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The Australasian ground spiders belonging to the “lower gnaphosoid” families (i.e., those gnaphosoids that retain a plesiomorphic, complete distal article on the anterior lateral spinnerets) are monographed. The families Ammoxenidae and Cithaeronidae are newly recorded from Australia, and the Australian fauna of the family Gallieniellidae is documented for the first time. Australia is thus the only continent known to house members of all seven currently recognized gnaphosoid families.
Ammoxenids, previously known only from southern Africa, are represented in Australia by the new genera Austrammo (described for four new species) and Barrowammo (described for one new species). Cithaeronids are represented by the widespread type species, Cithaeron praedonius O. P.-Cambridge, newly recorded from the Northern Territory.
The Australian gallieniellid fauna consists of five genera: Meedo Main, here transferred from the Clubionidae, and four new genera: Neato (described for seven new species), Oreo (described for six new species), and Peeto and Questo (each described for one new species). The male of Meedo houstoni Main is described for the first time, as are 12 new species of that genus.
The world trochanteriid fauna consists of 18 genera, of which 15 occur in Australasia; the 18 genera are newly assigned to subfamilies (the relimited Trochanteriinae plus the new subfamilies Trachycosminae and Morebilinae). Within the Trochanteriinae, Corimaethes Simon is newly synonymized with Platyoides O. P.-Cambridge, and its Western Australian type species, C. campestratus Simon, is placed as a junior synonym of the African species P. walteri (Karsch); the species is presumed to have been introduced into Australia prior to 1905 but seems not to have become established. The genus Olin Deeleman-Reinhold, recently described for a species from Sulawesi, is newly recorded from an Australian Indian Ocean territory, Christmas Island. The new genera Tinytrema and Desognaphosa are described for five and 26 new species, respectively. Tinytrema is known only from Australia (including Tasmania); Desognaphosa species occur primarily in northern Queensland, but one extends into New South Wales and one is described from the Solomon Islands.
The subfamily Trachycosminae includes the Australian genera Trachycosmus Simon and Trachytrema Simon, both newly transferred from the Gnaphosidae, plus the new genus Trachyspina (described for seven new species). The male of Trachytrema castaneum Simon is newly described, as are one new species of that genus and three of Trachycosmus.
The subfamily Morebilinae includes four described and four new genera. Hemicloeina Simon and Pyrnus Simon are transferred to the Morebilinae from the Gnaphosidae, and Fissarena Henschel, Davies, and Dickman is transferred from the Liocranidae. Hemicloea plagusia (Walckenaer), H. fumosa L. Koch,