoli, 1763). The replacement name is based on the Latin for distant or removed (semotus).

Staphylinus thoracicus Villers, 1789: 420 is a junior primary homonym of Paederidus thoracicus (Geoffroy, 1785: 170) (ex Staphylinus). Paederidus thoracicus Geoffroy is a synonym of Paederidus rubrothoracicus (Goeze, 1777). Staphylinus thoracicus Villers has not been used since its original description, and thus it should be considered a nomen dubium and the required replacement ignored. Furthermore, the two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press), which permits application of article 23.9.5.

Tasgius dichromus, new name, is proposed to replace Tasgius bicolor (Cameron, 1944: 11) (ex Staphylinus), which is a junior primary homonym of Lesteva bicolor (Paykull, 1789: 21) (ex Staphylinus), Staphylinus bicolor Gmelin, 1790: 2027, Xenopygus bicolor (Laporte, 1935: 115) (ex Staphylinus), and Ocypus bicolor (G. Müller, 1943: 105) (ex Staphylinus). The replacement name is based on the Greek for two (di-) and for color (chroma).

Thyreocephalus feae Cameron, 1941a: 446, a junior secondary homonym of Thyreocephalus feae (Fauvel, 1895: 242) (ex Xantholinus), will be replaced by Bordoni (personal commun.) in a forthcoming article.

Thyreocephalus nigerrimus (Sharp, 1887: 791) (ex Saurohypnus), a junior secondary homonym of Thyreocephalus nigerrimus (Kraatz, 1859: 103) (ex Xantholinus), will be replaced by Bordoni (personal commun.) in a forthcoming article.

Thyreocephalus puncticeps Cameron, 1942a: 843 is a junior primary homonym of Thyreocephalus puncticeps Sharp, 1885: 501, but Bordoni (personal commun.) informed me that Cameron's name is a junior synonym of another species.

Thyreocephalus rufipennis (Coiffait, 1982a: 249) (ex Indoscytalinus) is a junior secondary homonym of Thyreocephalus rufipennis Sharp, 1885: 500, but it will be transferred to another genus in a forthcoming article by Bordoni (personal commun.).

Xantholinus minutus Coiffait, 1962: 73 is a junior primary homonym of Leptacinus minutus (Lacordaire, 1835: 417) (ex Xantholinus). Leptacinus minutus (Lacordaire) is a synonym of Leptacinus pusillus (Stephens, 1833) and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1) (Herman, in press). However, the number of articles citing Xantholinus minutus Coiffait as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it under article 23.9.1 (Herman, in press). The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Xantholinus piceus Cameron, 1926a: 345 is a junior primary secondary homonym of Zeteotomus piceus (MacLeay, 1873: 138) (ex Xantholinus). Zeteotomus piceus MacLeay is a synonym of Zeteotomus atriceps (MacLeay) and may not have been cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, the number of articles citing Xantholinus piceus Cameron as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it under article 23.9.1 (Herman, in press). The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Xanthopygus haemorrhoidalis (Germar, 1824: 34) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Staphylinus haemorrhoidalis Gmelin, 1790: 2036, Staphylinus haemorrhoidalis Olivier, 1795 (42): 11, and Belonuchus haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius, 1801: 596) (ex Staphylinus). Staphylinus haemorrhoidalis Olivier was replaced by Staphylinus gmelini Blackwelder, 1944. Xanthopygus haemorrhoidalis (Germar) was not congeneric with the other homonyms after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Xenopygus analis (Erichson, 1840: 495) (ex Philonthus) is a junior primary homonym of Gabrius analis (Heer, 1839: 268) (ex Philonthus). Gabrius analis (Heer) is a junior synonym of Gabrius splendidulus (Gravenhorst, 1802) and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, the number of articles citing Xenopygus analis (Erichson) as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it under article 23.9.1 (Herman, in press). The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for over more than years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Xenopygus bicolor (Laporte, 1835: 115) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Lesteva bicolor (Paykull, 1789: 21) (ex Staphylinus) and Staphylinus bicolor Gmelin, 1790: 2027. Lesteva bicolor Paykull is a synonym of Lesteva longoelytrata (Goeze, 1777), and S. bicolor Gmelin has not been used since its original description (Herman, in press) and should be considered a nomen dubium. Xenopygus bicolor (Laporte) was not congeneric with the others after 1899 (Herman, 1899). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Steninae

Dianous festinus, new name, is proposed for Dianous semicoeruleus (Cameron, 1929a: 449) (ex Stenus), which is a junior primary homonym of Stenus semicoeruleus L. Benick, 1928a: 179. Benick's name is a synonym of Stenus coeruleus C. Waterhouse, 1877. The replacement name is based on the Latin for hasty or quick (festinus).

Stenus difficilis Casey, 1884: 41 is resurrected from synonymy with Stenus tenuis Casey, 1884: 40, which is a junior primary homonym of Stenus tenuis Rey, 1884: 272. Stenus tenuis Rey is a junior synonym of Stenus atratulus Erichson, 1839.

Stenus pulchrior Puthz, 1971: 47 is resurrected from synonymy with Stenus ornatus Cameron, 1929a: 449, which is a junior primary homonym of the fossil species, Stenus ornatus Förster, 1891: 365.

Tachyporinae

Bolitobius commodus, new name, is proposed for Bolitobius bicolor (Cameron, 1926: 175) (ex Bryocharis), which is a junior secondary homonym of Bolitobius bicolor (Rossi, 1790: 253) (ex Oxyporus). Bolitobius bicolor (Rossi) is a synonym of Bolitobius cingulatus Mannerheim, 1830. The replacement name is based on the Latin for suitable (commodus).

Carphacis effrenatus, new name, is proposed for Carphacis intrusus (Horn, 1877: 115) (ex Bolitobius), which is a junior primary homonym of Lordithon intrusus (Hampe, 1850: 349) (ex Bolitobius). Lordithon intrusus (Hampe) is a synonym of Lordithon thoracicus (Fabricius, 1777). The replacement name is based on the Latin for unrestrained (effrenatus).

Carphacis striatus (Olivier, 1795 (42): 28) (ex Staphylinus) is a junior primary homonym of Anotylus striatus (Ström, 1768: 333) (ex Staphylinus). Staphylinus striatus Ström has been a junior synonym of Anotylus rugosus (Fabricius, 1775) since 1840 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). Carphacis striatus (Olivier) has been cited in 25 articles by 25 authors in the last 50 years (Herman, in press) (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). However, Ádám (1996a: 248) resurrected Carphacis angularis (Paykull), a junior synonym of C. striatus (Olivier), thereby compromising application of article 23.9.1. Use of the resurrected name will create significant instability. The name in current use has been cited as valid in many publications and is known by many workers, and thus its use should be maintained. The matter will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name should to be maintained (article 23.9.3). Furthermore, the two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press), which permits application of article 23.9.5.

Coproporus apicalis (Erichson, 1839a: 250) (ex Tachinus) is a junior primary homonym of Tachinus apicalis Stephens, 1832: 195. Tachinus apicalis Stephens is a junior synonym of Tachinus signatus Gravenhorst, 1802 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, the number of articles citing C. apicalis (Erichson) as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it under article 23.9.1 (Herman, in press). The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Coproporus breviarius, new name, is proposed for Coproporus brevis Sharp, 1876: 86, which is a junior secondary homonym of Coproporus brevis (Scriba, 1855: 296) (ex Tachyporus). Coproporus brevis (Scriba) is a synonym of Coproporus rutilus (Erichson, 1839). The replacement name is based on the Latin for abridged (breviarius).

Coproporus infectus, new name, is proposed for Coproporus piceorufus Campbell, 1975: 197, which is a junior primary homonym of Coproporus piceorufus Bernhauer, 1926a: 321. Coproporus piceorufus Campbell was first published as an aberration of Coproporus rutilus by Bernhauer (1918: 91), and thus it was an unavailable name. It became available when Campbell (1975) cited it as a valid species (article 10.2), so he is the author (article 45.5.1) and the date of publication is 1975 (article 23.3.4). The replacement name is based on the Latin for dyed or stained (infectus).

Coproporus repletus, new name, is proposed for Coproporus affinis (Sharp, 1883: 301) (ex Erchomus), which is a junior secondary homonym of Coproporus affinis (Kirby, 1837: 91) (ex Tachyporus). The replacement name is based on the Latin for full (repletus).

Lordithon abditus, new name, is proposed for Lordithon decipiens (Cameron, 1937: 34) (ex Bolitobius), which is a junior primary homonym of Lordithon decipiens (Cameron, 1932: 343) (ex Bolitobius). The replacement name is based on the Latin for concealed (abditus).

Lordithon angularis (Sachse, 1852: 122) (ex Bolitobius) is a junior primary homonym of Lordithon angularis (Stephens, 1832: 173) (ex Bolitobius). Lordithon angularis Stephens is a synonym of Lordithon exoletus Erichson, 1839. Lorditon angularis (Sachse) will be placed Assing (personal commun.) in a forthcoming article.

Lordithon conabilis, new name, is proposed for Lordithon difficilis Campbell, 1982: 41, which is a junior secondary homonym of Lordithon difficilis (Cameron, 1932: 346) (ex Bolitobius). The replacement name is based on the Latin for laborious or difficult (conabilis).

Lordithon humerulus, new name, is proposed for Lordithon humeralis (Cameron, 1926: 174, 175) (ex Bolitobius), which is a junior primary homonym of Carphacis humeralis (Melsheimer, 1844: 33) (ex Bolitobius). Carphacis dimidiatus humeralis Melsheimer is a dimiatus dimidiatus synonym of Carphacis dimidiatus (Erichson, 1839). The replacement name is based on the Latin for shoulder (humerulus, the diminutive of humerus).

Lordithon kelleyi (Malkin, 1944: 26) (ex Bolitobius) is resurrected from synonymy with Lordithon bimaculatus (Couper, 1865: 61) (ex Bolitobius), which is a junior secondary homonym of Lordithon bimaculatus (Schrank, 1798: 644) (ex Staphylinus) and a junior primary homonym of Lordithon bimaculatus (Stephens, 1832: 174) (ex Bolitobius) and Lordithon bimaculatus (Kraatz, 1859: 63) (ex Bolitobius). Schrank's name is a synonym of Lordithon trinotatus (Erichson, 1839), Stephens' name is a synonym of Lordithon thoracicus (Fabricius, 1777), and Kraatz's name is a synonym of Lordithon nitidus (Motschulsky, 1858).

Ryvkinius, new name, is proposed for Mesoporus Ryvkin, 1990: 63, which is a junior primary homonym of Mesoporus Cameron, 1959: 119. Cameron's name is in the Aleocharinae, and Ryvkin's is a fossil genus. Ryvkinius includes one species, R. gracilis Ryvkin, 1990: 64, new combination, which is the type species by objective synonymy with Mesoporus Ryvkin. The replacement name, a patronym based on A. B. Ryvkin, is masculine.

Sepedophilus campbelli, new name, is proposed for Sepedophilus micans Campbell, 1976: 36, which is a junior secondary homonym of Sepedophilus micans (Scheerpeltz, 1974: 175) (ex Conosoma). The replacement name is a patronym based on J. M. Campbell.

Sepedophilus cronus, new name, is proposed for Sepedophilus tenuicornis (Scheerpeltz, 1974: 177) (ex Conosoma), which is a junior secondary homonym of Sepedophilus tenuicornis (Lindberg, 1953: 5) (ex Conosomus). The replacement name is based on the Latin for the former ruler of heaven and earth (Cronus).

Sepedophilus futurus, new name, is proposed for Sepedophilus obscuripennis (Fairmaire and Germain, 1861: 426) (ex Conurus), which is a junior secondary homonym of Sepedophilus obscuripennis (Stephens, 1832: 191) (ex Conurus). The replacement name is based on the Latin for about to be (futurus).

Sepedophilus hirticulus, new name, is proposed for Sepedophilus setosus (Cameron, 1941b: 385) (ex Conosoma), which is a junior secondary homonym of Sepedophilus setosus (Sharp, 1876: 95) (ex Conurus). Sepedophilus setosus Sharp is a synonym of Sepedophilus maculipennis (Solier, 1849). The replacement name is based on the Latin for hairy (hirticulus, the diminutive of hirtus).

Sepedophilus notialis, new name, is proposed for Sepedophilus africanus (Cameron, 1959: 119) (ex Conosoma), which is a junior primary homonym of Sepedophilus cavicola africanus (Jeannel and Jarrige, 1949: 344) (ex Conosoma). The replacement name is based on the Latin for southern (notialis).

Sepedophilus rufus (Kraatz, 1859: 63) (ex Conosoma) is a junior secondary homonym of Sepedophilus rufus (Grimmer, 1841: 35) (ex Tachyporus). Sepedophilus rufus Grimmer, cited as a synonym of Sepedophilus immaculatus (Stephens, 1832), is a nomen dubium, so the required replacement for the S. rufus (Kraatz) is ignored.

Tachinomorphus fulvipes (Erichson, 1840: 921) (ex Tachinus) is a junior primary homonym of Tachinus fulvipes Stephens, 1832: 195. Tachinus fulvipes Stephens is a synonym of Tachinus rufipes (Linné, 1758) and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). However, the number of articles citing Tachinomorphus fulvipes (Erichson) as valid in the last 50 years is not sufficient to protect it under article 23.9.1 (Herman, in press). The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names that have not been congeneric for more than 100 years. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Tachinus ablusus, new name, is proposed for Tachinus rufus Ullrich, 1975: 304, which is a junior primary homonym of Tachinus rufus Sachse, 1852: 121. Tachinus rufus Sachse is a junior synonym of Tachinus memnonius Gravenhorst, 1802. The replacement name is based on the Latin for different (ablusus).

Tachinus axillaris Erichson, 1839a: 261 is a junior primary homonym of Lordithon axillaris (Gravenhorst, 1806: 29) (ex Tachinus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Tachinus bipustulatus Grimmer, 1841: 35 is a junior primary homonym of Tachinus bipustulatus Fabricius, 1793: 533. Tachinus bipustulatus Grimmer has not been cited since the original description, and thus it should be considered a nomen dubium and its required replacement ignored.

Tachinus brunneus Ullrich, 1975: 207 is a junior primary homonym of Coproporus brunneus (Erichson, 1839a: 249) (ex Tachinus). Both names are currently used as valid and were not congeneric after 1899 (Herman, in press). The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, use of the junior name is maintained (article 23.9.5).

Tachinus edwardi, new name, is proposed for Tachinus beckeri Campbell, 1988: 252, which is a junior primary homonym of Tachinus beckeri Ullrich, 1975: 314. The replacement name is a patronym based on the first name of E. C. Becker, for whom the species was originally named.

Tachinus marginatus (Fabricius, 1793: 532) (ex Oxyporus) is a junior secondary homonym of Tachinus marginatus (Geoffroy, 1785: 169) (ex Staphylinus). Tachinus marginatus (Geoffroy) has been a synonym of Tachinus lignorum (Linné, 1758) or Tachinus marginellus (Fabricius, 1781) since 1839 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1). In the last 50 years at least 26 articles by 21 authors have been published listing Tachinus marginatus Fabricius as a valid species (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Tachinus marginatus (Fabricius) is a nomen protectum and T. marginatus (Goeffroy) a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

Tachinus patulus, new name, is proposed for Tachinus latus (Coiffait, 1982: 116) (ex Paratachinus), which is a junior secondary homonym of Tachinus latus (Marsham, 1802: 524) (ex Staphylinus). Tachinus latus (Marsham) is a synonym of Tachinus humeralis Gravenhorst, 1802. The replacement name is based on the Latin for spread out or broad (patulus).

Tachinus piceus Cameron, 1932: 389 is a junior primary homonym of Bryoporus piceus (Stephens, 1829: 268) (ex Tachinus) and Coproporus piceus (Erichson, 1839a: 246) (ex Tachinus). Coproporus piceus (Erichson) is a junior synonym of Coproporus ebonus Blackwelder, 1943. Bryoporus piceus (Stephens), a junior synonym of Bryoporus cernuus (Gravenhorst, 1806) (ex Tachinus) is rarely cited and should be considered a nomen dubium. Coproporus piceus (Erichson) was transferred out of Tachinus long before 1899 (Herman, in press). The two homonyms were not congeneric after 1899, but since the senior name is currently cited as a junior synonym, provisions of article 23.9.5 for continued use of the junior homonym are not strictly met. It seems unnecessary to replace the junior of two names of two taxa that have never been congeneric. The case will be referred to the Commission; meanwhile, prevailing use will be maintained (article 23.9.5).

Tachinus praealtus, new name, is proposed for Tachinus nepalensis Scheerpeltz, 1976: 156, which is a junior primary homonym of Tachinus nepalensis Ullrich, 1975: 300. The replacement name is based on the Latin for very high (praealtus).

Tachyporus annosus, new name, is proposed for Tachyporus nigripennis Scudder, 1900: 65, which is a junior primary homonym of Sepedophilus nigripennis (Stephens, 1832: 180) (ex Tachyporus) and Tachyporus nigripennis Campbell, 1979: 57. Tachyporus nigripennis Campbell is a junior synonym of Tachyporus melanopterus Campbell, 1991. The species described by Scudder is a fossil. The replacement name is based on the Latin for full of years (annosus).

Tachyporus pulchellus Mannerheim, 1843: 82 is a junior primary homonym of Tachyporus pulchellus Heer, 1839: 289. Tachyporus pulchellus Heer has been a synonym of Tachyporus scitulus Erichson, 1839 since 1857 and was not cited as valid after 1899 (article 23.9.1.1) (Herman, in press). In the last 50 years at least 26 articles by 21 authors have been published listing Tachyporus pulchellus Mannerheim as a valid species (article 23.9.1.2). A list of these citations is provided in the forthcoming catalog for the family (Herman, in press). Tachyporus pulchellus Mannerheim is a nomen protectum and T. pulchellus Heer a nomen oblitum (article 23.9.2).

SPECIAL PROBLEMS

Omaliinae

Geodromicus: Both Geodromicus Redtenbacher, 1857 and Psephidonus Gistel, 1856 are used for the same genus in the current literature. Recently, the date of publication for Redtenbacher's work was disputed. Zerche argued that Geodromicus was published in 1856 and before Psephidonus. However, evidence presented below shows that Redtenbacher's work was published after Gistel's, and that the latter's work was being reviewed while the former's was being printed.

In the second edition of “Fauna austriaca. Die Käfer”, Redtenbacher published Geodromicus (a replacement name for Geodromus Heer, 1841, not Dejean, 1829, which was a replacement name for Geobius Heer, 1839, not Dejean, 1831 or Brullé, 1832). Prior to 1949, the date of publication for Redtenbacher's book usually was cited as 1858 (e.g., see Hagen, 1863: 66; Horn and Schenkling, 1928: 978), which is the date on the title page and at the end of the “Vorrede zur zweiten Auflage” (p. vi) to the second edition. Blackwelder (1949: 93), based on “reviews in Stettiner Ent. Zeitung, 1847–1858”, stated that the second edition was published in 1857. No reviews of Redtenbacher's work were found in the 1856, 1857, or 1858 issues of that journal, but it was mentioned therein three times.

In 1856 (see Entomologische Zeitung … Stettin, vol. 17(9/10): 321), a statememt was published that a second edition of Redtenbacher's work on Austrian beetles was in press (“… Redtenbachers trefflichem Werke über die österreichischen Käfer, welches schon seit einigen Jahren gänzlich vergriffen war, eine zweite vielfach vermehrte Auflage, bei Gerold's Sohn in Wien, im Drucke ist.”). That announcement, published in the September and October issue of the journal, did not state that Redtenbacher's book had been distributed.

In 1857, Kraatz cited the work in a footnote in one journal (see Entomologische Zeitung … Stettin, vol. 18: 309) and again in another (Kraatz, 1857a: 40). Both 1857 footnotes were in journals that were probably published late in the year, perhaps in September.

In 1858 (Entomologische Zeitung … Stettin, vol. 19: 39), Redtenbacher's work was among a list of published works to be placed in the library of the “Entomologische Vereine zu Stettin” and it was cited as “Fauna Austriaca … 1857. Heft 1–6”.

At least two reviews of Redtenbacher's book were published in 1858. The review by Kiesenwetter (1858a) provided no date of publication for the work. The second review did. Gerstaecker (1858: 256), in a report on scientific works in entomology for 1857, praised Redtenbacher's second edition and stated near the end of the review (p. 257) that the first four parts, including the Carabicinae through the Elateridae, were published in 1857. Gerstaecker (1859: 358), in another comment on the second edition, reported that the Introduction and keys to families and genera, which are numbered separately (I–CXXXVI), were published with the last part in 1858.

From the above, we know that Redtenbacher's book was in press by September and October of 1856 and that it was published in parts, the first four of which ran through page 512 and were published in 1857. The remaining parts (pp. 513–1017 and I–CXXXVI) were published in 1858. Each of the first four parts included, on average, 128 pages (16 signatures of eight pages each); the other parts were larger.

In a recent redating of the book, Zerche (1987) wrote that it was actually published in September 1856. He examined a copy of “Fauna Austriaca” that had glued to it a note written by Redtenbacher that read “… Seinem hochverehrtem Freunde Herrn Dr. Gustav Kraatz 24. 9. 1856 der Verfasser …”. From this note, Zerche concluded that pages 1–976 had been published by that date. However, according to the announcment published in late 1856 (see above), the printing of Redtenbacher's work was just under way by the time the September/October issue of the “Entomologische Zeitung” appeared. It is therefore improbable that the entire main text was printed by September 24. Furthermore, it is clear that the book was published in parts; consequently, the date for each part must be determined separately (article 21.5).

Because both Redtenbacher and Kraatz were working on large faunal works at the same time, it is likely that Redtenbacher would have sent at least some of the first printed pages to Kraatz, and he would certainly have sent the first part as soon as it was published. We do not know exactly what Redtenbacher sent to Kraatz with the attached note or how many pages it included, but he clearly sent something. We could conclude that Heft 1 was sent to Kraatz on September 24; if so, then the date for only the first part was fixed. The other parts clearly were published later, in 1857 and 1858 (Gerstaecker, 1858, 1859). There is no evidence to support a publication date of 1856 for parts 2–6.

From the preceding, we might conclude that pages 1–128 of the second edition of “Fauna Austriaca” was published on September 24, 1856, pages 129–512 in 1857 (by at least September), and pages 513–1017 plus I–CXXXVI in 1858. Geodromicus was published on page 244 and therefore in 1857 by no later than September.

In 1856, Gistel published Psephidonus with one species, Geodromus kunzei Heer. The type species of both are congeneric, so the genus-group names are subjective synonyms.

Blackwelder (1952: 324) discovered Gistel's overlooked name and replaced Geodromicus with Psephidonus. Since then, both Psephidonus (e.g., see Arnett, 1963: 259; Moore and Legner, 1974: 552; Shibata, 1976: 116; Muona and Viramo, 1986: 15; Zanetti, 1987: 370; Watanabe, 1990: 265; Angelini, 1991: 193; Hayashi, 1992) and Geodromicus (see works by most European authors) have been used as the valid name for the genus. Most of those who continued to use Geodromicus did so not because they disputed the dates cited by Blackwelder, but because Geodromicus had a long history of use and Psephidonus had never been used.

Zerche (1987) concluded that, by the lack of a specific date for Gistel's work, Psephidonus was published on the last day of December 1856. However, Gistel's article was published earlier. Dohrn (1856: 312) wrote a review of Gistel's “Die Mysterien der … Insectenwelt”. That review was in the September/October issue of “Entomologische Zeitung Stettin”, the same issue in which the announcement appeared that “Fauna Austriaca” was being printed. Therefore, no matter what date Redtenbacher's work was published, Gistel's preceded it.

As it now stands, the situation is confusing; some authors use one name and some the other. Geodromicus has a long history of use and has been cited hundreds, perhaps thousands, of times. Psephidonus has been cited substantially fewer times. Even now, most of the citations for the genus use Geodromicus. All the well-known and oft-cited species of the genus have been nearly always referred to Geodromicus. Given the overwhelming use of Geodromicus and the reluctance with which Psephidonus is being adopted by most authors, it seems unlikely that the latter name will prevail. Although the preceding discussion fully substantiates the conclusion that Gistel's work predates Redtenbacher's, that the former was published in 1856 and the latter in 1856–1858, the prudent and widely desired actions are to retain the use of Geodromicus as the valid name of the genus and to bury Psephidonus. It is in Europe, where the literature is more complex and voluminous than in any other part of the world, that the issue of stability of names is most crucially important. To stabilize the name and date for the genus, a petition will be submitted to the Commission requesting that Psephidonus be placed on the “list of rejected names” and that Geodromicus be placed on the “official list of generic names in zoology”. Pending action on that request, Geodromicus is used as the valid name in the forthcoming catalog of the family (Herman, in press).

Staphylininae

Tachyporiniformes: Tachyporiniformes Nordmann, 1837: 6 explicitly includes one genus, Trichopygus, with one synonym, Heterothops, cited as Heterotops (Nordmann, 1837: 137). Newton and Thayer (1992: 66) fixed Tachyporus as the type genus of the group. According to articles 11.7.1 and 11.7.1.1, “A family-group name when first published must … be a noun in the nominative plural formed from the stem of an available generic name …; the generic name must be a name then used as valid in the new family-group taxon …. Tachyporiniformes was established in the context of a work (Nordmann, 1837: 4) that dealt with genera included in the “Fissilabra” of Latreille (1825: 244), the genera of which are now in either the Paederinae, Staphylininae, or Oxyporinae. Latreille (1825: 245) included Tachyporus in his “Microcephali”. Nordmann's Tachyporiniformes did not include Tachyporus; its inclusion dramatically changes the concept of the group. Nordmann's belongs with the Staphylininae; Newton and Thayer's representation is part of the Tachyporinae. However, because a condition of availability of a family-group name (article 11.7.1.1) requires that it “be a noun … formed from [a] generic name … then used as valid in the new family-group taxon”, Tachyporiniformes Nordmann is an unavailable name, since it was improperly formed. If it were available, it would belong with the Staphylininae, where it would have priority over Quediina (but see Newton and Thayer, 1992: 25).

Xantholinus tricolor: Xantholinus meyeri Drugmand, 1994: 250 is a new synonym of Xantholinus tricolor (Fabricius, 1787: 221) (ex Staphylinus). Drugmand (1994: 244) stated that the type of Xantholinus tricolor (Fabricius) was identical to Lithocharis ochracea (Gravenhorst, 1802:59) (ex Paederus) and must replace the paederine name. He then elevated some of the names formerly listed as subspecies or synonyms of X. tricolor and replaced the long-known name Xantholinus tricolor (Fabricius) with Xantholinus meyeri Drugmand, 1994: 250.

Ciceroni (1994: 117) synonymized four species (Xantholinus pellegrinus Coiffait, 1970: 291, X. rhaeticus Bordoni, 1972: 172, X. lessinicus Bordoni, 1972: 174, and X. toumayeffi Bordoni, 1986: 68) with Xantholinus tricolor in its traditional sense. If we accept Drugmand's opinion concerning the identities of Xantholinus tricolor and Lithocharis ochraceus, then his replacement name for X. tricolor auct., Xantholinus meyeri, is a synonym of X. pellegrinus Coiffait, 1970, which, as the oldest of the remaining synonyms, would be the valid name for the species. If his opinion is not accepted, then X. meyeri is a synonym of X. tricolor (Fabricius).

The proposed changes elicit several questions. Drugmand presented no evidence that he had actually seen specimens of Staphylinus tricolor Fabricius from the original series. Where are the specimens? Why does he think that the specimens he examined were part of the original series? How many specimens were in the original series, and, if there was more than one specimen, was the series mixed? If the original series included more than one specimen, why was no lectotype designated? According to I. Kerzhner (personal commun.) it is known that some types were replaced in the Fabricius collection by other, non-conspecific specimens. Could this have been one of those instances? The changes proposed by Drugmand are too radical to be made so casually. For such dramatic alteration, strong support should be presented that actual Fabrician material of Xantholinus tricolor was studied. Furthermore, a translation (corroborated by A. Smetana) of the Latin description of Staphylinus tricolor Fabricius (1787: 221) is as follows: “Black Staphylinus, antennae and thorax red, elytra and legs testaceus. Lives in mushrooms of Denmark. Mr. de Sehestedt. Small. Head black shining, antennae dark red. Thorax unspotted, shining, red. Elytra testaceus, unspotted. Abdomen black. Legs testaceus.”

The Lithocharis ochracea (Gravenhorst) known by most workers is not shiny, the head is dark brown (not black), the abdomen is brown or reddish brown and is paler than the head, and the thorax and elytra are reddish brown and similar to one another and both are only slightly paler than the abdomen.

Because questions arise concerning examination of the type of X. tricolor, and because the published characters “fit” X. tricolor but not Lithocharis ochracea, it is prudent to continue to use both names in their traditional sense until the problem has been studied carefully. Drugmand changed the status of some of the synonyms of X. tricolor, and those changes are accepted.

Note also that Gravenhorst (1802) used the name ochraceus in two genera, Staphylinus (p. 43) and Paederus (p. 59); the former is now in Xantholinus and a junior synonym of Xantholinus linearis (Olivier, 1795), the latter is in Lithocharis. This fact might be relevant to any reevaluation of the problem with X. tricolor.

Acknowledgments

I am indebted to the following individuals who reviewed this article, corrected errors, helped me to further understand the literature and use of the Code, and immeasurably improved this paper.

Volker Assing (Hannover, Germany; Habrocerinae and Othiini). I am also indebted to him for helping to provide additional references needed to protect some names.

Arnaldo Bordoni (Museo Zoologico “La Specola”, Firenze, Italy; Xantholinini).

Amy Berkov (American Museum of Natural History, New York).

Giulio Cuccodoro (Muséum d'Historie Naturelle, Genève, Switzerland; Proteininae).

Anthony Davies (Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ontario, Canada; Tachyporinae).

Peter Hammond (Natural History Museum, London, U.K.; Apateticinae, Micropeplinae, Oxytelinae, Phloeocharinae, Piestinae, and Trigonurinae; he also scanned through most of the other subfamilies in search of errors or problems).

Rodney Hanley (Snow Entomological Museum, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas; Oxyporinae).

Ulrich Irmler (Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel, Germany; Osoriinae).

I. M. Kerzhner (Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia).

Ivan Löbl (Muséum d'Historie Naturelle, Genève, Switzerland; Dasycerinae).

Shin-Ichiro Naomi (Natural History Museum and Institute, Chiba, Japan; Steninae).

Alfred Newton (Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois; Osoriinae and the type species of groups reviewed by Thayer).

Volker Puthz (Schlitz, Germany; Euaesthetinae, Megalopsidiinae, and Steninae)

Harald Schillhammer (Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien, Austria; Staphylininae).

Michael Schülke (Berlin, Germany; Tachyporinae). I am also indebted to him for helping to provide additional references needed to protect some names.

Ale;aks Smetana (Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ontario, Canada; Staphylininae and correction of gender endings throughout the catalog).

Margaret Thayer (Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois; Empelinae, Glypholomatinae, Microsilphinae, Neophoninae, Omaliinae, Protopselaphinae, and Solieriinae).

Adriano Zanetti (Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Verona, Italy; Omaliinae).

Lothar Zerche (Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Eberswalde, Germany; Omaliinae and Pseudopsinae).

With several of these individuals (Assing, Hammond, Kerzhner, Newton, Puthz, Schülke, and Smetana) I had numerous e-mail or telephone exchanges, or face-to-face meetings to discuss or clarify points of nomenclatural detail. I am grateful and deeply indebted for the time and effort they took to share their hard-won knowledge to the benefit of article.

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