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The Australasian ground spiders belonging to the family Prodidomidae are monographed; although only ten species were previously known from the region, the fauna is extraordinarily diverse, encompassing at least seven genera and 138 species. Two generic names are newly synonymized: Hyltonia Birabén with Prodidomus Hentz, and Honunius Simon with Molycria Simon. The type species of the family, Prodidomus rufus Hentz, although originally described from Alabama, is apparently synanthropic and hence widespread; Prodidomus gulosus (Simon) from New Caledonia, Prodidomus imaidzumii Kishida from Japan, and Hyltonia scottae Birabén from Argentina are newly synonymized with P. rufus, and the species is newly recorded from Chile and St. Helena. Seven new species of Prodidomus are described from Western Australia, the Northern Territory, and Queensland. The females of Molycria mammosa (O. P.-Cambridge) and Molycria quadricauda (Simon) are described for the first time, and 34 new species of Molycria are described. The new genus Wydundra is described for 40 new Australian species, and Molycria voc Deeleman-Reinhold, from Malaysia and the Moluccas, is transferred to Wydundra. Molycria splendida Simon is transferred to the new genus Wesmaldra, its male is described for the first time, and 13 new species of Wesmaldra are described from Western Australia and the Northern Territory. Molycria flavipes Simon is transferred to the new genus Nomindra, its male is newly described, Molycria alboplagiata Simon is newly synonymized with that name, and 15 new species of Nomindra are described. The male of Cryptoerithus occultus Rainbow is described for the first time, and 18 new species are assigned to Cryptoerithus. Adult males and females of Myandra cambridgei Simon are described for the first time, as are two new species of Myandra.