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The scorpion family Typhlochactidae Mitchell, 1971, endemic to eastern Mexico, comprises nine troglomorphic species specialized for life in hypogean and endogean habitats. Due to their cryptic ecology, inaccessible habitat, and apparently low population density, Typhlochactidae are poorly known. Only 29 specimens have been collected in 40 years. Four species are known from a single specimen, two species are known only from the male and three only from the female. We provide an illustrated revision of the family based on a reexamination of most specimens in the world's collections, including new specimens collected after the original descriptions and older specimens not previously described. Based on results of a recent cladistic analysis, Typhlochactidae are elevated, for the first time, from their former rank as subfamily, first of Chactidae and, more recently, of Superstitioniidae. Alacraninae, new subfamily is created to accommodate AlacranFrancke, 1982. Stygochactas, new genus, is created to accommodate Typhlochactas granulosusSissom and Cokendolpher, 1998 in a new combination. SotanochactasFrancke, 1986, Stygochactas and TyphlochactasMitchell, 1971 are retained in subfamily Typhlochactinae Mitchell, 1971. Diagnoses of the family and subfamilies are presented, followed by a key to the genera and species, revised diagnoses of the genera, revised diagnoses and descriptions, tabulated meristic data, and distribution maps of the species. Descriptions and diagnoses are illustrated with ultraviolet fluorescence and visible light photographs, providing a visual atlas to the morphology of these remarkable scorpions. A review of their taxonomic history is provided, the importance of trichobothriotaxy for their systematics discussed, and several misconceptions in the literature clarified.