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26 September 2013 Type Specimens Of Birds In The American Museum Of Natural History Part 11. Passeriformes: Parulidae, Drepanididae, Vireonidae, Icteridae, Fringillinae, Carduelinae, Estrildidae, And Viduinae
Mary LeCroy
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

This 11th part of “Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History” includes taxa in the passerine families included in volume 14 of Peters' Check-list of birds of the world (Paynter, 1968). The original description of each name has been consulted and the currently accepted name of the taxon has been listed with reference to recent publications. The coordinates and modern names of type localities are given when found and comments on taxonomic history are provided. In this part, 352 names are treated; for 20 of these, name-bearing types are not in AMNH or were not found.

This part of the type list, as well as all previous parts, are searchable and available for download from the AMNH Library website ( http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace/).

INTRODUCTION

This 11th part of “Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History” deals with taxa covered in volume 14 of Peters' Check-list of birds of the world (Paynter, 1968). As did earlier parts (Greenway, 1973, 1978, 1987; LeCroy and Sloss, 2000; and LeCroy, 2003, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012), this part follows the order of Peters' Check-list series, which is the basis for the arrangement of the AMNH collection. Since the publication of this series, DNA studies of the phylogeny of birds have greatly altered our understanding of avian relationships, about which there is as yet no consensus of opinion. Some of these studies have been referred to in the following pages. Dickinson (2003) is the authority for most of the currently accepted names for taxa covered herein, but a number of recent regional works, as well as families that have been covered in Handbook of the birds of the world (del Hoyo et al., 2010, 2011) are referred to.

The format for this part follows that for the previous ones. The citation of the name and of the type locality is first given exactly as it appeared in the original description. In the text portion for each taxon, the name of the type locality has been updated when that has changed, with the older name given in parentheses, and coordinates in degrees and mintues are given when found. AMNH numbers for specimens in the type series of each name are given in boldface type the first time they are mentioned. If the catalog number of a specimen is followed by “bis,” it has been inserted into the catalog between two specimens that had been cataloged previously.

The Rothschild Collection has been housed at the American Museum of Natural History since its purchase in 1932. In the older literature, specimens in that collection were said to be housed in the “Tring Museum.” The bird collection of the Natural History Museum (formerly the British Museum (Natural History), BMNH, London) is now housed at Tring on the former Rothschild estate, and this is a source of possible confusion. I have avoided the use of “Tring Museum” in relation to AMNH specimens from the Rothschild Collection.

Most of the types from the Rothschild Collection that are covered in this part of the type list were listed by Hartert (1918, 1919a, 1920, 1928). In these lists he was attempting to “fix” the types, as the Rothschild Collection was never cataloged. I have accepted his nomination of “types” as designation of lectotypes in cases where original descriptions implied syntypes, as has been done in all of the previous parts of the AMNH type list.

Rothschild purchased the G.M. Mathews collection of birds, and Hartert had only begun to list the Mathews types separately when the collection came to AMNH. None of the families in this part of the type list had been covered. When Mathews published his 1912 list of Australian birds, he did so under the eye of Hartert, and his catalog number for most of his types was given. Later, after he began his own publication “Austral Avian Record,” he became less and less likely to definitely identify his intended type specimen, especially as he rushed to publish the later volumes of “The birds of Australia.” In some cases I have designated lectotypes for Mathews' names when he has indicated his choice by attaching his type label or writing “Type” on his label.

I have designated the following lectotypes in part 11: Fringilla spodiogenys koenigi, Spinus citrinelloides kikuyensis, Pytelia melba mosambica, Pyrenestes ostrinus rothschildi, Munia bichenovii bandi, Poephila acuticauda nea, Alisteranus cinctus vinotinctus, Poephila gouldiae kempi, and Munia subcastanea.

Types that might be expected to be in AMNH, but were either not found or were found to be elsewhere are listed in brackets. Paratypes for taxa for which the primary type or types are not in AMNH are usually not listed. The reader is referred to earlier parts of this type list by LeCroy and Sloss (2000), and LeCroy (2003, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012) for expanded explanation of the introductory material.

The following acronyms are used in the text:

AM

=

Australian Museum, Sydney, Australia

AMNH

=

American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY

ANSP

=

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA

AOU

=

American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C

BIM

=

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences (now Brooklyn Museum), Brooklyn, NY

BMNH

=

Natural History Museum, formerly British Museum (Natural History), Tring, UK

CP

=

Coleccion Phelps, Caracas, Venezuela

FMNH

=

Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

ICZN

=

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature

IES

=

Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemática, Havana, Cuba

MCZ

=

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

MIZ

=

Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland

MMNH

=

James Bell Ford Museum of Natural History (formerly Minnesota Museum of Natural History), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

MNHN

=

Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

MZB

=

Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Cibinong, Java, Indonesia

NMV

=

National Museum of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia

PNG

=

Papua New Guinea

RMCA

=

Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium

RMNH

=

Nationaal Centrum Voor Biodiversiteit Naturalis (formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie), Leiden, the Netherlands

SAMA

=

South Australian Museum, Adelaide, South Australia

SMF

=

Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

UMMZ

=

Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

USBGN

=

United States Board on Geographic Names, Washington, DC

USNM

=

National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC

YPM

=

Yale Peabody Museum, Yale University, New Haven, CT

ZFMK

=

Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum A. Koenig, Bonn, Germany

ZMB

=

Museum für Naturkunde, Zentralinstitut der Humboldt-Universität, Institut für Systematische Zoologie, Berlin

ZMO

=

Zoologisk Museum, Oslo, Norway (formerly Christiania Museum)

ZSM

=

Zoologische Staatssammlung, Munich, Germany

PARULIDAE

The recent comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the core species of Parulidae by Lovette et al. (2010: 753–770) has resulted in a new understanding of relationships within the family. While the order here is that of Lowery and Monroe (1968), reference is made to the results of the Lovette et al. study. While the genus Parula is no longer recognized by Lovette et al., the family name Parulidae is retained (ICZN, 1999: 46, Art. 40.1).

  • Helminthophaga Lawrencii Herrick

  • Helminthophaga Lawrencii Herrick, 1875: 220, pl. 15 (on the bank of the Passaic, near Chatham).

    Now considered a hybrid between Vermivora cyanoptera and V. chrysoptera. See Hellmayr, 1935: 336; Gill, 1980; Olson and Reveal, 2009; Curson, 2010b: 675, 739; and Lovette et al., 2010: 764.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 325755, unsexed [adult male], collected on the Passaic River, near Chatham, 40.44N, 74.23W (Times atlas), New Jersey, in May 1874, by D.B. Dickinson.

    Comments:

    Herrick had the single specimen, which he apparently returned to Dickinson. The holotype was presented to AMNH by Edna Dickinson on 11 July 1941.

    Lawrence's Warbler has long been considered a hybrid between the Blue-winged Warbler and the Golden-winged Warbler. Until recently the Latin name of the former has been cited as Vermivora pinus (Linnaeus, 1766) (American Ornithologists' Union, 1998: 533; Dickinson, 2003: 759). Olson and Reveal (2009) readdressed this name, finding that Wilson had restricted Linnaeus' name pinus to the Pine Warbler and had provided the name Sylvia solitaria for the Blue-winged Warbler. Because that name is preoccupied, Olson and Reveal (2009) provided Vermivora cyanoptera as a replacement name.

  • Vermivora browni Griscom

  • Vermivora browni Griscom, 1923: 4 (Miquihuana, Tamaulipas, Mexico).

    Now Leiothlypis crissalis (Salvin and Godman, 1889). See Hellmayr, 1935: 344, American Ornithologists' Union, 1998: 536–537; Curson, 2010b: 741; and Lovette et al., 2010: 764.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 174885, adult male, collected at Miquihuana, 23.35N, 99.46W (Times atlas), Tamaulipas, Mexico, on 15 June 1922, by W.W. Brown. From the Leonard C. Sanford Collection.

    Comments:

    Griscom had the single specimen and gave the AMNH number for it in the original description.

    Based on mitochondrial DNA studies and song, the genus Leiothlypis has been proposed to include the following species of Vermivora: peregrina, celata, ruficapilla, crissalis, virginiae, and luciae (Sangster, 2008: 207–211). Lovette et al. (2010: 764) found that their studies were consistent with this, but that a “marginally preferable alternative” would be to reinstate the genus Oreothlypis and include within it in addition to the six species included by Sangster in Leiothlypis, the two species gutturalis and superciliosa now included in Parula.

  • Vermivora superciliosa parva Miller and Griscom

  • Vermivora superciliosa parva Miller and Griscom, 1925: 7 (near Jinotega (alt. 3500 ft), Nicaragua).

    Now Oreothlypis superciliosa parva (Miller and Griscom, 1925). See Hellmayr, 1935: 347; Martínez-Sánchez and Will, 2010: 85; Curson, 2010b: 742; and Lovette et al., 2010: 764.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 144485, adult male, collected 3 mi southeast of Jinotega, 13.05N, 85.59W (Times atlas), 3500 ft, Nicaragua, on 6 April 1917, by Waldron DeW. Miller (no. 345).

    Comments:

    The AMNH number of the holotype and only specimen was cited in the original description.

  • Compsothlypis pitiayumi nana Griscom

  • Compsothlypis pitiayumi nana Griscom, 1927b: 8 (Cape Garachiné, eastern Panama).

    Now Setophaga pitiayumi nana (Griscom, 1927). See Hellmayr, 1935: 352; Curson 2010b: 743; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 257148, adult female, collected at Point Garachiné, 08.07N, 78.37W (Times atlas), eastern Panama, on 5 March 1927, by Paul Covel (no. 249).

    Comments:

    A single specimen was collected and the AMNH number of the holotype was cited in the original description. Griscom (1927b: 1–2) considered this trip an “ornithological reconnaissance” and recounted areas visited with the following personnel: Ludlow Griscom, Maunsell S. Crosby, Mrs. Griscom, Rex R. Benson, and Paul F. Covel (taxidermist).

    See Lovette et al. (2010: 765) for use of the generic name Setophaga.

  • Compsothlypis pitiayumi roraimae Chapman

  • Compsothlypis pitiayumi roraimae Chapman, 1929a: 4 (Arabupu, alt. 4200 ft, Roraima, Venezuela).

    Now Setophaga pitiayumi roraimae (Chapman, 1929). See Hellmayr, 1935: 355; Curson, 2010b: 743; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765).

    Holotype:

    AMNH 237071, adult male, collected at Arabopó ( =  Arabupu), 4200 ft, 05.06N, 60.44W (Paynter, 1982), 13 km southeast of Mount Roraima, Bolívar, Venezuela, on 7 January 1928, by T. Donald Carter (no. 1250) on the Lee Garnett Day Expedition.

    Comments:

    Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed two specimens examined. Unfortunately, the sex symbols were reversed; only two specimens were collected, the male holotype and a female from Paulo. The paratype is: AMNH 237070, female, Paulo, 11 km southeast of Mount Roraima, 29 October 1927, by Carter (no. 468). Chapman (1931) discussed and compared the upper zonal birdlife of mounts Roraima and Duida and gave an itinerary for the Day Expedition with photographs of the localities where roraimae was collected.

  • Compsothlypis pitiayumi alarum Chapman

  • Compsothlypis pitiayumi alarum Chapman, 1924: 2 (Chaupe, 6100 ft, east of Huancabamba, northern Peru).

    Now Setophaga pitiayumi alarum (Chapman, 1924). See Hellmayr, 1935: 355–356; Zimmer, 1949: 2–3; Curson, 2010b: 743; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 181604, adult male, collected at Chaupe, 6100 ft, ca. 05.10S, 79.10W (Stephens and Traylor, 1983), Cajamarca, northern Peru, on 17 February 1923, by Harry Watkins (no. 7017).

    Comments:

    The AMNH number of the holotype was given in the original description and 15 specimens were listed in addition to the holotype. Paratypes are: Peru, Chaupe, AMNH 181599–181603, four females, one male, January–February 1923, by Watkins; Huarandosa, AMNH 182203, 182204, one female, one sex ?, September 1923, by Watkins. Ecuador, Zamora, AMNH 167932–167934, two females, one juvenile, November–December 1920, by Cherrie; Sabanilla, AMNH 167931, female, November 1920, by Cherrie; Lower Sumaco, AMNH 183556, male, December 1923, by Olalla and Sons; below Oyacachi, AMNH 176217, 176218, 180647, three males, January and August 1923, Olalla and Sons.

  • Dendroica petechia flaviceps Chapman

  • Dendroica petechia flaviceps Chapman, 1892: 310 (Rum Cay, Bahamas).

    Now Setophaga petechia flaviceps (Chapman, 1892). See Hellmayr, 1935: 371; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 16; Browning, 1994: 38, 42; Curson, 2010b: 745–746; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 39848 (USNM no. 108076), adult male, collected on Rum Cay, Bahamas, on 4 March 1886, by naturalists on the Fish Commission steamship Albatross. Presented by the Smithsonian Institution.

    Comments:

    Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype and said that he had examined 21 adult males from Rum Cay, New Providence, Conception, Wattling, Eleuthera, and Cat islands, all from the Albatross expedition. None of the paratypes are in AMNH. A female specimen from Rum Cay came to AMNH via the Lawrence Collection but was not cataloged until 1902, long after the description of flaviceps.

    See Lovette et al. (2010: 765) for the use of Setophaga instead of Dendroica.

  • Dendroeca (sic) capitalis Lawrence

  • Dendroeca (sic) capitalis Lawrence, 1868: 359 (Barbadoes).

    Now Setophaga petechia petechia (Linnaeus, 1766). See Hellmayr, 1935: 376; Browning, 1994: 40–42; Curson, 2010b: 745–746; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 39858, adult male, AMNH 39867, adult female, collected on Barbados ( =  Barbadoes) Island, West Indies, by A.H. Alexander. From the Lawrence Collection.

    Comments:

    Lawrence described both male and female but did not say how many specimens he had, only saying that the types were in his collection and collected by Alexander. The above two syntypes are the only Barbados specimens that came to AMNH with the Lawrence Collection and both were marked “Type” by Lawrence. He also included a specimen in USNM brought in alcohol from Barbados by Prof. Gill and mentioned by Baird (1864–1866: 202).

  • Dendroica petechia oraria Parkes and Dickerman

  • Dendroica petechia oraria Parkes and Dickerman, 1967: 87 (2 miles south of Buena Vista ( =  about 9 miles north of Tlacotalpan), Veracruz, Mexico).

    Now Setophaga petechia oraria (Parkes and Dickerman, 1967). See Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 19; Browning, 1994: 43, 47; Curson, 2010b: 745–746; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 817690 (MMNH 14594), adult male, collected 2 mi south of Buena Vista, about 9 mi north of Tlacotalpan, 18.38N, 95.40W (Times atlas), Veracruz, Mexico, on 16 November 1958, by Robert W. Dickerman (no. 9067).

    Comments:

    The MMNH number of the holotype was cited in the original description and the specimen was exchanged to AMNH in October 1986. Parkes and Dickerman consulted many collections and said that specimens of oraria they examined were from the following localities: near Lomas del Real, Tampico, Laguna Tamiahua, Boca del Río, near Tlacotalpan, and Sánchez Magallanes. The following five paratyes of oraria are in AMNH: Tampico, AMNH 85253–85256, three males, one female, collected on 25 May 1888, from the Sennett Collection; 9 mi east-northeast of Tlacotalpan, AMNH 781744, male, 7 April 1962, by Dickerman.

  • Dendroica pinus chrysoleuca Griscom

  • Dendroica pinus chrysoleuca Griscom, 1923: 5 (Mt. Tina, Santo Domingo).

    Now Setophaga pinus chrysoleuca (Griscom, 1923). See Hellmayr, 1935: 407; Keith et al., 2003: 192; Curson, 2010b: 755; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 166327, adult male, collected on Loma Tina ( =  Mount Tina), 18.46N, 70.42W (Keith et al., 2003: 238), Dominican Republic ( =  Santo Domingo), Hispaniola Island, West Indies, on 10 January 1917, by Rollo H. Beck on the Brewster-Sanford Expedition (no. 6915).

    Comments:

    The AMNH number of the holotype was cited in the original description. Griscom had two additional specimens; the paratypes are: Mount Rusilla, AMNH 166325, male, AMNH 166326, female, collected in February and March 1917, by Beck.

  • Leucopeza Bishopi Lawrence

  • Leucopeza Bishopi Lawrence, 1878: 150 (151 in separate) (St. Vincent).

    Now Setophaga bishopi (Lawrence, 1878). See Hellmayr, 1935: 414; Raffaele et al., 1998: 406–407; Curson, 2010b: 761; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 40016, female, AMNH 40017, juvenile male, collected in the crater of Soufrière, 13.21N, 61.11W (Times atlas), St. Vincent Island, West Indies, on 1 and 2 November 1877, respectively, by F.A. Ober (nos. 426 and 428, respectively). From the George N. Lawrence Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Lawrence discussed the four specimens collected by Ober and noted that the types were in USNM. Deignan (1961: 541), in discussing this species, noted that two of the four syntypes, both marked “Type” by Lawrence, were in USNM, but USNM 74100 and 74101 “have vanished from the collection without trace.” AMNH 40016 bears the number 74100, and AMNH 40017 the number 74101 without any indication that they are USNM numbers. Neither of these specimens is marked “Type” by Lawrence, but because he did not distinguish in the original description as to which specimens he considered his types and the above specimens had been cataloged at USNM, these two specimens must also be considered syntypes of bishopi. They had not previously been included with type specimens at AMNH.

    The tip of the upper mandible of AMNH 40016 is broken off.

    The species bishopi had formerly been included in the monotypic genus Catharopeza, but see Lovette et al. (2010: 765) for its inclusion in the genus Setophaga.

  • Geothlypis trichas coloradonicola Oberholser

  • Geothlypis trichas coloradonicola Oberholser, 1948: 3 (Las Vegas, New Mexico).

    Now Geothlypis trichas occidentalis Brewster, 1883. See Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 40; Guzy and Ritchison, 1999; Curson, 2010b: 771; and Lovette et al., 2010: 764–765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 384387, adult male, collected at Las Vegas, 35.36N, 105.15W (Times atlas), New Mexico, on 27 May 1915, by Arthur Smith. From the Jonathan Dwight Collection (no. 43071).

    Comments:

    The AMNH number of the holotype was given by Oberholser in the original description. He did not list paratypes.

  • Geothlypis speciosa limnatis Dickerman

  • Geothlypis speciosa limnatis Dickerman, 1970: 95 (Lago Yuriria, State of Guanajuato, México).

    Now Geothlypis speciosa limnatis Dickerman, 1970. See Dickinson, 2003: 764; Curson, 2010b: 773; and Lovette et al., 2010: 764–765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 788641, adult (?) male, collected at Lago Yuriria, 20.12N, 101.10W (Times atlas), Guanajuato, Mexico, on 9 December 1963, by R.W. Dickerman (no. 11756).

    Comments:

    Dickerman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and noted that he had examined 31 specimens of limnatis. Only one of the paratypes is in AMNH: AMNH 788642, adult male, collected at Lago Yuriria, on 9 December 1963, by Dickerman.

  • Oporornis tolmiei intermedia Phillips

  • Oporornis tolmiei intermedia Phillips, 1947: 299 (Okanagan, British Columbia).

    Now Geothlypis tolmiei monticola (Phillips, 1947). See Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 48; Pitocchelli, 1995; Dickerman and Parkes, 1997: 229; Curson, 2010b: 769; and Lovette et al., 2010: 764–765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 384003, adult male, collected at Okanagan, British Columbia, Canada, on 23 June 1906, by Allan Brooks. From the Jonathan Dwight Collection (no. 16985).

    Comments:

    Phillips cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description. Because Phillips visited many collections while studying Oporornis tolmiei and did not indicate the number of specimens he examined, it has been impossible to determine paratypes.

    Lowery and Monroe (1968: 48) placed this species in the large genus Geothlypis and considered intermedia a synonym of the nominate subspecies, G. t. tolmiei; Pitocchelli (1995), Dickerman and Parkes (1997: 229), and Curson (2010b: 769) retained the genus Oporornis. Dickerman and Parkes (1997: 229) considered intermedia a synonym of O. t. tolmiei while Curson (2010b: 769) equated it with O. t. monticola. The recent studies of Lovette et al. (2010: 764–765) recommended that Oporornis be merged into Geothlypis.

    Okanagan Centre, British Columbia, is at 50.02N, 119.23W (Times atlas).

  • Teretistris fornsi Gundlach

  • Teretistris fornsi Gundlach, 1858: 274 (eastern part of the island [Cuba]).

    Now Teretistris fornsi fornsi Gundlach, 1858. See Hellmayr, 1935: 424; Garrido, 2000; Dickinson, 2003: 764; and Curson, 2010b: 777.

    Syntype:

    AMNH 40019, adult male, collected on eastern Cuba, in 1857, by J. Gundlach. From the George N. Lawrence Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Gundlach did not indicate how many specimens he had, only saying that plumage did not vary with age or sex. In the short article following Gundlach's, Lawrence (1858: 275–277) noted that Gundlach had sent him specimens of the birds described in the preceeding pages. Although not specifically mentioned, the above specimen probably came into Lawrence's hand at this time. The AMNH label on this syntype bears a note by L.L. S[hort] indicating that it might be a holotype or syntype of fornsi, but it had lain unnoticed in the AMNH collection until it was recognized by Garrido (2000: 89). The other syntype was in Gundlach's private collection and subsequently deposited in the IES, Havana (Roman and Garrido, 2000: 2). Because he thought further study was required, Curson (2010b: 777) did not recognize T. f. turquinensis Garrido, 2000, and thus treated T. fornsi as monotypic.

  • Cardellina rubrifrons bella Griscom

  • Cardellina rubrifrons bella Griscom, 1930: 2 (Chichicastenango, Guatemala).

    Now Cardellina rubrifrons (Giraud, 1841). See Hellmayr, 1935: 456; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 51; Curson, 2010b: 779; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 397111, adult male (sexed as female on original label), collected at Chichicastenango, Guatemala, on 27 January 1925, by A.W. Anthony (no. 1345). From the Johathan Dwight Collection (no. 60472).

    Comments:

    Griscom gave the Dwight Collection number of the holotype in the original description and examined one female and two male specimens. The female paratype is AMNH 397112 (Dwight no. 60473), female, collected at Chichicastenango, on 17 February 1925, by Anthony (no. 1485). The male paratype is MCZ 146669, collected at Chichicastenango, on 17 February 1925, by A.W. Anthony (no. 1486), Dwight Collection no. 60474 (J. Trimble, personal commun.).

  • Myioborus miniatus sanctaemartae J.T. Zimmer

  • Myioborus miniatus sanctaemartae J.T. Zimmer, 1949: 11 (Las Nubes, Santa Marta, Colombia).

    Now Myioborus miniatus sanctaemartae J.T. Zimmer, 1949. See Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 55; Curson, 2010b: 78; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 70525, adult sex?, collected at Las Nubes, 4500 ft, ca. 11.10N, 73.56W (Paynter, 1997), Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Magdalena, Colombia, on 10 December 1898, by Grace H. Hull. Gift of Morris K. Jesup.

    Comments:

    Zimmer gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed the specimens he examined. The paratypes are: Las Nubes, AMNH 70521–70524, 70526, five specimens sex? (in addition to the type), November–December 1898; Líbano, AMNH 72325, sex?, 2 May 1899; Valparaiso, AMNH 72326–72328, one male, one female, and one sex?, 18–23 March 1899. All but one of the paratypes was collected by G.H. Hull.

    On the original label, printed with Mrs. H.H. Smith's name, “Smith” has been marked out and G.H.H. substituted. Grace H. Hull was Mrs. Smith's niece (Todd and Carriker, 1922: 36), not Mr. H.H. Hull as listed by Allen (1900: 122).

  • Setophaga verticalis pallidiventris Chapman

  • Setophaga verticalis pallidiventris Chapman, 1899: 153 (Quebrada Seca, Venezuela).

    Now Myioborus miniatus pallidiventris (Chapman, 1899). See Hellmayr, 1935: 463; Zimmer, 1949: 10–14; Curson, 2010b: 781; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 70341, sex?, collected at Quebrada Seca, Venezuela, on 9 December 1898, by F.W. Urich (no. 50).

    Comments:

    Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and noted that Urich had sent five specimens. The four paratypes are: Los Palmales, AMNH 70339, 70340, female, male, 5 December; El Guacharo, AMNH 70342, sex?, 14 December; Montana del Guacharo, AMNH 70343, female, 28 November, all collected by Urich in 1898. AMNH 70340 and 70343 were exchanged to USNM.

    Quebrada Seca is now known as Villarroel, 10.18N, 63.57W (Paynter, 1982)

  • Myioborus miniatus subsimilis J.T. Zimmer

  • Myioborus miniatus subsimilis J.T. Zimmer, 1949: 13 (Alamor, Perú; altitude 4450 feet).

    Now Myioborus miniatus subsimilis J.T. Zimmer, 1949. See Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 55; Pérez-Emán, 2005; Curson, 2010b: 781; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 172201, adult male, collected at Alamor, 4500 ft, 04.02S, 80.02W (Paynter, 1993), Loja, Ecuador, on 22 August 1921, by George K Cherrie (no. 23651) and Geoffrey Gill.

    Comments:

    Zimmer cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description. He listed 47 paratypes: Ecuador, Guachanamá, AMNH 167968, male; Punta Santa Ana, AMNH 167979, sex?; Zaruma, AMNH 130198–130203, two males, four sex?; San Bartolo, AMNH 172208–172212, five males; Celica, AMNH 167973–167976, one male, three females; El Chiral, AMNH 167969–167971, two males, one female?; Cocó, AMNH 173509–173511, one male, two females. Ecuador (not Peru), Alamor, AMNH 152507–152509, 167972, 172202–172207, five males, four females, one sex?; Cebollal, AMNH 172213, male; La Puente, AMNH 172214, male. Peru, Palambla, AMNH 175568–175573, one male, three females, two sex?; Seques, AMNH 236100–236105, three males, two females, one sex?.

  • Myioborus duidae Chapman

  • Myioborus duidae Chapman, 1929b: 24 (Central Camp, 4800 ft, Mt. Duida, Venezuela).

    Now Myioborus castaneocapilla duidae Chapman, 1929. See Hellmayr, 1935: 472; Pérez-Emán, 2005; Dickinson, 2003: 765; Curson, 2010b: 781–782; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 245935 (not 245925, as in description), adult male, collected at the Summit Central Camp, 4800 ft, Mount Duida, 03.25N, 65.40W (Paynter, 1982), Amazonas, Venezuela, on 31 December 1928, by G.H.H. Tate, on the Tyler Duida Expedition (no. 5904).

    Comments:

    The AMNH number of the holotype was incorrectly printed in the original description; AMNH 245935 is the correct number. AMNH 245925 is the type of Taraba major duidae. I have not been able to identify the paratypes for Myioborus duidae. There are 81 specimens of this form cataloged and Chapman (1929b: 24) listed only 27 specimens examined from five altitudes. It is possible that he considered only adult males, in which case there were 30 adult males cataloged from the five altitudes. But there is no indication on the labels that they should serve as paratypes.

    See Chapman (1931) for a comparative treatment of the mountain avifaunas of Mount Duida and Mount Roraima.

  • Myioborus bairdi griseonuchus Chapman

  • Myioborus bairdi griseonuchus Chapman, 1927: 5 (Taulis, 8850 feet, Pacific slope northeast of Pacasmayo, Peru).

    Now Myioborus melanocephalus griseonuchus Chapman, 1927. See Hellmayr, 1935: 468–469; Zimmer, 1949: 16–19; Pérez-Emán, 2005; Curson, 2010b: 785–786; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 229332, adult male collected at Taulis, 8850 ft, ca. 06.54W, 79.03W (Stephens and Traylor, 1983), Pacific slope northeast of Pacasmayo, Cajamarca, Peru, on 13 June 1926, by Harry Watkins (no. 10450).

    Comments:

    Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and examined 12 specimens of griseonuchus. The 11 paratypes are: Tambo, AMNH 175564, one sex?; Taulis, AMNH 236091–236094, two males, two females; Chugur, AMNH 236095–236099, 236099bis, four males, one female, one sex?.

  • Myioborus melanocephalus malaris J.T. Zimmer

  • Myioborus melanocephalus malaris J.T. Zimmer, 1949: 19 (La Lejia, north of Chachapoyas, Perú).

    Now Myioborus melanocephalus malaris J.T. Zimmer, 1949. See Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 57; Pérez-Emán, 2005; Curson, 2010b: 785–786; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 235067, adult male, collected at La Lejia, 9000 ft, ca. 06.10S, 77.31W (Stephens and Traylor, 1983), north of Chachapoyas, Amazonas, northeastern Peru, on 28 February 1925, by Harry Watkins (no. 8845).

    Comments:

    Zimmer cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and on page 22 listed the 17 specimens he examined. Fourteen paratypes are in AMNH: La Lejia, AMNH 235066, 235068–235072, one male, three females, two sex?; San Pedro, AMNH 235626–235629, three males, one female; Leimebamba, AMNH 505908, 505909, two males; Chachapoyas, AMNH 505910, 505911, one male, one female. Three paratypes from Molinopampa were borrowed from FMNH.

  • Myioborus melanocephalus bolivianus Chapman

  • Myioborus melanocephalus bolivianus Chapman, 1919: 265 (not 365) (Incachaca, 7700 ft, Prov. Cochabamba, Bolivia).

    Now Myioborus melanocephalus bolivianus Chapman, 1919. See Hellmayr, 1935: 467–468; Peréz-Emán, 2005; Curson, 2010b: 785–786; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 137927, adult male, collected at Incachaca, 7700 ft, 17.14S, 65.49W (Paynter, 1992), Cochabamba, Bolivia, on 24 May 1915, by Leo Miller (no. 12001) and Howarth Boyle.

    Comments:

    Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and examined 15 specimens in addition to the type. The paratypes are: Incachaca, AMNH 137926, 137928–137941, four males, 11 females, all collected in May 1915, by Miller and Boyle.

  • Basileuterus fraseri ochraceicrista Chapman

  • Basileuterus fraseri ochraceicrista Chapman, 1921a: 11 (Chone, Manaví, Ecuador).

    Now Myiothlypis fraseri ochraceicrista (Chapman, 1921). See Hellmayr, 1935: 519; Zimmer, 1949: 52–53; Curson, 2010b: 787; and Lovette et al., 2010: 763, 765–766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 120138, adult male, collected at Chone, 00.41S, 80.06W (Paynter, 1993), Manabi, Ecuador, on 16 December 1912, by William B. Richardson.

    Comments:

    Chapman gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed the specimens he examined. I have found only four of those 11 paratypes in AMNH: Chone, AMNH 120139–120141, one male, two females; Guayaquil, AMNH 130231, one male. Chapman (1921a: 1) noted that studies in the BMNH had enabled him to complete descriptions of the new forms; the remainder of the paratypes may be in BMNH. Lovette et al. (2010: 763, 765–766) included the species fraseri in the genus Myiothlypis.

  • Basileuterus bivittatus argentinae J.T. Zimmer

  • Basileuterus bivittatus argentinae J.T. Zimmer, 1949: 30 (Ledesma, Province of Jujuy, Argentina; altitude 520 meters).

    Now Myiothlypis bivittata argentinae (J.T. Zimmer, 1949). See Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 61; Curson, 2010b: 787; and Lovette et al., 2010: 763, 765–766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 505681, adult male, collected at Libertador General San Martín ( =  Ledesma), 520 m, 23.48S, 64.48W (Paynter, 1995), Jujuy, Argentina, on 7 July 1906, by Luis Dinelli (no. 4124). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Zimmer cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed 29 paratypes, 14 of which were in ANSP. The 15 paratypes in AMNH are: Bolivia, Bermejo (Vermejo, as on label), AMNH 139596–139601, four males, two females, October 1915, by Miller and Boyle; Monos, AMNH 139602, 139603, two males, October 1915, by Miller and Boyle. Argentina, Ledesma, AMNH 505680, 505682–505685, two males, three females, July 1906, by Dinelli; Rio Bermejo, AMNH 505686, male, July 1905, by J. Steinbach; Yacuiba (Jacuiba, as on label), AMNH 505687, male, August 1905, by J. Steinbach.

    See Lovette et al. (2010: 763, 765–766) for inclusion of bivittata in the feminine genus Myiothlypis.

  • Basileuterus richardsoni Chapman

  • Basileuterus richardsoni Chapman, 1912: 160 (western Andes, west of Popayan, alt. 10,340 ft).

    Now Myiothlypis luteoviridis richardsoni (Chapman, 1912). See Chapman, 1917c: 550; Hellmayr, 1935: 480–481; Meyer de Schauensee, 1946: 8–10; Curson, 2010b: 788; and Lovette et al., 2010: 763, 765–766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 109971, adult male, collected in the coast range west of Popayan, 10,340 ft, Cauca, Colombia, on 16 July 1911, by William B. Richardson.

    Comments:

    Chapman gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and stated that he had a type series of seven specimens from the type locality and one from Laguneta. I found only six specimens cataloged from the type locality; the five paratypes are: AMNH 109967, sex?, AMNH 109968–109970, three females, AMNH 109972, male, all collected 15–21 July 1911, by Richardson; the male specimen was exchanged to BMNH in May 1921. The paratype from Laguneta: AMNH 113267, adult male, 8 September 1911 by A.A. Allen and L.E. Miller, was exchanged to the Rothschild Museum in May 1921, and when that collection came to AMNH in 1932, it was renumbered AMNH 505605. Laguneta later became the type locality of Basileuterus luteoviridis quindianus Meyer de Schauensee, 1946, and that specimen is now identified as quindianus.

    Chapman (1917b: 30–32, pl. X) described the type locality of this form, quoting from the field notes of Leo E. Miller, with whom Richardson covered this area. In the description of collecting localities, he (Chapman, 1917c: 641) explained that the summit was on the Micai trail. Paynter (1997: 337) found Micay to be at 02.46N, 76.55W.

    See Lovette et al. (2010: 763, 765–766) for inclusion of luteoviridis in the genus Myiothlypis.

  • Basileuterus nigrivertex Salvin

  • Basileuterus nigrivertex Salvin, 1895: 3 (Cajabamba, Suecha, and Huamachuco).

    Now Myiothlypis nigrocristata (Lafresnaye, 1840). See Hellmayr, 1935: 478; Ridgely and Tudor, 1989: 186–187; Curson, 2010b: 788; and Lovette et al., 2010: 766.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 505579, female, collected at Cajabamba, 9000 ft, 07.37S, 78.03W (Stephens and Traylor, 1983), Cajamarca, Peru, in January 1894; AMNH 505580, female, collected at Cajabamba, 9000 ft, in January 1894; AMNH 505582, female, collected at Huamachuco, 10,400 ft, 07.48S, 78.04W (Stephens and Traylor, 1983), La Libertad, Peru, in February 1894; AMNH 505583, sex?, collected at Suecha, Huamachuco, 9000 ft, Peru, in February 1894, all collected by O.T. Baron.

    Comments:

    Salvin (1895: 1–22) reported on the birds collected by Baron on his first trip to Peru, the collection being partly in the Salvin and Godman Collection (now in BMNH) and partly in the Rothschild Collection; species that were represented in the Rothschild Collection were indicated with an asterisk next to the name. A number of new forms were described in this paper but no holotypes were designated; therefore all the specimens of a new form in both collections are syntypes. The above syntypes were not listed by Hartert in any of his Rothschild Collection type lists and they had not previously been recognized as types. However, all four are labeled “Basileuterus nigrivertex Salvin” in what is apparently Salvin's hand, and AMNH 505580 and 505583 are both marked “Co-type” in the same hand. Syntypes in BMNH are listed by Warren and Harrison (1971: 383).

    Another specimen collected by Baron on his second trip was collected in 1895 and is not a type. Baron (1897) published a description of his collecting localities.

  • Chlorospingus (Hemispingus) canipileus Chapman

  • Chlorospingus (Hemispingus) canipileus Chapman, 1899: 153 (Los Palmales, Venezuela).

    Now Myiothlypis griseiceps (Sclater and Salvin, 1868). See Hellmayr, 1935: 484; Ridgely and Tudor, 1989: 187–188; Curson, 2010b: 788–789; and Lovette et al., 2010: 766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 70349, sex?, Los Palmales, ca. 10.17N, 63.45W (Paynter, 1982), Sucre, Venezuela, on 3 December 1898, by F.W. Ulrich (no. 26).

    Comments:

    In the original description of this form, Chapman gave the AMNH number of the type, his only specimen, as AMNH 57391. AMNH 57391 is the holotype of Rallus longirostris cubanus Chapman, 1892, from Trinidad, Cuba. I have not been able to trace how this error might have occurred. The correct number of the holotype of Chlorospingus (Hemispingus) canipileus is AMNH 70349; it is marked “Type” in the catalog, all the other data are given correctly, and all the other specimens purchased from Ulrich are cataloged in this series.

    Lovette et al. (2010: 766) were unsuccessful in analyzing this species, and its plumage traits are ambiguous. They thought it most likely to fall within the group that they recognized as Miothlypis and recommended “placing it incertae sedis within that genus pending better information on its precise relationships.”

  • Basileuterus castaneiceps orientalis Chapman

  • Basileuterus castaneiceps orientalis Chapman, 1924: 8 (upper slopes Mt. Sumaco, head of Rio Suno, eastern Ecuador).

    Now Myiothlypis coronata orientalis (Chapman, 1924). See Hellmayr, 1935: 517–518; Chapman, 1926: 601; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 65; Curson, 2010b: 789–790; and Lovette et al., 2010: 763, 766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 183497, adult male, collected on the upper slopes of Volcán Sumaco ( =  Mount Sumaco), 00.34S, 77.38W (Paynter, 1993), head of Rio Sumo, Napo, eastern Ecuador, on 12 June 1924, by Olalla and Sons.

    Comments:

    Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and noted that he examined 7 males from the upper Sumaco, one male and one female from above Baeza, and four males from Baeza. Only six males were cataloged from the upper Sumaco; the five paratypes are: AMNH 183493–183496, 183500, March and June 1924, by the Olallas. Of these, AMNH 183494 was exchanged to MCZ in July 1928, and AMNH 183500 was exchanged to ANSP in July 1928. The two paratypes from above Baeza are AMNH 176261 and 176262, both sexed as males, collected on 14 and 17 November 1922, by the Olallas. The four paratypes from Baeza are: AMNH 173844, 176263–176265, all males, collected in September and November 1922.

    Lovette et al. 2010: 763, 766) included the species coronata in the feminine genus Myiothlypis.

  • Basileuterus castaneiceps chapmani Todd

  • Basileuterus castaneiceps chapmani Todd, 1929a: 32 (Chaupe (6,100 feet), north Peru).

    Now Myiothlypis coronata chapmani (Todd, 1929). See Hellmayr, 1935: 518; Zimmer, 1949: 50–51; Curson, 2010b: 789–790; and Lovette et al., 2010: 763, 766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 181624, adult male, collected at Chaupe, 6100 ft, ca. 05.10S, 79.10W (Stephens and Traylor, 1983), Cajamarca, Peru, on 10 (not 14) February 1923, by Harry Watkins (no. 6963).

    Comments:

    Todd cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and noted that he had four specimens, including the type, from Chaupe and two from Tambillo. Paratypes in AMNH: AMNH 181622, sex?, AMNH 181623, 181625, males, Chaupe, 6100 ft, Peru, in February 1923, by Watkins. The Tambillo specimens were collected by M. Stolzmann and are not in AMNH.

  • Basileuterus coronatus inaequalis J.T. Zimmer

  • Basileuterus coronatus inaequalis J.T. Zimmer, 1949: 48 (San Pedro, south of Chachapoyas, Perú, altitude 8600–9400 feet).

    Now Myiothlypis coronata inaequalis (J.T. Zimmer, 1949). See Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 61; Curson, 2010b: 789–790; and Lovette et al., 2010: 763, 766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 235638, adult male, collected at San Pedro, 8600–9400 ft, south of Chachapoyas, 06.13S, 77.51W (Stephens and Traylor, 1983), Amazonas, Peru, on 23 January 1926, by Harry Watkins (no. 10025).

    Comments:

    Zimmer gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed his type series. Paratypes in AMNH are San Pedro, AMNH 235635–235637, two males, one female, February 1926, by Watkins, AMNH 505656, 505657, two females, December 1894, by O.T. Baron; Chachapoyas, AMNH 505658, female, 7 October 1894, by Baron; Leimebamba, AMNH 505655, male, 8 July 1894, by Baron; LaLejia, AMNH 229392–229394, 235076–235079, four males, two females, one sex?, February and March 1925, by Watkins. Of these, I did not find AMNH 235636 in the collection. Paratypes listed by Zimmer from Molinopampa and Uchco were in FMNH.

  • Basileuterus culicivorus occultus J.T. Zimmer

  • Basileuterus culicivorus occultus J.T. Zimmer, 1949: 42 (Peque, Antioquia, Colombia; altitude 5000 feet).

    Now Basileuterus culicivorus occultus J.T. Zimmer, 1949. See Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 67; and Curson, 2010b: 793; Lovette et al., 2010: 765–766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 134102, adult male, collected at Peque, 5000 ft, 06.59N, 75.51W (Paynter, 1997), Antioquia, Colombia, on 4 February 1915, by Leo E. Miller (no. 11066) and Howarth Boyle.

    Comments:

    Zimmer cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed (on p. 46) his type series. The paratypes are: Primavera, AMNH 505739–505743, five males, collected in 1904, by Raap; Miraflores, AMNH 109169, sex?, collected on 23 April 1911, by Chapman and Richardson.

    AMNH 109169 bears the stamped locality “e. of Palmira, 6800 ft, Cauca, but the field tag gives the locality as “Mir.,” 6200 ft. Chapman (1917b: 22) explained this apparent discrepancy. The field party were guests at the sugar estate of Charles Elder 5 mi north of Palmira until 18 April when they moved to his bungalow, Miraflores, at about 6100 ft, on the western slope of the Central Andes, until 1 May.

  • Basileuterus culicivorus austerus J.T. Zimmer

  • Basileuterus culicivorus austerus J.T. Zimmer, 1949: 41 (Buena Vista, above Villavicencio, Eastern Andes, Colombia; altitude 4500 feet).

    Now Basileuterus culicivorus austerus J.T. Zimmer, 1949. See Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 67; Curson, 2010b: 793; and Lovette, 2010: 765–766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 122674, adult male, collected at Buenavista, 4500 ft, 04.10N, 73.41W (Paynter, 1997), above Villavicencio, Meta, Colombia, on 4 March 1913, by George K. Cherrie (no. 16389).

    Comments:

    Zimmer gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and (on p. 46) listed his type series. The paratypes are: Buenavista, AMNH 122673, 122675, females, 4 March 1913, by Chapman and Cherrie; Villavicencio, AMNH 308749, sex?, 8 December 1943, by Bro. Nicéforo M. (no. 249); Mount Macarena, AMNH 833886, male?, 24 January 1942, by E.T. Gilliard.

  • Basileuterus vermivorus olivascens Chapman

  • Basileuterus vermivorus olivascens Chapman, 1893: 343 (Princestown, Trinidad).

    Now Basileuterus culicivorus olivascens Chapman, 1893. See Chapman, 1894: 24–25; Hellmayr, 1935: 500–501; Curson, 2010b: 793; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765–766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 58974, adult male, collected at Princestown, 10.16N, 61.23W (Times atlas), Trinidad, on 1 March 1893, by Frank M. Chapman (no. 2770).

    Comments:

    In his preliminary description of olivascens, Chapman listed only the holotype, giving its AMNH number and noting that his paper on the complete collection had been delayed and the collection would be fully documented later. Chapman (1894: 24–25), in his paper on the entire Trinidad collection, reported that he had six specimens from Trinidad. These would have been available to him for the earler paper, and I consider the five additional specimens paratypes of olivascens (ICZN, 1999: 76, Art. 72.4.1). These paratypes are: AMNH 58975–58979, two males, three females, collected at Princestown in March 1893, by F.M. Chapman.

  • Basileuterus culicivorus roraimae J.T. Zimmer and W.H. Phelps, Sr.

  • Basileuterus culicivorus segrex J.T. Zimmer and W.H. Phelps, Sr.

  • Basileuterus culicivorus roraimae J.T. Zimmer and W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1949a: 7 (Mt. Roraima, State of Bolivar, Venezuela).

    Now Basileuterus culicivorus segrex J.T. Zimmer and W.H. Phelps, Sr., 1949b: 1. See Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 68; Curson, 2010b: 793; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765–766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 237060, adult male, collected at Paulo, ca. 05.08N, 60.49W (Paynter, 1982), Mount Roraima, 4000 ft, Bolívar, Venezuela, on 4 November 1927, by T. Donald Carter (no. 553), on the Lee Garnett Day Expedition.

    Comments:

    Zimmer and Phelps gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed the specimens they examined. The following paratypes are in AMNH: Paulo, AMNH 237059, 237061–237067, seven males, one female, collected October–November 1927, by Carter; Arubupú, AMNH 237053–237058, four males, one male?, one female, collected December 1927–January 1928, by Carter. Additional paratypes listed are in CP.

    Soon after B. c. roraimae was described, it was found to be preoccupied by B. roraimae Sharpe, 1885, and Zimmer and Phelps (1949b: 1) provided the replacement name, B. c. segrex. The two names share the same type.

  • Basileuterus culicivorus azarae J.T. Zimmer

  • Basileuterus culicivorus azarae J.T. Zimmer, 1949: 44 (Sapucay, Paraguay).

    Now Basileuterus culicivorus azarae J.T. Zimmer, 1949. See Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 68; Curson, 2010b: 793; and Lovette, 2010: 765–766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 505746, adult male, collected at Sapucaí ( =  Sapucay), 25.40S, 56.55W (Paynter, 1989), Paraguarí, Paraguay, on 3 June 1900, by William Foster (no. 15). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Zimmer cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed 111 paratypes: Argentina: Tucuman, AMNH 505750, male; above San Pablo, AMNH 142036–142040, one male, four females; Tafí trail, AMNH 142032–142034, two males, one female; Sarmiento, AMNH 142035, female; Ocampo, AMNH 505751, male; Barracas al Sud, AMNH 146790, 505752, 505753, one male, two females. Paraguay: Sapucay, AMNH 505744, 505745, 505747–505749, five males; Rio Negro, AMNH 127058, female; east of Caaguassú, AMNH 320642–320644, two males, one female; upper Iguassú River, AMNH 320645, female; east of Yhú, AMNH 320647, sex?; Colonia Independencia, AMNH 320193–320197, two males, two females, one sex?; Abai, AMNH 320646, male; Niu Poná, AMNH 319874, 319875, one male, one sex?. Brazil, Mato Grosso, Utiarity, AMNH 128110, male; Rio Amambahy, AMNH 319551, female. Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, Candiota, AMNH 322015, male; Sapyranga, AMNH 315820–315826, five males, two females; Hamburgo Velho, AMNH 315817–315819, two males, one female; Nonohay, AMNH 315808, 305809, two sex?; Erebango, AMNH 315810–315813, one male, one female, two sex?; Lagoa de Forno, AMNH 315830, male; Santa Cruz, AMNH 315827, 315828, two males; Campo Bom, AMNH 315814–315816, two males, one female; Sananduva, AMNH 315806, 315807, one male one sex?; Sinimbú, AMNH 315829, male. Brazil. Santa Catharina, Ilha Redonda, AMNH 315802, male; Salto Pirahy, AMNH 315795–315801, one male, three females, three sex?; Cerro Verde, AMNH 315804, sex?; Palmital, AMNH 315805, female; Rio Cascalho, AMNH 315803, female. Brazil, Paraná, Tibagy, AMNH 319091–319095, three males, two sex?; Porto Almeida, AMNH 319096, 319097, two sex?; Foz de Iguasú, AMNH 319106–319111, five males, one female; Guayra, AMNH 319100–319103, two males, two females; Porto Mendez, AMNH 319104, 319105, two males; Castro, AMNH 140130, female; Corvo, AMNH 319098, 319099, one male, one female. Brazil, São Paulo, Fazenda Cayoá, AMNH 406542–406544, 505755, three males, one female; São Sebastião, AMNH 505756, 505757, two females. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Monte Serrat, AMNH 189254, female; Maceiras, AMNH 189255–189260, five males, one sex?; Ponte Maromba, AMNH 189261–189263, one male, one female, one sex?.

  • Basileuterus bensoni Griscom

  • Basileuterus bensoni Griscom, 1927a: 12 (Chitrá (4700 ft), Veraguas, Pacific slope of western Panama).

    Now Basileuterus melanogenys bensoni Griscom, 1927. See Hellmayr, 1935: 506; Wetmore et al., 1984: 320–321; Curson, 2010b: 794; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765–766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 257139, adult male, Chitra, 4700 ft, ca. 08.32N, 80.55W (Siegel and Olson, 2008), Varaguas, Pacific slope of western Panama, on 26 February 1926, by Rex R. Benson.

    Comments:

    The AMNH number of the holotype was given in the original description and a type series of eight specimens was obtained at the type locality. The seven paratypes are: AMNH 246430–246436, two males, one male?, three females, and one female? (according to the labels), all collected in late January and February 1926 by Rex Benson.

  • Basileuterus tristriatus chitrensis Griscom

  • Basileuterus tristriatus chitrensis Griscom, 1927a: 13 (Chitrá (4000 ft), Veraguas, Pacific slope of western Panama).

    Now Basileuterus tristriatus melanotis Lawrence, 1868. See Hellmayr, 1935: 491–492; Zimmer, 1949: 38; Blake, 1958: 561–562; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 72; Wetmore et al., 1984: 314–315; Dickinson, 2003: 767; Curson, 2010b: 795; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765–766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 257138, adult male, collected at Chitra, 4000 ft, ca. 08.32N, 80.55W (Siegel and Olson, 2008), Veraguas, western Panama, on 29 January 1926, by Rex R. Benson (no. 2055).

    Comments:

    Griscom cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed two males from Santa Fé and seven males (in addition to the type), seven females and three sex? from Chitra. Paratypes in AMNH are: Santa Fé: AMNH 187748, 187749, males, 7 and 8 April 1925, by Benson; Chitra, AMNH 246437–246453, seven males, seven females, three sex?, December-March 1926, by Benson. I did not find AMNH 246438 in the collection.

    Hellmayr (1935: 491–492) and Zimmer (1949: 38) recognized both melanotis and chitrensis; Lowery and Monroe (1968: 72) omitted melanotis, not listing Costa Rica within the range of tristriatus; Dickinson, 2003: 767) apparently followed Lowery and Monroe and omitted melanotis. Blake (1958: 560–561) questioned the distinctness of melanotis and chitrensis “in view of the variability apparent in a representative series of melanotis from Chiriquí”; Wetmore et al. (1984: 314–315) considered chitrensis a synonym of melanotis and correctly used the older name, melanotis Lawrence, 1868; Curson (2010b: 795) said “melanotis (described from Costa Rica) is treated as [a] synonyn of chitrensis,” but, of course, if the two forms are synonyms, melanotis is senior by nearly 60 years.

  • Basileuterus tacarcunae Chapman

  • Basileuterus tacarcunae Chapman, 1924: 6 (east slope, Mt. Tacarcuna, 4600 ft; below Colombia-Panama line).

    Now Basileuterus tristriatus tacarcunae Chapman, 1924. See Hellmayr, 1935: 492; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 72; Curson, 2010b: 795; Lovette et al., 2010: 765–766; and Gutiérrez-Pinto et al., 2012: 156–165.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 136203, adult male, collected on the east slope of Cerro Tacarcuna, 4600 ft, 08.05N, 77.17W (Paynter, 1997), Chocó, Colombia, on 1 April 1915, by Harold E. Anthony (no. 163) and D.S. Ball.

    Comments:

    Chapman gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed 13 paratypes: Tacarcuna, western slope of Cerro Tacarcuna, Panama, AMNH 136199–136201, three males, collected 1 and 14 April 1915, by William B. Richardson; eastern slope of Cerro Tacarcuna, Colombia, AMNH 136202, 136204–136212, six males, four females, 31 March–16 April 1915 by Anthony and Ball. I did not find AMNH 136202 in the collection.

    This locality, noted on the label as eastern Panama, is essentially on the Panama-Colombia border. See Siegel and Olson (2008: 392) for a discussion.

  • Basileuterus tristriatus baezae Chapman

  • Basileuterus tristriatus baezae Chapman, 1924 (Baeza, East Ecuador).

    Now Basileuterus tristriatus baezae Chapman, 1924. See Hellmayr, 1935: 494; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 73; Curson, 2010b: 795; and Lovette et al., 2010: 765–766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 176256, adult male, collected at Baeza, 00.27S, 77.53W (Paynter, 1993), Ecuador, on 26 November 1922, by Olalla and sons.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Chapman gave the number of the holotype as 186256, an obvious typographical error, as the specimen bearing that number is a specimen of Hemithraupis; the data cited for the holotype are correct. Chapman listed his type series: Baeza, five (including the type), lower Sumaco, nine, and Macas region, one. The 14 paratypes are: Macas Region, AMNH 156839, sex?, undated, by E. Feyer; Baeza, AMNH 176257–176260, two males, two females, November 1922, by Olalla and sons; and Lower Sumaco, AMNH 183483–183491, four males, five females, December 1923–January 1924, by Olalla and sons. The catalog opposite AMNH 176258 has been marked that it was exchanged to MCZ in July 1928, but this is an error as the specimen is now present in the AMNH collection and shows no evidence of having ever left it.

  • Basileuterus tristriatus inconspicuus J.T. Zimmer

  • Basileuterus tristriatus inconspicuus J.T. Zimmer, 1949: 35 (Inca Mine, southern Perú).

    Now Basileuterus tristriatus inconspicuus J.T. Zimmer, 1949. See Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 73; Dickinson, 2003: 767; Curson, 2010b: 795; Lovette et al., 2010: 765–766; and Gutiérrez-Pinto et al., 2012: 156–165.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 74071, adult male, collected at Inca Mine, near Santo Domingo, 13.51S, 69.41W (Stephens and Traylor, 1983), Puno, southeastern Peru, on 3 August 1900, by H.H. Keays (no. 81).

    Comments:

    Zimmer cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed 17 specimens in his type series. Of the 16 paratypes, six are in AMNH: Peru, Inca Mine, AMNH 74070, male, 23 June 1900, by Keays (no. 38); Santo Domingo, AMNH 146388, 146389, female, male, 25 September 1916, by H. Watkins. Bolivia, Nequejahuira, AMNH 229268, 229269, male, sex?, 23 May 1926, by G.H.H. Tate; “Bolivia,” AMNH 30547, sex and date unknown, by H.H. Rusby. The remaining 10 paratypes were said to be in ANSP. AMNH 30547, 74070, 74071, 146388, and 146389 are also paratypes of B. t. punctipectus.

  • Basileuterus tristriatus punctipectus Chapman

  • Basileuterus tristriatus punctipectus Chapman, 1924: 5 (Yungas, 3600 ft, Dept. Cochabamba, Bolivia).

    Now Basileuterus tristriatus punctipectus Chapman, 1924. See Hellmayr, 1935: 495; Zimmer, 1949: 36–37; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 74; Curson, 2010b: 795; Lovette et al., 2010: 765–766; and Gutiérrez-Pinto et al., 2012: 156–165.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 137961, adult male, collected at Yungas, 3600 ft, 16.20S, 66.45W (Paynter, 1992), Cochabamba, Bolivia, on 5 June 1915, by Leo Miller (no. 12217) and Howarth Boyle.

    Comments:

    Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and (on p. 7) listed his type series. Paratypes are: Bolivia, Locotal, AMNH 137958–137960, two males, one female, 30–31 May 1915, by Miller and Boyle; Incachaca, AMNH 137955–137957, one male, two females, 15–21 May 1915, by Miller and Boyle; Roquefalda, AMNH 148767, 148768, one male, one sex?, 18 February 1915, by G.K. Cherrie; Yungas, AMNH 137962–137964, two males, one female, 4–8 June 1915, by Miller and Boyle; Mapiri?, AMNH 30547–30549, unsexed, undated, by H.H. Rusby. Peru, Inca Mine ( =  Santo Domingo), AMNH 74070, 74071, two males, 23 June and 3 August 1900, by H.H. Keays; Santo Domingo, AMNH 146388, 146389, female, male, 25 September 1916, by H. Watkins. AMNH 74071 is also the holotype and AMNH 30547, 74070, 146388, and 146389 are paratypes of B. t. inconspicuus.

  • Basileuterus trifasciatus nitidior Chapman

  • Basileuterus trifasciatus nitidior Chapman, 1924: 8 (El Chiral, 5350 ft, Santa Rosa-Zaruna trail, Prov. del Oro, southwestern Ecuador).

    Now Basileuterus trifasciatus nitidior Chapman, 1924. See Hellmayr, 1935: 497; Zimmer, 1949: 41; Curson, 2010b: 790; Lovette et al., 2010: 765–766; and Gutiérrez-Pinto et al., 2012: 156–165.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 168000, adult male, collected at El Chiral, 5350 ft, ca. 03.38S, 79.41W (Paynter, 1993), Santa Rosa-Zaruma trail, Oro, Ecuador, on 25 July 1920, by George K. Cherrie (no. 21302).

    Comments:

    Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed the 55 specimens he examined. The following specimens are paratypes: El Chiral, AMNH 167995–167999, 168001–168003, four males, four females, 21 July–4 August 1920; La Puente, AMNH 172276, male, 10 October 1921; Zaruma, AMNH 130211–130216, 155204, one male, four females, one female?, one sex?, 17 September–4 October 1913; Punta Santa Ana, AMNH 167989–167994, five males, one female, 18–23 December 1900; Lunamá, AMNH 172257–172259, three males, 13 August 1921; Las Piñas, AMNH 172273bis, male, 12 September 1921; San Bartolo, AMNH 172269–172273, four males, one female, 3–6 September 1921; Loja, AMNH 130217, female, 11 October 1913; Alamor, AMNH 172260–172267, 152491–152495, 168009, 10 males, four females, July 1919, September 1920, August 1921; Guachanama, AMNH 168007, 168008, two females, 8–9 October 1920; Celica, AMNH 168004–168006, one male, two females, 25 September 1920; Guainche, AMNH 172268, female, 25 August 1921; Cebollal, AMNH 172274, 172275, females, 1, 5 October 1921.

    Of these paratypes, AMNH 130211, 152493, 167992, 167999, 172259, 172271, and 172276 were exchanged to MCZ in July 1928; AMNH 130216, and 172272 were exchanged to ANSP in July 1928.

  • Basileuterus fulvicauda gaffneyi Griscom

  • Basileuterus fulvicauda gaffneyi Griscom, 1927a: 14 (Guaval, Rio Calovevora, humid tropical forest of Veraguas, Caribbean slope of Western Panama).

    Now Myiothlypis fulvicauda leucopygia (Sclater and Salvin, 1873). See Hellmayr, 1935: 525–526; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 75–76; Wetmore et al., 1984: 325–330; Dickinson, 2003: 767–768; Curson, 2010b: 796; and Lovette et al., 2010: 766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 257140, adult male, collected at Guaval, ca. 08.35N, 81.14W (Siegel and Olson, 2008), Rio Calovevora, humid tropical forest of Bocas del Toro, Caribbean slope of western Panama, 800 ft, on 22 August 1926, by Rex R. Benson (no. A-179).

    Comments:

    Griscom cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and had two additional specimens from the type locality. Paratypes are: AMNH 246936, 246937, males, 14 and 26 August 1926, by Benson and Gaffney. See Siegel and Olson (2008: 196) for a comment on this type locality.

    See Lovette et al. (2010: 766) for inclusion of fulvicauda in the genus Myiothlypis.

  • Basileuterus fulvicauda toddi Griscom

  • Basileuterus fulvicauda toddi Griscom, 1927a: 14 (Boqueron, Chiriqui, Pacific slope of western Panama).

    Now Myiothlypis fulvicauda veraguensis (Sharpe, 1885). See Hellmayr, 1935: 524–525; Zimmer, 1949: 57–58; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 76; Wetmore et al., 1984: 325–330; Dickinson, 2003: 767–768; Curson, 2010b: 796; and Lovette et al., 2010: 766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 77774, adult male, collected at Boqueron, 08.30N, 82.34W (Siegel and Olson, 2008), Chiriqui, Pacific slope of western Panama, on 11 October 1901, by J.H. Batty.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Griscom gave the AMNH number of the holotype and listed his paratypes: Panama, interior of Cape Mala Peninsula, AMNH 233273, female, Cerro Montosa, 5 August 1925; AMNH 233274, male, Cerro Lago, 4 July 1925; Wilcox Camp, San Lorenzo River, AMNH 182948, male, 4 April 1924. Southwestern Costa Rica, Boruca, AMNH 391949, 391950, male and female, 11 September 1923; Buenos Aires, AMNH 391955, female, 17 September 1923.

    Zimmer (1949: 57) considered toddi a synonym of veraguensis and listed four specimens of veraguensis from Costa Rica, but his male specimen from Buenos Aires came to AMNH in 1932 with the Rothschild Collection and would not have been available to Griscom when toddi was named.

    There is apparently no reason to suspect either the date or locality of this holotype collected by J.H. Batty (see Olson, 2008: 8).

  • Phaeothlypis semicervina annexa Todd

  • Phaeothlypis semicervina annexa Todd, 1929a: 15 (Pomara (1,100 feet), lower Rio Marañon, northern Peru).

    Now Myiothlypis fulvicauda fulvicauda (Spix, 1825). See Hellmayr, 1935: 523; Zimmer, 1949: 53–56; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 76; Dickinson, 2003: 768; Curson, 2010b: 796–797; and Lovette et al., 2010: 766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 186071, adult female, collected at Pomará, 05.16S, 78.26W (Stephens and Traylor, 1983), 1100 ft, lower Río Marañón, Amazonas, Peru, on 8 August 1924, by Harry Watkins (no. 8408).

    Comments:

    Todd gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and noted that he had five specimens in his type series. The four paratypes, all from Peru, are: Huarandosa, Río Chinchipe, AMNH 182205, 182206, females, 10 and 12 September 1923, by Watkins (nos. 7807 and 7813); Pomará, Río Marañon, AMNH 186069, 186070, males, 8 August 1924, by Watkins (nos. 8399 and 8407).

  • Basileuterus rivularis significans Zimmer

  • Basileuterus rivularis significans Zimmer, 1949: 56 (La Pampa, southeastern Perú, Tropical Zone).

    Now Myiothlypis fulvicauda significans (Zimmer, 1949). See Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 77; Dickinson, 2003: 768; Curson, 2010b: 796–797; and Lovette et al., 2010: 766.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 146394, male, collected at La Pampa, 13.39S, 69.36W (Stephens and Traylor, 1983), Puno, southeastern Peru, on 6 October 1916, by Harry Watkins (no. 220).

    Comments:

    Zimmer gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and on page 58 listed his type series. The paratypes are: La Pampa, AMNH 146395, sex?, 8 October 1916, by Watkins (no. 239); Río Tavara, AMNH 132791, 132792, male and female, 25 and 23 May 1915, AMNH 147767, male, 22 December 1919, all collected by H. and C. Watkins; Astillero, AMNH 145393, female, 2 February 1917, by H. Watkins (no. 645).

  • Muscicapa rivularis Wied

  • Muscicapa rivularis Wied, 1821: 103 (Villa d'Ilhéos, Bahia, Brazil).

    Now Myiothlypis rivularis rivularis (Wied, 1821). See Hellmayr, 1935: 520–521; Zimmer, 1949: 58–59; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 77; Dickinson, 2003: 768; Curson, 2010b: 797; and Lovette et al., 2010: 766.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 4292, female, AMNH 4293, male, AMNH 4294, male, collected at Ilhéus ( =  Ilhéos), 14.49S, 39.02W (Paynter and Traylor, 1991), Bahia, Brazil, ca. mid to late December 1816 (Bokerman, 1957: 232–233). From the Maximilian Collection.

    Comments:

    Under Basileuterus strangulatus, Allen (1889c: 215) listed these three specimens as syntypes of Wied's Muscicapa rivularis. AMNH 4292 and 4294 were apparently mounted together and the original label, glued to the AMNH label of the male, notes both “Mas.” and “Fem.” The original label for AMNH 4293 is glued to its AMNH label and only “Mas.” is noted on it.

    Allen (1889c: 215) gave Rio Belmonte as the type locality, and Wied (1821: 103) noted that he had found it first on the Rio Belmonte; however, the description of rivularis accompanied the report of his travels around Villa Ilhéos.

    PEUCEDRAMIDAE

  • Peucedramus olivaceus arizonae Miller and Griscom

  • Peucedramus olivaceus arizonae Miller and Griscom, 1925: 10 (Paradise, Chiricahua Mts., Arizona).

    Now Peucedramus taeniatus arizonae Miller and Griscom, 1925. See Hellmayr, 1935: 359–360; Zimmer, 1948: 126–127; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 78; Dickinson, 2003: 739; and Curson, 2010b: 660–665.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 380799, adult male, collected at Paradise, Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, on 4 April 1917, by Austin Paul Smith. From the Dwight Collection (no. 47606).

    Comments:

    Miller and Griscom cited the unique Dwight Collection number in the original description and (on p. 13) noted that they had examined from Arizona 20 adult males, nine adult females, 14 immature males and one immature female, and from Mexico, three adult males from Chihuahua and one adult male from Miquihuana, Tamaulipas. The following paratypes are in AMNH: Arizona, AMNH 27850, 36463, 53478, 380789–380798, 380800–380809, 11 adult males, three adult females, eight immature males, one immature female; Mexico, Chihuahua, AMNH 60069, adult male. I have not considered specimens in AMNH that came with the Sanford Collection as paratypes; that collection was not cataloged until after Sanford's death in 1951. Miller and Griscom (1925: 1) borrowed specimens from other institutions and perhaps the paratypes are widely scattered.

    Zimmer (1948: 126–127) first realized that Giraud's 1841 name for the Olive Warbler, Sylvia olivacea, was preoccupied by Sylvia olivacea Vieillot, 1817. The next available name for the species is Sylvia taeniatus Du Bus, 1847.

    The genus Peucedramus was considered by Lowery and Monroe (1968: 77) as genus incertae sedis at the end of the Parulidae, thus its inclusion in that position here. There has been much research regarding its relationships (see George, 1962, 1968; Webster, 1962; Sibley and Ahlquist, 1990: 691–692; Groth, 1998, 2000; and Ericson and Johansson, 2003), the American Ornithologists' Union (1998: 532) accepting it as comprising its own family, the Peucedramidae. This has been followed by most recent authors, although the placement of the family varies; see the discussion in Curson (2010b: 660–662). The generic name Peucedramus should be attributed to Coues rather than Henshaw (Chesser, et al., 2011: 606). Also see Banks (2011) for clarification of the type locality of the nominate subspecies of P. taeniatus.

  • Peucedramus olivaceus jaliscensis Miller and Griscom

  • Peucedramus olivaceus jaliscensis Miller and Griscom, 1925: 9 (Zapotlan, Jalisco).

    Now Peucedramus taeniatus jaliscensis Miller and Griscom, 1925. See Hellmayr, 1935: 361; Zimmer, 1948: 126–127; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 78; Dickinson, 2003: 739; and Curson, 2010b: 665.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 36826, adult male, collected at Zapotlán, 21.08N, 104.52W (Times atlas), Jalisco, Mexico, on 23 December 1889, by A. Buller.

    Comments:

    Miller and Griscom cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and (on p. 11) listed the specimens they examined. Paratypes are: La Pisagua, AMNH 105996–105998, adult males, AMNH 105999, adult female; Volcan Colima, AMNH 105994, 105995, adult males; Volcano de Nieve (Sierra Nevada de Colima), AMNH 106000–106003, immature males; Chimalpa, AMNH 380310, adult male.

  • Peucedramus olivaceus micrus Miller and Griscom

  • Peucedramus olivaceus micrus Miller and Griscom, 1925: 10 (San Rafael del Norte, Nicaragua).

    Now Peucedramus taeniatus micrus Miller and Griscom, 1925. See Hellmayr, 1935: 362; Zimmer, 1948: 126–127; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 79; Dickinson, 2003: 739; and Curson, 2010b: 665.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 101450, adult male, collected at San Rafael del Norte, 13.12N, 82.06W (Times atlas), Nicaragua, on 17 April 1907, by William B. Richardson.

    Comments:

    Miller and Griscom cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and (on p. 11) noted that they examined one specimen in addition to the type. The paratype is: San Rafael del Norte, AMNH 101451, male, 18 April 1907, by Richardson.

    GENERA INCERTAE SEDIS

  • Microligea montana Chapman

  • Microligea montana Chapman, 1917a: 330 (Mt. Tina, Prov Azua, Santo Domingo, W.I.).

    Now Xenoligea montana (Chapman, 1917). See Wetmore and Swales, 1931: 396–397; Hellmayr, 1935: 425–426; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 79; Lovette and Bermingham, 2002; Keith et al., 2003: 201; Dickinson, 2003: 768; and Curson, 2010b: 800.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 164620, adult male, collected on Loma Tina ( =  Mount Tina), 18.46N, 70.42W (Keith et al., 2003: 238), La Vega, Dominican Republic ( =  Santo Domingo), on 15 January 1917, by Rollo H. Beck (no. 6978) on the Brewster-Sanford Expedition.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Chapman cited Beck's unique field number of the holotype and said that Beck collected a large series on mounts Tina and Rucilla. Paratypes are: Loma Tina, AMNH 164614–146619, 164621–164642, 10 males, 16 females, two sex?; Loma Rucilla, AMNH 164643, male; Mount Rucilla, AMNH 164644, male; La Canita, AMNH 164645, male, all collected in January and February (one in early March), 1917, by Beck. Of these, AMNH 164614, 164615, 164630, and 164634 were exchanged with W.F.H. Rosenberg in September 1921; AMNH 164616 and 164642 were exchanged with Rothschild in May 1921 and when they were returned when that collection came to AMNH in 1932, they were renumbered 507569 and 507570, respectively; AMNH 164622, 164624, 164633, and 164641 were exchanged with BMNH in May 1921; AMNH 164623 was exchanged with UMMZ in September 1984; and AMNH 164626 and 164637 were exchanged with FMNH in November 1922. I did not find AMNH 164629 and 164643 in the collection and they were perhaps exchanged without any notation in the catalog. AMNH 164635 was originally identified and cataloged as Microligea montana, but it is a specimen of Microligea palustris. Specimens of M. montana collected by Beck later in 1917 in Haiti were not included in the description.

    Wetmore and Swales (1931: 18–19) carefully reconstructed Beck's itinerary in the Dominican Republic based on Beck's journal in the Archives, Department of Ornithology, AMNH, and noted (Wetmore and Swales, 1931: 4, map opp. p. 4) that Loma Tina and Loma Rucilla are among the highest mountains in central Dominican Republic, inland from Tubano. They (Wetmore and Swales, 1931: 396–397) incorporated Beck's collection in their publication on the birds of Haiti and the Dominican Republic, but the paratypes noted above as exchanged to other institutions in 1921 and 1922 were not available to them.

    The affinities of Xenoligea are uncertain; the references above summarize the various treatments. It is given as a genus incertae sedis by Lowery and Monroe (1968: 79) and Dickinson (2003: 768) and is treated as such here.

  • Granatellus pelzelni paraensis Rothschild

  • Granatellus pelzelni paraensis Rothschild, 1906: 81 (Prata, near Para).

    Now Granatellus pelzelni paraensis Rothschild, 1906. See Hellmayr, 1935: 450–451; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 81; Dickinson, 2003: 768; and Curson, 2010b: 800.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 507758, adult male, collected at Prata, Pará, Brazil, on 17 November 1905, by W. Hoffmanns (no. 141). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Rothschild gave Hoffmanns' unique field number of the holotype and described both male and female. There are only two specimens in AMNH from the Rothschild Collection that were collected by Hoffmanns in Pará. The paratype is: AMNH 507757, female, collected at Prata on 15 November 1905 by Hoffmanns (no. 132).

    According to Paynter and Traylor (1991: 563) Prata is a former name of São Jorge, 01.18S, 47.36 or “may be a site different from, but close to, Santo Antônio do Prata,” ca. 01.20S, 47.37W.

  • Icteria longicauda Lawrence

  • Icteria longicauda Lawrence, 1853: 4 (California).

    Now Icteria virens auricollis (Deppe, 1830). See Grinnell, 1932: 300; Hellmayr, 1935: 447; Dickinson, 2003: 768; Curson, 2010b: 798–799; and Chesser et al., 2011: 607.

    Syntype:

    AMNH 40028, adult unsexed, collected in California, undated, by E.S. Holden. From the G.N. Lawrence Collection (a 177).

    Comments:

    Although Lawrence did not designate a type in the original description, AMNH 40028 is marked “Type. Presented by E.S. Holden” by Lawrence. He apparently based his description on this single specimen with a black bill but with the “edges of both mandibles and an oblong spot on the lower, near the base, greyish-white.” He had a second specimen differing from the former in having the “upper plumage olive brown, and the bill entirely black; in other respects precisely the same.” There is a second specimen in AMNH from the Lawrence Collection, AMNH 40029, an undated specimen from California, presented by Dr. A.L. Heerman. I do not consider this specimen a syntype as it has the edges of the upper mandible and almost the entire lower mandible lighter in color. Lawrence may have had a second Holden specimen that he exchanged before the collection came to AMNH.

    Grinnell's (1932: 300) discussion of this type is puzzling. He thought that the type locality was definitely Stockton, California, based on the fact that Holden had collected the type of Larus californicus there, but Holden had also collected birds in Sacramento (see Lawrence, 1853: 4, Ephialtes choliba). The AOU checklist (1910: 324) gave the type locality as “probably near Sacramento or Stockton,” which would seem to be correct. Grinnell further stated that the type specimen was “at one time given a number in the register of the U.S. Nat. Mus., now no. 40028 in the American Museum of Natural History, New York City.” There is no indication of a former USNM number on this specimen, and James Dean (personal commun.) has found no evidence that USNM received a specimen of Icteria from Holden.

    Grinnell (1932: 300) gave the number on the Lawrence label as @177 and considered it the “Baird Catalogue number”; James Dean (personal commun.) found no. 177 in Baird's catalog to be a specimen of Picus pubescens from Pennsylvania, and he noted that Baird did not use letters with his numbers. I interpret it as “a 177,” especially as AMNH 40029 is numbered “b 177,” and I think “177” is a Lawrence number for the species.

  • [Sylvia speciosa Temminck]

  • Sylvia speciosa (ex Wied ms) Temminck (in Temminck and Laugier 1820–1839), 1824, livraison 49, pl. 293, fig. 2 (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    Now Conirostrum speciosum speciosum (Temminck, 1824). See Wied, 1831: 710; Allen, 1889: 217; Hellmayr, 1935: 314–316; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 82–83, Dickinson, 2001: 46, Dickinson, 2003: 815, Dekker and Quaiser, 2006: 37; and Hilty, 2011: 261.

    Temminck (1824: livr. 49, pl. 293, fig. 2) based his name, Sylvia speciosa, on a Wied manuscript name and pictured it in plate 293, figure 2. A specimen, RMNH 90238, is considered the holotype of speciosa (Dekker and Quaiser, 2006: 37). Wied was generous in sending specimens to Temminck, already labeled with the names he intended to give them. Because Wied's own publication was delayed for many years, Temminck's use of some of the names Wied had written on his labels made Temminck the author of those names. In the description of speciosa, Temminck credits “P. Max” ( =  Prince Maximilian) with the name. It seems logical that Temminck would have deposited the specimen used for the illustration in RMNH, where he was the director.

    However, AMNH 4352, male (on Wied label), collected in “Brasilia,” by Maximilian, Prince of Wied, was considered by Allen (1889: 217) to be the specimen used by Temminck for his illustration, but he credited Wied (1831: 708) with the description. This cannot be correct, as Temminck's description came out seven years prior to Wied's publication. Wied (1831: 710) said “Temminck giebt, nach dem von mir ihm mitgetheilten Exemplare, eine ziemlich gute Abbildung dieser Species, wo aber die Beine und der Schnabel unrichtig colorirt sind.” This implies that Wied sent Temminck more than one specimen, and the type status of the AMNH specimen is unresolved.

    Allen (1889: 217) gave the collecting locality of the AMNH specimen as Rio de Janeiro, but that is the locality given by Temminck for the specimen he used. The locality on the Wied label on AMNH 4352 is given as “Brasilia” as is usual on Wied's labels. Wied (1831: 709–710) said that the species was not rare around Rio de Janeiro and that later he had found it the province of Bahia, in the area of Angicos. Thus, it is not certain where the AMNH specimen was collected. The Wied label bears the number “139” written in pencil and of unknown significance. Allen did not find this species listed in Wied's catalog.

    Hellmayr (1935: 314) refers to Wied (1831: 710), and says the type is in AMNH, probably basing this on Allen. AMNH 4352 remains in the type collection because it bears the type label added by Allen, but another label has been added to indicate that its status is unresolved.

    Dickinson (2001) has studied the publication dates of the various livraisons of Temminck and has shown that 1824 is the correct date for livraison 49.

    The genus Conirostrum was included by Lowery and Monroe (1968: 82) as a genus incertae sedis in the Parulidae. It is usually now included in the Thraupidae (Dickinson, 2003: 815).

  • Ateleodacnis leucogenys panamensis Griscom

  • Ateleodacnis leucogenys panamensis Griscom, 1927a: 9 (Cape Garachiné, eastern Panama).

    Now Conirostrum leucogenys panamense (Griscom, 1927). See Hellmayr, 1935: 317; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 83; Wetmore et al., 1984: 508–509; Dickinson, 2003: 815; and Hilty, 2011: 261.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 257147, adult male, collected at Punta Garachiné ( =  Cape Garachiné), 08.06N, 78.25W (Siegel and Olson, 2008), eastern Panama, on 4 March 1927, by Ludlow Griscom, Maunsell S. Crosby, and others.

    Comments:

    Griscom cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and noted that he had five males, including the type, one immature male, and four females. The type specimen was prepared by Paul F. Covel (no. 225), taxidermist on the expedition. The paratypes, all from the type locality, are: AMNH 233511–233514, males, and AMNH 233515–233519, females. Griscom apparently considered one of the females an immature male, but there is no indication on the specimens which one. Wetmore (1968: 326) and Wetmore et al. (1984: 508–509) did not recognize panamensis, using that spelling.

  • Sylvia caerulescens Wied

  • Sylvia caerulescens Wied, 1831: 713 (Rio Mucurí).

    Now Conirostrum bicolor bicolor (Vieillot, 1808). See Allen, 1889: 218; Hellmayr, 1935: 319; and Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 83.

    Syntype:

    AMNH 4353, unsexed, collected on the Rio Mucurí, 18.05S, 39.34W (Paynter and Traylor, 1991), Brazil, undated, by Maximilian, Prince of Wied. From the Maximilian Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Wied (on p. 714) thought his new species was similar to “Azara's bec-en-poinçon bleu et blanc (vol. III, pag. 257) oder Vieillot's Sylvia bicolor, doch bin ich von der Identität beider nicht vollkommen überzeugt.” He described the adult male fully and indicated that he had a female: “Nicht bedeutend verschieden, die Obertheile fallen weniger in's Blaue.”

    Allen (1889: 218) listed this specimen as a male and as a type of Sylvia caerulescens. He considered it a synonym of Dacnis plumbea ( =  Conirostrum bicolor bicolor). The original Maximilian label is glued onto the reverse of the AMNH label and the specimen is there unsexed, although it is labeled “♀” on the front of the AMNH label; it is considered an adult male by Allen and the AMNH type label is so marked. It matches specimens of either sex in the AMNH collection and is the only specimen of this form that came to AMNH with the Wied collection. The locality on the label is “Brasilia,” but in the original description, Wied noted that he had obtained it on the Mucuri. The number “139,” written in pencil on the original label, is of unknown significance. Allen did not find it listed in Wied's catalog.

  • Coereba mexicana caucae Chapman

  • Coereba mexicana caucae Chapman, 1914: 186 (Cali (alt. 3500 ft), Cauca Valley, Colombia).

    Now Coereba flaveola caucae Chapman, 1914. See Hellmayr, 1935: 299; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 88; and Dickinson, 2003: 776; Hilty, 2011: 328–329.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 109240, adult male, collected at Cali, 3500 ft, 03.27N, 76.31W (Paynter, 1997), Cauca Valley, Colombia, on 10 May 1911, by F.M. Chapman and W.B. Richardson.

    Comments:

    Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and based his description on 11 adult specimens from the Cauca Valley and the subtropical zone of the Western Andes. I could account for only nine of these specimens, including the holotype. The paratypes are: Cali, AMNH 71904, female, undated, collected by Batty, AMNH 108478, 108481, 108483, two males, one female, 20–27 December 1910, by Richardson; Rio Frio, AMNH 112859, 29 November 1911, by A.A. Allen and L.E. Miller; San Antonio, AMNH 108480, female, 24 January 1911, by Richardson; Las Lomitas, AMNH 108479, 108482, males, 11 March and 28 February 1911, by Richardson. Of these, I did not find AMNH 108479 in the collection and AMNH 108482 was exchanged to BMNH in May 1921. Chapman questioned the inclusion of an immature specimen from Miraflores in caucae, and it is therefore not a paratype. That specimen is AMNH 109241 and is labeled as coming from E. of Palmira, but the field label indicates that it is from Mir[aflores]. See Chapman (1917b) for a description of the various AMNH expeditions to Colombia.

  • Coereba flaveola dispar J.T. Zimmer

  • Coereba flaveola dispar J.T. Zimmer, 1942b: 4 (Candamo, southeastern Perú).

    Now Coereba flaveola dispar J.T. Zimmer, 1942. See Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 88; Dickinson, 2003: 776; Schulenberg et al., 2010: 614; and Hilty, 2011: 328–329.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 146441, adult male, collected at Candamo, 13.31S, 69.41W (Stephens and Traylor, 1983), Puno, Peru, on 10 December 1916, by Harry Watkins (no. 431).

    Comments:

    Zimmer cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and (on p. 9) listed the specimens he examined. The paratypes in AMNH are: Bolivia, Mapiri, AMNH 30561–30563, unsexed, April 1886, by H.H. Rusby; Apolobamba, AMNH 78969, male, 7 September 1903, by R.S. Williams; Pitiguaya, AMNH 229292, unsexed, 9 May 1926, by G.H.H. Tate. Peru, Río Inambari, AMNH 132796–132798, three males, 18 March–15 April 1915, by Harry and Casimir Watkins; La Pampa, AMNH 146439, 146440, two males, 14 October and 25 November 1916, by H. Watkins; Camdamo, AMNH 146442, 146444, male, immature male, 11–13 December 1916, by H. Watkins; Tulumayo, AMNH 170070–170074, three males, two immature males, 10–17 May 1921, by H. Watkins; La Merced, AMNH 169364, female, AMNH 169365, male, 15 November 1919, by H. Watkins; Chanchamayo, AMNH 507887, female, May 1905, by C.O. Shunke; Largato, AMNH 239552–239555, three males, one female, 17–28 March 1928, by Olalla and Sons; Santa Rosa, AMNH 240471, 240472, two males, 22 December 1927, 5 January 1928, by Olalla and Sons. Other specimens of dispar examined by Zimmer were borrowed from FMNH, ANSP, and MCZ.

  • Certhiola atrata Lawrence

  • Certhiola atrata Lawrence, 1878: 149 [150, in repaginated reprint] (Island of St. Vincent, West Indies).

    Now Coereba flaveola atrata (Lawrence, 1878). See Hellmayr, 1935: 303–304; Deignan, 1961: 523–524; Dickinson, 2003: 776.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 40276 (USNM 74097), adult male, and AMNH 40277 (USNM 74096), adult female, both collected at the foot of La Soufrière, 13.21N, 145.06W (Times atlas), St. Vincent Island, West Indies, on 30 October 1877, by F.A. Ober (nos. 420 and 418, respectively).

    Comments:

    In the original description, Lawrence said that he had four black specimens, two of each sex, and that the types were in USNM, but he did not further designate them; therefore, all four specimens are syntypes. Deignan (1961: 523–524) noted that only two of the types, both marked “Type” by Lawrence, were in USNM. These two specimens are the two missing syntypes even though they are not marked “Type” by Lawrence, as they bear USNM numbers in the same sequence as the USNM number on the syntypes in USNM and were collected on the same day by Ober. They came to AMNH with the Lawrence Collection and had not previously been recognized as types.

  • Coereba luteola montana Lowe

  • Coereba luteola montana Lowe, 1912: 509 (Merida (1600 metres)).

    Now Coereba flaveola montana Lowe, 1912. See Hellmayr, 1935: 293–294; Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 92; Dickinson, 2003: 776; and Hilty, 2011: 328–329.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 507910, adult male, collected in the Cordillera do Mérida, 1600 m, western Venezuela, on 20 February 1897, by Salamon Briceño. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Lowe said that he had examined 19 specimens from the mountainous district of Mérida, all of which were in the Rothschild Collection. His type of montana was the only specimen bearing the date 20 February 1897. The 18 paratypes are: AMNH 507911–507926, seven males, two females, seven unsexed, all collected by Briceño; AMNH 507932, 507933, unsexed, from the Boucard Collection. There are five additional Rothschild specimens from Mérida, apparently collected by Mocquerys. There is no information on when Rothschild obtained them, but they were not examined by Lowe. Salamon Briceño's name is sometimes written S. Briceño G. or S.B. Gabaldon. AMNH 100882–100886 were collected by “S.B. Gabaldon” but were never part of the Rothschild Collection.

  • Coereba flaveola bolivari Zimmer and Phelps

  • Coereba flaveola bolivari Zimmer and Phelps, 1946: 20 (Ciudad Bolívar, State of Bolívar, Venezuela).

    Now Coereba flaveola bolivari Zimmer and Phelps, 1946. See Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 92; Dickinson, 2003: 776; and Hilty, 2011: 328–329.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 507901, adult male, collected at Ciudad Bolívar, 08.08N, 63.33W (Paynter, 1982), Bolívar, Venezuela, on 30 November 1898, by Samuel M. Klages. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Zimmer and Phelps cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and (on p. 21) listed the specimens they examined. Paratypes in AMNH are: Ciudad Bolívar, AMNH 73611–73617, five males, two females, collected by Klages in 1898, AMNH 439917, female, collected by Cherrie in 1905, AMNH 507900, immature male, AMNH 507902, female, collected by Klages (based on handwriting) in 1898; Agua Salada de Ciudad Bolívar, AMNH 177935, male, collected in 1907 by Cherrie. Because all of the above specimens were labeled “Coereba flaveola boliviari Z. & P.” by Zimmer and because females of boliviari were listed as present in the Phelps Collection, I believe the AMNH females were inadvertently omitted from the list of examined specimens, and I have considered them paratypes. The remainder of the specimens was in the Phelps Collection in Caracas.

  • Coereba guianensis roraimae Chapman

  • Coereba guianensis roraimae Chapman, 1929: 6 (Arabupu, 4200 ft, Mt. Roraima, Venezuela).

    Now Coereba flaveola roraimae Chapman, 1929. See Lowery and Monroe, 1968: 92–93; Dickinson, 2003: 776; and Hilty, 2011: 328–329.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 237272, adult male, collected at Arabopó ( =  Arabupu), 4200 ft, 05.06N, 60.44W (Paynter, 1982), Mount Roraima, Venezuela, on 29 December 1927, by T. Donald Carter on the Lee Garnett Day Expedition.

    Comments:

    Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed the specimens he examined. Paratypes are: Paulo, AMNH 237269, 237270, males, 30 October and 29 October 1927, respectively; Arabopó, AMNH 237271, male, 27 December 1927, AMNH 237273, male, 2 January 1928, AMNH 237274, female, 4 January 1928, all collected by Carter.

    DREPANIDIDAE

    Lerner et al. (2011) have published a phylogeny of Drepanididae based on an analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, and Zuccon et al. (2012) have published a study of the phylogenetic relationships and generic limits of Fringillidae, including the Drepanididae.

  • Himatione Fraithii Rothschild

  • Himatione Fraithii Rothschild, 1892: 109 (Laysan Island, Sandwich Group).

    Now Himatione fraithii Rothschild, 1892. See Rothschild, 1893g: 3–4, pl. 9, Amadon, 1950: 174; Greenway, 1968: 94; Dickinson, 2003: 759; Pratt, 2005: 263; and Pyle, 2011: 116–117.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 459004, adult male, collected on Laysan Island, 25.46N, 171.44W (Times atlas), Hawaii ( =  Sandwich group), on 18 June 1891, by Henry Palmer. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Rothschild described the adult male, adult female, and young without designating a type, nor did he later (Rothschild, 1893g: 3–4) name a type. Hartert (1919a: 171) designated as lectotype the single male specimen collected on 18 June 1891, which was actually marked “Type” by Rothschild. There are now in AMNH the following five specimens collected by Palmer on Laysan, and they are paralectotypes of fraithii: AMNH 453094 (Palmer no. 1073), immature male, 16 June 1891; AMNH 453095 (1083), adult male, undated; AMNH 453096 (1141), immature male, undated; AMNH 453097 (1084), adult female, 18 June 1891; AMNH 453098 (1080), adult female, undated. Other specimens may be in BMNH as part of the Rothschild Bequest.

    Pyle (2011: 116–117) has recently called attention to the many spellings of the species name and has shown that the spelling fraithii is correct, even though the person for whom it was named spelled his name Freeth. There is no evidence in the original publication of H. fraithii that there was an inadvertent error in the spelling of the specific name, therefore that spelling must be used (ICZN, 1999: 39, Art 32.5.1).

    This species is extinct.

  • Palmeria mirabilis Rothschild

  • Palmeria mirabilis Rothschild, 1893f: 113 (Island of Mauai).

    Now Palmeria dolei (Wilson, 1891). See Rothschild, 1893e: ix; Rothschild, 1900: 149–150, pl. 60; Amadon, 1950: 174; Greenway, 1968: 95; Dickinson, 2003: 759; Pratt, 2005: 264–267; and Pratt, 2010: 658.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 453041, adult male, collected on Maui ( =  Mauai) Island, ca. 20.45N, 156.15W, Hawaii, in September 1892, by Henry Palmer (no. 1764). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Rothschild did not designate a type in the original description or indicate how many specimens he examined but gave the range as Maui Island. Hartert (1919a: 171), by citing Palmer's unique field number “1764” for the above specimen, designated it the lectotype; it had been marked “Type” by Rothschild. The following paralectotypes, all collected by Palmer on Maui, are in AMNH: AMNH 453042 (Palmer no. 1766), male, 26 September 1892; AMNH 453043 (1763), male, 26 September 1892; AMNH 453044 (1748), male, 16 August 1892; AMNH 453045 (1725), immature female, 13 August 1892; AMNH 453046 (1726), immature male, 13 August, 1892; AMNH 453047 (1746), female, 16 August 1892; AMNH 453048 (1747), immature female, 16 August 1892; AMNH 453049 (1723), female, 16 August 1892; AMNH 453050 (–), unsexed, no date; AMNH 453051 (1787), male, Olinda, 31 October 1892; AMNH 453052 (1790), male, Olinda, 31 October 1892; AMNH 453053 (1788), male, Olinda, 31 October 1892; AMNH 453054 (1786), female, Olinda, 31 October 1892. Other specimens may be in BMNH as part of the Rothschld Bequest.

    Rothschild (1893f: 113) had considered mirabilis a species in the Meliphagidae and had described the genus Palmeria at the same time. He (Rothschild, 1893e: ix) soon realized his error and noted that mirabilis was a synonym of Himatione dolei, which should be placed in his genus Palmeria. Wilson and Evans (1890–1899: 15–16, unnumbered pl.) discussed and illustrated this species.

    In August and September, Palmer (Rothschild, 1900: (Di)) was on the slopes of Mt. Haleakala, 20.43N, 156.10 W (Times atlas).

  • [Fringilla anna Dole]

  • Fringilla anna Dole, 1878: 49 (Hawaii).

    Now Ciridops anna (Dole, 1878). See Rothschild, 1900: 183–184; Amadon, 1950: 174–175; Greenway, 1968: 96; Pratt, 2002; Dickinson, 2003: 759; Pratt, 2005: 273–275; and Olson, 2012.

    Comments:

    AMNH 459008, sex? [subadult], “Hawaii,” date? From the Rothschild Collection. This is the specimen about which Scott Wilson (Wilson and Evans, 1890–1899: 23) said: “I procured a stuffed specimen from the Hon. C.R. Bishop, which had been obtained from the late Mr. Mills of Hilo. Mr. Bishop has a much finer example remaining with more grey about the head and neck, taken by the same gentleman.” Rothschild (1900: 183) purchased it from Wilson and it came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection. It is this specimen that is illustrated in Wilson and Evans (1890–1899: 23–24, unnumbered pl.) and about which Wilson said that the outer webs of the last three secondaries and the secondary and lesser coverts were ochraceus buff. (Rothschild called this pl. xix; it is no. 11 in the list of plates, but they are unnumbered in the text. The significance of Rothschild's number has not been discovered.)

    Olson (1994: 342) discussed the type of Fringilla anna in detail. As he stated, Dole (1878: 49), in his original description, did not say how many specimens he had, but his description applied to an adult with white secondaries, not to a probable subadult with brown secondaries as in the AMNH specimen. Dole also did not say that the specimen he described was in the Mills Collection. According to Olson (1994: 342) this was an oversight, as Dole in 1876 had given the same description in an earlier list of the Mills collection without supplying a name; I have not seen this list. I agree with Olson that the description of anna applies only to the specimen in BBM and that that specimen should be considered the holotype (ICZN, 1999: 79, Art. 73.1.2).

    In the years between 1878, when anna was described, and 1888, when Bishop is known to have exchanged rare Hawaiian birds with Scott Wilson, including the specimen of anna, Bishop was acquiring specimens that had been owned by Mills (Manning, 1979: 41). Wilson's statement concerning the acquisition of his specimen gives credance to its having come from Mills' collection; however, there is no information on when it came into Mills' hand. I have found no indication that Dole saw a second specimen of anna, and it seems strange that he would have failed to mention the plumage differences between the two had he seen both. It seems impossible at this late date definitely to link the AMNH specimen to Dole and his description of anna.

    AMNH 459008 was not listed as a type by Rothschild (1900: 183–184) or by Hartert in his lists of types in the Rothschild Collection. Based on Amadon's (1944: 12; 1950: 175) statement that the AMNH specimen was one of two specimens from the Mills collection that “became cotypes of Fringilla anna, as described by Judge Dole,” an AMNH type label was added. However, based on the above uncertainities, I agree with Olson that “the AMNH specimen probably has no status as a type” (Olson, 1994: 342). It remains with the types, but with an added label to call attention to its questionable status.

    Rothschild had a second specimen of C. anna, collected for him by Palmer and preserved in the flesh. This specimen is now in BMNH as part of the Rothschild Bequest. It has no type status.

    A second AMNH specimen of C. anna, AMNH 230275, female, was exchanged on 7 July 1927 to AMNH from MCZ (Bangs, 1930: 363), MCZ no. 10987, and bears a note signed “O.B[angs]” saying that there is no information concerning its provenance. It has no type standing. Olson (1992: 495–500) provided evidence that this specimen and another at MCZ were almost certainly collected by William T. Brigham in 1864–1865 and that they may have come from Molokai Island instead of Hawaii Island, where other specimens of C. anna were collected.

    The species is extinct; there are only five specimens known (Olson, 1992). Based in large part on earlier work by Olson, the above was written prior to the appearance of a summary article by Olson (2012) of all the information known about Ciridops anna. This recent article supports the conclusions listed above and greatly extends our knowledge of this rarest of the drepanidines.

  • Himatione wilsoni Rothschild

  • Himatione wilsoni Rothschild, 1893c: xlii (Island of Mauai).

    Now Hemignathus virens wilsoni (Rothschild, 1893). See Rothschild, 1900: 137–138, pl. 59; Amadon, 1950: 165; Greenway, 1968: 97; Olson and James, 1995; American Ornithologists' Union, 1998: 673–674; Dickinson, 2003: 758; Pratt, 2005: 240–243; and Pratt, 2010: 657.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 453159, male, collected on Maui ( =  Mauai) Island, Hawaii, on 17 July 1892, by Henry Palmer (no. 1650). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Rothschild did not designate a type or enumerate his specimens in the original description, describing both male and female and giving the range as Maui Island. Rothschild's statement that “the types of C. wilsoni were shot by Palmer on the 14 July on Maui” does not serve to designate a lectotype. Hartert (1919: 171) listed Palmer's specimen no. 1650 as the type, thereby designating it the lectotype. The following paralectotypes, collected by Palmer on Maui in 1892, are in AMNH: AMNH 453160 (Palmer's no. 1644), male, 16 July; AMNH 453161 (1651), male, AMNH 453162 (1759), female, AMNH 453163 (1753), male, 17 July; AMNH 453164 (1757), female, 17 August; AMNH 453165 (1778), female, 6 October; AMNH 453166 (1795), female, 30 October; AMNH 453167 (1755), unsexed, AMNH 453168 (1761), female, AMNH 453169 (1758), female, AMNH 453170 (1760), female, 17 August; AMNH 453171 (1642), AMNH 453172 (1643), females, 14 July; AMNH 453173 (1695), female, 7 August, AMNH 453174 (–), unsexed and undated; AMNH 454598 (1654), male, 18 July. This last specimen has no melanin in the feathers and is entirely yellow and white, but Palmer mentioned in his diary (Rothschild, 1900: Di 9) that the iris, bill, and legs of this specimen were of normal color; it had been shot on the evening of 17 July. Other specimens may be in BMNH as part of the Rothschild Bequest. AMNH 453357 was originally identified by Rothschild as Oreomyza newtoni and only later corrected to H. v. wilsoni. It is not a paralectotype of wilsoni.

    In mid-July 1892, Palmer's diary (Rothschild, 1900: (Di)) indicated that he was camped north of Olinda, 20.48N, 156.16W (Times atlas) on his way to Mount Haleakala.

    In addition to Himatione and Hemignathus, wilsoni has been listed in at least the following genera: Chlorodrepanis (Rothschild, 1900: 137, Mathews, 1930: 810), Loxops (Amadon: 1950: 165), and Viridonia (Greenway, 1968: 97). For a discussion of the history of the generic name Hemignathus, see Olson and James (1995). Pratt (2010: 657) treated wilsoni as a full species.

  • Viridonia sagittirostris Rothschild

  • Viridonia sagittirostris Rothschild, 1892: 112 (Mauna Kea, Hawaii, Sandwich Islands).

    Now Hemignathus sagittirostris (Rothschild, 1892). See Rothschild, 1893g: 109–110, pl. 54; Rothschild, 1900: 312; Amadon, 1950: 165; Greenway, 1968: 97; American Ornithologists' Union, 1998: 674; Dickinson, 2003: 758; Pratt, 2005: 243–244; and Pratt, 2010: 647.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 453235, adult male, collected on Mauna Kea, 19.50N, 155.25W (Times atlas), Hawaii Island, Hawaii ( =  Sandwich Islands), on 30 April 1892, by Henry Palmer (no. 1601). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Rothschild described both male and female but did not designate a type in the original description. Later, he (Rothschild, 1893g: 109) gave measurements for two adult males and two adult females, with one of each sex indicated as the type. This does not give type status to the two specimens. Hartert (1919a: 171) by listing Palmer's specimen no. 1601 as the type, designated it the lectotype; it was also marked “Type ♂” by Rothschild. Palmer (Rothschild, 1893g: 109–110) first saw this species on 23 April 1892 and collected a total of four specimens. The following paralectotypes, collected on Hawaii Island by Palmer in 1892, are in AMNH: AMNH 453234 (Palmer no. 1603), male, 10 May; AMNH 453236 (1602), female, 30 April; AMNH 453237 (1604), female, 10 May; it is marked “Cotype” by Rothschild. AMNH 453236 is marked “Type of ♀”and “pl. 18” by Rothschild; the significance of “pl. 18” is unknown. AMNH 453236 bears an additional label: “skull, humeri, and one tarsus removed and skin remade by J.P. Angle, USNM. Skull replaced by cast” (see Olson et al., 1987).

    The genus Viridonia was introduced by Rothschild (1892: 112) at the same time, with sagittirostris the type species.

    According to Palmer's diary (Rothschild, 1900: (Di)), from early April to 12 May, Palmer was confined to the home of Mr. Hitchcock in Hilo, having been kicked by a horse; his assistant, Ted Wolstenholme, however, was sent into the forest (Olson, 2013: 101). On 12 May1892, Palmer left Hilo and moved to a mountain cottage, 7 mi from Hilo, on his way up Mauna Kea.

    The species is extinct.

  • Hemignathus lanaiensis Rothschild

  • Hemignathus lanaiensis Rothschild, 1893a: xxiv (in insulâ Sandwichensi ‘Lanai’ dictâ).

    Now Hemignathus ellisianus lanaiensis Rothschild, 1893. See Rothschild, 1893g: 89–90, pl. 48; Amadon, 1950: 168; Greenway, 1968: 98; Olson and James, 1995: 384; American Ornithologists' Union, 1998: 675; Dickinson, 2003: 758; Pratt, 2005: 247; and Pratt, 2010: 647.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 453489, male, collected on Lanai Island, 20.50N, 156.55W (Times atlas), Hawaii ( =  insulâ Sandwichensi), on 22 November 1892, by Henry Palmer (no. 1855). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    No type was designated in the original description in which male, female, and young male were described. Hartert (1893: xxxiii) “exhibited the type-specimens [syntypes] of Hemignathus lanaiensis, Rothschild, from Lanai, described at the last Meeting of the Club,” but no details were given. Hartert (1919a: 170) noted that only three specimens were secured, although Palmer saw another five, and by listing the male specimen bearing Palmer's no. 1855 as the type, he designated it the lectotype; it is also marked “Type,” “Recd Jan. 1893,” “pl 7” by Rothschild. There is only one paralectotype at AMNH: AMNH 453490 (Palmer no. 1848), male, collected on Lanai Island on 21 November 1892 (and marked “recd Jan. 1893,” “pl. 7,” and “Type,” which has been crossed out); the bill of this specimen is broken. This was Rothschild's “young male”; the female is in BMNH as part of the Rothschild Bequest. I have not discovered the significance of “pl. 7.”

    According to Palmer's diary (Rothschild, 1900: (Di)), he landed at Maunalei (? Manele Bay) on 3 November 1892 and collected on a peak near Lanaihale (20.48N, 156.54W, Times atlas).

    Olson and James (1995: 384) introduced the genus Akialoa in which they included lanaiensis as a full species. The American Ornithologists' Union (1998: 675) merged lanaiensis into the species ellisianus but retained it in the genus Hemignathus, as did Dickinson (2003: 758). Pratt ( 2005: 247) accorded lanaiensis full species status in Hemignathus, and Pratt (2010: 647) listed it as a full species in the genus Akialoa. H. e. lanaiensis is now extinct.

  • Hemignathus affinis Rothschild

  • Hemignathus affinis Rothschild, 1893f: 112 (Island of Mauai, Sandwich group).

    Now Hemignathus lucidus affinis Rothschild, 1893. See Rothschild, 1893g: 103–104, pl. 52; Amadon, 1950: 169; Greenway, 1968: 98; Olson and James, 1995: 383; Dickinson, 2003: 758; Pratt, 2005: 253–254; and Pratt 2010: 656–657.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 453528, adult male, collected on Maui ( =  Mauai) Island, ca. 20.45N, 156.15W, Hawaii ( =  Sandwich group), on 4 August 1892, by Henry Palmer (no. 1688). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Rothschild did not designate a type in the original description or indicate how many specimens he examined, but later, he (Rothschild, 1893g: 103) gave measurements for 11 adult males and two adult females, with comments on a specimen of a “young male.” Hartert (1919a: 170) listed the specimen bearing Palmer's no. 1688 as the type, thereby designating it the lectotype. This specimen is also marked “Type,” “pl. 11” (?), “52” (plate no. in Rothschild, 1893g), and “p. 123 Ibis 1893” (should be page 112). The following 10 paralectotypes, collected by Palmer on Maui in 1892, are in AMNH; the remainder were probably exchanged by Rothschild before the collection came to AMNH or may be in BMNH as part of the Rothschild Bequest: AMNH 453529 (Palmer no. 1689), male, 4 August; AMNH 453530 (1697), AMNH 453531 (1696), males, 9 August; AMNH 453532 (1712), male, 10 August; AMNH 453533 (1717), male, 11 August; AMNH 453534 (1743), immature male, 16 August; AMNH 453535 (1719), male, AMNH 453536 (1729), AMNH 453537 (1730), females, 13 August; AMNH 453538 (–), unsexed, only 1892 on label, all collected by Palmer. AMNH 453536 is also marked “pl. 11” the significance of which I was unable to determine.

    According to Palmer's diary (Rothschild, 1900: (Di)), he was camped at 5000 ft 1–6 August 1892 and then moved up to the crater of Mount Haleakala (20.43N, 156.10W, Times atlas) for the remainder of August.

    H. l. affinis may be extinct.

  • Heterorhynchus wilsoni Rothschild

  • Heterorhynchus wilsoni Rothschild, 1893g: 95 (key), 97, pl. 50 (Hawaii).

    Now Hemignathus munroi H.D. Pratt, 1979. See Amadon, 1950: 169; Greenway, 1968: 99; Pratt, 1979: 1581; Olson and James, 1995: 383; American Ornithologists' Union, 1998: 675; Dickinson, 2003: 758; Pratt, 2005: 254–257; and Pratt, 2010: 657.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 453541, male, collected on Hawaii Island, Hawaii, on 26 September 1891, by Henry Palmer (no. 1342). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Rothschild did not designate a type, describing the adult male and female and “young birds.” He did not enumerate his specimens but gave measurements for 12 adult males and seven adult females. Hartert (1919a: 170) listed Palmer's no. 1342 as the type, thereby designating it the lectotype. The label was only marked “pl . 12” (?) and “50” (the plate number in Rothschild, 1893g). The following paralectotpes, collected on Hawaii Island by Palmer in September and October 1891 and February 1892, are in AMNH: AMNH 453542 (Palmer no. 1359), AMNH 453543 (1350), males, 29 September; AMNH 453544 (1328), AMNH 453545 (1329), males, 25 September; AMNH 453546 (1325), immature male, 25 September; AMNH 453547 (1559), AMNH 453548 (1561), males, 15 February; AMNH 453549 (1364), female, 1 October; AMNH 453550 (1385), female, 6 October; AMNH 453551 (1794), female, 30 October; AMNH 453552 (1352), female, 29 September; AMNH 453553 (1327), female, AMNH 453554 (1324), unsexed, 25 September. AMNH 453554 is also marked “pl. 12” of unknown significance. Two additional specimens, AMNH 453540, male, collected by S.B. Wilson in March 1888 and AMNH 453555, female, collector and date unknown, but marked “♀ no. 3” may also be paralectotypes of H. wilsoni, but I do not know when they came into Rothschild's possession. Others may be in BMNH as part of the Rothschild Bequest.

    From Palmer's diary (Rothschild, 1900: (Di)), one can determine that he reached Kealake[a]kua (19.31N, 155.56W, Times atlas) on 5 September 1891 and on 22 September he camped at 5000 ft; on 5 October he noted that he was on the slopes of Mauna Loa. Munro's journal, which was transcribed by Storrs Olson, indicated that the type of H. wilsoni was almost certainly collected on 24 September (S. Olson, personal commun.).

    Pratt (1979: 1581) provided Hemignathus munroi as a replacement name for Heterorhynchus wilsoni Rothschild, 1893, preoccupied by Himatione wilsoni Rothschild, 1893, when both are included in the genus Hemignathus. Pratt (2010: 656, 657) included Hematione wilsoni in Chlorodrepanis virens and therefore again used Hemignathus wilsoni for this form.

  • Loxops ochracea Rothschild

  • Loxops ochracea Rothschild, 1893f: 112 (Island of Mauai).

    Now Loxops coccineus ochraceus Rothschild, 1893. See Rothschild, 1900: 173–176, pl. 64; Amadon, 1950: 168; Greenway, 1968: 99; American Ornithologists' Union, 1998: 677; Dickinson, 2003: 759; Pratt, 2005: 226–229; and Pratt, 2010: 653.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 453428, adult male, collected on Maui ( =  Mauai) Island, Hawaii, on 20–26 September 1892, by Henry Palmer (no. 1770). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Rothschild did not designate a type in the original description but described both male and female; later, he (Rothschild, 1900: 174) said that Palmer “sent a fair series.” Hartert (1919a: 170) listed as the type of L. ochracea an adult male bearing Palmer's no. 1770, thereby designating it the lectotype. The date on the Rothschild type label is 20–26 September 1892, and this is the date given by Hartert, but the “26” has been scratched off the type label. The following paralectotypes, collected by Palmer on Maui in 1892, are in AMNH: males, AMNH 453429 (Palmer no. 1772), AMNH 453430 (1771), 25 September; AMNH 453431 (1798), 30 October; AMNH 453432 (1738), 15 August; AMNH 453433 (1709), AMNH 453434 (1706), 10 August; AMNH 453435 (1705), 9 August; AMNH 453436 (1701), 7 August; AMNH 453437 (1691), 5 August; AMNH 453438 (1687), 4 August; AMNH 453439 (1669), 3 August. Females, AMNH 453440 (1732), 13 August; AMNH 453441 (1702), 9 August; AMNH 453442 (1686), 4 August; AMNH 453443 (1692), 5 August; AMNH 453444 (1685), 4 August; AMNH 453445 (1673), 3 August; AMNH 453446 (1710), 10 August; unsexed, AMNH 453447 (1720), 10 August; female, AMNH 453448 (1796), 30 October. Other specimens may be in BMNH from the Rothschild Bequest.

    Palmer mentioned in his diary (Rothschild, 1900: (Di)) that on 6 August 1892 he started for the crater of Mt. Haleakala (20.43N, 156.10W, Times atlas). By 2 September he was on his way down the mountain; by 23 September he had reached Kipahulu (20.39.N, 156.04W, Times atlas), where he stayed until 28 September.

    Pratt (2010: 653) accorded Loxops ochraceus full species status. L. coccineus ochraceus is probably extinct.

  • Loxops wolstenholmei Rothschild

  • Loxops wolstenholmei Rothschild, 1893d: lvi (Island of Oahu, Sandwich group).

    Now Loxops coccineus wolstenholmei Rothschild, 1893. See Rothschild, 1900: 177–178, pl. 65; Mathews, 1930: 812; Amadon, 1950: 168; Greenway, 1968: 99; Olson, 1986: 148–149; Olson, 1996: 15; American Ornithologists' Union, 1998: 677; Dickinson, 2003: 759; Pratt, 2005: 226–229; and Pratt, 2010: 647.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 459001, male, collected in the Waialua District, 21.35N, 158.08W (Times atlas), Oahu Island, Hawaii ( =  Sandwich Islands), on 20 April 1893, by Wolstenholme and Palmer (no. 2050). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Rothschild said that the form was “named after Henry Palmer's companion, who shot the only specimen at present known.” The date of collection on the label and the one given by Hartert (1919a: 171) is 24 April, whereas, Rothschild (1900: 178, Di 19) said that the single male was shot by Wolstenholme on 20 April. Plate 65, reproduced on the cover of this bulletin, shows front and back views of this single specimen (Rothschild, 1900: 178).

    Palmer's diary (Rothschild, 1900: (Di)) indicates that he spent the period from 21 March–3 May 1893 in the Waialua district.

    Beginning with Rothschild (1900: 177), wolstenholmei had been considered a synonym of Fringilla rufa Bloxam, 1827, but as Olson (1986: 148–149) showed, that name is a junior homonym of Fringilla rufa A. Wilson, 1811, which is in turn a synonym of F. iliaca Merrem, 1786. As such Bloxam's name is unavailable (ICZN, 1999: 59, Art. 57.2), and Rothschild's name must be used. Also see Olson (1996) for his discussion of Bloxam's specimens from the voyage of H.M.S. Blonde and publication of Bloxam's notes.

    This subspecies is extinct.

  • Oreomyza perkinsi Rothschild

  • Oreomyza perkinsi Rothschild, 1900: 129 (Puulehua, Hawaii).

    Now considered an intergeneric hybrid between Oreomystis mana and Hemignathus virens virens. See Hartert, 1919a: 171; Bryan and Greenway, 1944: 139; Amadon, 1950: 176–177; and Greenway, 1968: 100.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 453280, male, collected at Puulehua, Kona District, Hawaii Island, Hawaii, on 25 September 1891, by Henry Palmer (no. 1332). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    There is only one example of this supposed hybrid. Rothschild himself thought that it might be a hybrid, others have thought it to be an aberrant individual of one or the other of these two species, and Hartert (1919a: 171) thought that it was “probably a somewhat rare species which has been overlooked.” Amadon (1950: 176–177) placed both of the supposed parental forms in the genus Loxops and considered AMNH 453280 an interspecific hybrid between L. maculata mana and L. v. virens and considered it very close to virens, but with “slight divergences” toward mana. I agree that it is very close to virens morphologically, and given the amount of variation among specimens of virens in AMNH, it may be only an extreme of this variation.

    According to Palmer's diary (Rothschild, 1900: (Di)), Puulehua is the spot at 5000 ft where he set up camp on 22 September 1891 on his way up the slopes of Mauna Loa.

  • Himatione newtoni Rothschild

  • Himatione newtoni Rothschild, 1893c: xlii (Island of Mauai).

    Now Paroreomyza montana newtoni (Rothschild, 1893). See Rothschild, 1893g: 115–116, pl. 56; Amadon, 1950: 166; Greenway, 1968: 100; Dickinson, 2003: 759; Pratt, 2005: 192–195; and Pratt, 2010: 649–650.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 453344, male, collected on Maui ( =  Mauai) Island, Hawaii, on 9 August 1892, by Henry Palmer (no. 1699). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Rothschild did not designate a type in the original description but gave measurements for more than one specimen. Hartert (1919a: 171) listed the type as Palmer's no. 1699, thereby designating it the lectotype of newtoni. It is marked “Type,” “pl. 17” (of unknown significance) by Rothschild. Rothschild (1893g: 115) described adult male and female and young birds and noted that it “was discovered by Palmer on the 16th of July, 1892, in the thick forest on the slopes of Mount Haleakala, in the district of Makawao.” The following paralectotypes, collected by Palmer on Maui in 1892, are in AMNH: males, AMNH 453345 (Palmer no. 1700), 3 August, AMNH 453346 (1693), 5 August, AMNH 453347 (1675), immature, 3 August, AMNH 453348 (1658), 18 July, AMNH 453349 (1648), immature, 16 July; females, AMNH 453350 (1656), immature, 18 July, AMNH 453351 (1657), 18 July, AMNH 453352 (1647), 17 July, AMNH 354353 (1655), young, 18 June, AMNH 453354 (1713), 10 August; unsexed, AMNH 453355 (1733), 13 August, AMNH 453356 (1677), 3 August, AMNH 453357 (1754), 17 August, AMNH 453358 (1775), 26 September; probable Palmer specimen without data, AMNH 453359. AMNH 453350 is also marked “pl. 17” of unknown significance. AMNH 453357 was originally identified as newtoni by Rothschild and would have been part of his type series for the species. It was later reidentified as Loxops virens wilsoni and is included with that form in the AMNH collection. There may be other specimens in BMNH from the Rothschild Bequest.

    Henry Palmer's diary (Rothschild, 1900: (Di)) noted that on 8 July 1892 he was camped north of Olinda (20.48N, 156.16W, Times atlas) and by 1 August, he was camped at 5000 ft on his way up Mount Haleakala.

  • Pseudonestor xanthophrys Rothschild

  • Pseudonestor xanthophrys Rothschild, 1893b: xxxvi (Island of Mauai, Sandwich Islands).

    Now Pseudonestor xanthophrys Rothschild, 1893. See Rothschild, 1900: 187–188, pl. 67; Amadon, 1950: 169; Greenway, 1968: 101; Dickinson, 2003: 758; Pratt, 2005: 257–259; and Pratt, 2010: 657.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 453557, adult male, collected on Maui ( =  Mauai) Island, Hawaii ( =  Sandwich Islands), on 4 August 1892, by Henry Palmer (no. 1690). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Rothschild did not designate a type in the original description, describing male and female without giving the number of his specimens. Hartert (1919a: 170) listed as the type of xanthophrys Palmer's specimen no. 1690, thereby designating it the lectotype. It is marked “Type” and “Recd Jan. 1893” by Rothschild. The following paralectotypes, collected by Palmer on Maui in 1892, are in AMNH: AMNH 453558 (Palmer no. 1661), male, 3 August; AMNH 453559 (1744), male, 16 August; AMNH 453560 (1739), female, 15 August; AMNH 453561 (1665), female (“type”), 3 August; AMNH 453562 (1663), unsexed, 3 August; AMNH 453563 (1662), female, no date. AMNH 453558 is marked “Figured in book” and “pl. 30” of unknown significance. There may be other specimens in BMNH from the Rothschild Bequest. Rothschild (1893b: xxxv) also introduced the generic name Pseudonestor with P. xanthophrys the type species.

    Rothschild (1900: 187–188) noted that Palmer had secured a small number of specimens of xanthophrys in July and August 1892 in the highest forest on “Haleopala.” Palmer's diary (Rothschild, 1900: (Di)) indicated that 1–6 August he was camped at 5000 ft on his way to the crater of Mount Haleakala, 20.43N, 155.56W (Times atlas).

  • Psittirostra olivacea Rothschild

  • Psittirostra psittacea deppei Rothschild

  • Psittirostra olivacea Rothschild, 1900: 193 (Oahu).

    Psittirostra psittacea deppei Rothschild, 1905: 45, nomen novum.

    Now Psittirostra psittacea (Gmelin, 1789). See Mathews, 1930: 815; Bryan and Greenway, 1944: 134–135; Amadon, 1950: 170–172; Dickinson, 2003: 758; Pratt, 2005: 213–216; and Pratt, 2010: 651.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 458998, male, collected on Oahu, on 30 October 1846, by Prof. Behn (no. 111) on the ship Galathea. From the Kiel Museum (no. 1274H) via the Rothschild Museum.

    Comments. Rothschild (1900: 193) introduced Psittirostra olivacea as the name for Psittina olivacea, a nomen nudum introduced by Lichtenstein in 1854 (see Mauersberger, 1988: 134). Rothschild had a male and a female of this form, received on exchange from the Kiel Museum and listed many other specimens known to him.

    Later, Rothschild (1905: 45) introduced the replacement name, Psittirostra psittacea deppei, after C.W. Richmond notified him that olivacea was preoccupied, having been used as “an amended name for Psittirostra psittacea (Gm.)” by Ranzani in 1823.

    Hartert (1919a: 170) listed the type of both names as the male in the Rothschild Collection with the numbers 111 and 1274H, thereby designating it the lectotype. There are two additional numbers on the Galathea label, “no. 68 Sch” and “92” of unknown significance. Hartert incorrectly listed Rothschild's name olivacea as having been described as a subspecies of P. psittacea; Rothschild described it as a full species.

    There is one paralectotype in AMNH: AMNH 458999, female, Oahu, 29 October 1846, collected by Behn (no. 109, and “no. 68 Sch”); Kiel Museum no. 1274g. Other Galathea expedition specimens came directly to AMNH and were not part of the Rothschild Collection.

    The species is probably extinct.

  • Telespyza flavissima Rothschild

  • Telespyza flavissima Rothschild, 1892: 110 (Laysan Island, Sandwich group).

    Now Telespiza cantans S.B. Wilson, 1890. See Rothschild, 1893g: 5–7, pls. 10, 11; Rothschild, 1900: 305; Amadon, 1950: 172; Greenway, 1968: 102; Olson and James, 1986: 84–86; Dickinson, 2003: 758; Pratt, 2005: 198–200; and Pratt, 2010: 650.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 453646, adult male, collected on Laysan Island, 25.46N, 171.44W (Times atlas), Hawaii, on 18 June 1891, by Henry Palmer (no. 1095). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Rothschild did not designate a type in the original description, describing male and female without listing his specimens. Hartert (1919a: 169) gave Palmer's no. 1095 for the type of flavissima, thereby designating it the lectotype; it had been marked “Type” by Rothschild. The following paralectotypes, collected by Palmer on Laysan, are in AMNH: AMNH 453647 (Palmer no. 1096), male, undated; AMNH 453648 (1094), unsexed, undated; AMNH 453668 (1156), female [male], undated; AMNH 453669 (1095), female, undated; AMNH 453670 (1097), female, 18 June 1891; AMNH 453671 (1144), female, 19 June 1891. Other paralectotypes may be in BMNH as part of the Rothschild Bequest.

    See Olson and James (1986: 85) and David et al. (2009: 5) for the correct spelling of Telespiza.

  • Rhodacanthis Palmeri Rothschild

  • Rhodacanthis Palmeri Rothschild, 1892: 111 (Kona, Hawai, Sandwich Islands).

    Rhodacanthis palmeri Rothschild, 1892. See Rothschild, 1900: 203–204, pl. 68; Amadon, 1950: 172; Greenway, 1968: 102; Olson, 1999; Dickinson, 2003: 758; Pratt, 2005: 207–209; and Pratt, 2010: 647.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 453628, adult male, collected in the Kona District, Hawaii ( =  Hawai) Island, Hawaii ( =  Sandwich Islands), on 5 October 1891, by Henry Palmer (no. 1380). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Rothschild described adult male, adult female, and young male but did not designate a type. Hartert (1919a: 169) cited Palmer's no. 1380 for the type, thereby designating it the lectotype of palmeri; it is marked “Type” by Rothschild. The following paralectotypes, collected by Palmer on Hawaii Island in 1891, are in AMNH: males, AMNH 453623 (Palmer no. 1624), 26 June, AMNH 453624 (1582), 19 March, AMNH 453625 (1587), 21 March, AMNH 453626 (1586), 21 March, AMNH 453627 (1579); immature [adult female?], 21 November, AMNH 453629 (1371); juvenile, 3 October, AMNH 453630 (1381); immature, 6 October, AMNH 453631 (1370), 3 October, AMNH 453632 (1402), 10 October, AMNH 453633 (1412), 11 October, AMNH 453634 (1442), 16 October, AMNH 453635 (1448), 20 October; females, AMNH 453636 (1361), 1 October, AMNH 453637 (1346), 29 September, AMNH 453638 (1404), 11 October. AMNH 453631 is marked “Cotype” by Rothschld. AMNH 453623 bears a separate label reading: “skull, humeri, and one tarsus removed and specimen remade by J.P. Angle, USNM. Skull replaced by cast” (see Olson et al., 1987). Other specimens may be in BMNH from the Rothschild Bequest.

    Palmer's diary (Rothschild, 1900: (Di)) indicated that he was on the slopes of Mauna Loa on 5 October 1891. Munro's journal, transcribed by Storrs Olson, indicated that the type of H. palmeri was indeed collected on 5 October (S. Olson, personal commun.).

    The species is extinct.

  • Rhodacanthis flaviceps Rothschild

  • Rhodacanthis flaviceps Rothschild, 1892: 111 (Kona, Hawai, Sandwich group).

    Now Rhodacanthis flaviceps Rothschild, 1892. See Rothschild, 1900: 205, pl. 69; Amadon, 1950: 172–173; Greenway, 1968: 102; Olson, 1999; Dickinson, 2003: 758; and Pratt, 2005: 209–210.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 453640, adult male, collected in the Kona District, Hawaii ( =  Hawai) Island, Hawaii, on 1 October 1891, by Henry Palmer (no. 1360). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Rothschild did not designate a type in the original description, describing adult male, adult female, and young male. Hartert (1919a: 169) noted that Palmer sent eight specimens and listed Palmer's specimen no. 1360 as the type of flaviceps, thereby designating it the lectotype. A note by Amadon on a label added to the type: “Unique–the only ad. ♂ of this extinct species ever collected,” and on the reverse someone has written: “No! Is one in London” ( =  BMNH). A male and a female are in BMNH from the Rothschild Bequest. The following paralectotypes, collected by Palmer on Hawaii Island in 1891, are in AMNH: male, AMNH 453641 (Palmer no. 1384), 6 October; females, AMNH 453642 (1444), 19 October, AMNH 453643 (1421), 13 October, AMNH 453644 (1413), 10 October, AMNH 453645 (1383), 6 October. A separate tag is attached to AMNH 453644: “skull, humeri, and one tarsus removed and skin remade by J.P. Angle, USNM. Skull replaced by cast” (see Olson et al., 1987).

    Palmer's diary (Rothschild, 1900: (Di)) indicated that on 1 October 1891 he was on the slopes of Mauna Loa. According to Munro's journal, the type of flaviceps was almost certainly collected on 30 September (S. Olson, personal commun.). As noted by Olson (1999: 16) the dates written by Palmer on his labels did not necessarily refer to the date the specimen was actually collected, but might instead indicate the date the specimen was skinned or even the date when the label was written. Olson's transcription of Munro's journal often provided a more exact date of collection.

    The species is extinct.

    VIREONIDAE, CYCLARHINAE

  • Cyclarhis flaviventris nicaraguae Miller and Griscom

  • Cyclarhis flaviventris nicaraguae Miller and Griscom, 1925: 6 (Matagalpa, 2200 ft, Nicaragua).

    Now Cyclarhis gujanensis nicaraguae Miller and Griscom, 1925. See Hellmayr, 1935: 196; Blake, 1968: 104; Dickinson, 2003: 482; Martínez-Sánchez and Will, 2010: 84–85; and Brewer, 2010: 415.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 144472, adult male, collected at Matagalpa, 2200 ft, 12.52N, 85.58W (Times atlas), Nicaragua, on 21 April 1917 by W. DeW. Miller and Ludlow Griscom (no. 530).

    Comments:

    The AMNH number of the holotype was cited in the original description, the authors examining eight males and seven females, including the type. The following 14 specimens, as well as one juvenile male specimen that was available to Miller and Griscom, are paratypes: collected by W.B. Richardson, AMNH 101398, male, Leon, 30 April 1907; AMNH 101399, 101400, males, Volcan de Chinandega, 15 May 1907; AMNH 101401, female, Matagalpa, 7 March 1907; AMNH 102967, male, Ocotal, 3 May 1908; AMNH 103777, female, Uluce, 31 July 1909. Collected by Miller, Griscom and Richardson, in 1917, AMNH 144468, male, Matagalpa, 16 March; AMNH 144469, female, Jinotega, 21 March; AMNH 144470, female, San Rafael del Norte, 24 March; AMNH 144471, female, Matagalpa, 13 April; AMNH 144473, male, 4 mi NE Chinandega, 11 June; AMNH 144474, 144475, females, Corinto, 15, 16 June; AMNH 144476, male juvenile, Corinto, 17 June. Collected by Richardson, AMNH 423551, male, Matagalpa, 25 January 1917.

  • Cyclorhis (sic) coibae Hartert

  • Cyclorhis (sic) coibae Hartert, 1901e: 33 (Coiba Island, off Panama).

    Now Cyclarhis gujanensis coibae Hartert, 1901. See Hellmayr, 1935: 197–198; Blake, 1968: 105; Wetmore et al., 1984: 203–204; Dickinson, 2003: 482; Olson, 2008; and Brewer, 2010: 415.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 505413, [immature] male, Coiba Island, 07.28N, 81.47W (Siegel and Olson, 2008), Veragua Archipelago, Panama (Col. S.A., as on label), on 20 April 1901, by J.H. Batty. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Hartert, in the original description, did not designate a type or say how many specimens he examined from Coiba Island. Later, he (Hartert, 1920: 456) listed the adult male collected on 20 April 1901 as the type, thereby designating it the lectotype. Both Hellmayr (1935: 197) and Wetmore et al. (1984: 204) mention the fact that this type specimen is immature, based largely on the fact that it has a uniform blackish brown bill. Neither the original Batty label nor the Rothschild label indicated that the bird was immature. However, Hartert wrote “ad ♂” on the Rothschild type label of AMNH 505413, confirming that it was his intended type specimen.

    Two male specimens from the Rothschild Collection, collected by Batty on 20 April 1901, were cataloged at AMNH. The second specimen, AMNH 505414, is a paralectotype. Hartert made no comment on the Batty or Rothschild labels as to the age of this specimen. It was also examined by Hellmayr, who commented that it was fully adult, with the “bill pale horn brown with a plumbeous spot at the base of the lower mandible.”

    Ornithologists have long been suspicious of Batty's collecting localities on the islands off Panama (Wetmore, 1957: 6–8), and Olson (2008) has studied the Batty specimens that were bought by Rothschild, showing that many of the localities were falsified. That the two Coiba Island specimens of C. coibae did come from that island was verified by Wetmore (1957: 82–83) when he visited the island and collected it there. The form is still considered valid.

  • Cyclorhis (sic) flavipectus trinitatis Allen

  • Cyclorhis (sic) flavipectus trinitatis Allen, 1889a: 131, 134, 135 (Island of Trinidad and Venezuelan coast region?).

    Now Cyclarhis gujanensis flavipectus P.L. Sclater, 1859. See Chapman, 1894: 26–27; and Hellmayr, 1935: 198–200.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 40154, AMNH 40155, unsexed, collected on Trinidad Island, Trinidad and Tobago, undated. From the George N. Lawrence Collection.

    Comments:

    Allen did not designate a type in the original description, saying only that he had examined 10 specimens from Trinidad. The above specimens seem to be the only specimens that were in AMNH at the time trinitatis was described, and they are marked “Type” in Allen's hand and bear AMNH type labels. Allen (1889a: 130) borrowed widely for the specimens used in his study, and the other eight syntypes probably lie unrecognized in other museums.

    Allen thought that the type locality of C. flavipectus was Santa Marta, Colombia, but Chapman (1894: 26–27) noted that the type of Sclater's C. flavipectus was from Trinidad and that Allen's trinitatis was a synonym. Zimmer (1942a: 15) noted that two “cotypes” of trinitatis were in AMNH.

  • Cyclarhis flavipectus parvus Chapman

  • Cyclarhis flavipectus parvus Chapman, 1917b: 541 (Villavicencio (alt. 1600 ft), Colombia).

    Now Cyclarhis gujanensis parva Chapman, 1917. See Hellmayr, 1935: 199–200; Zimmer, 1942a: 14–15; Blake, 1968: 105; Dickinson, 2003: 482; and Brewer, 2010: 415.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 122537, adult male, collected at Villavicencio, 1600 ft, 04.09N, 73.37W (Paynter, 1997), base of eastern Andes, Meta, Colombia, on 7 March 1913, by George K. Cherrie (no. 16454).

    Comments:

    Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed the specimens he examined (including the type). The following paratypes are in AMNH: Venezuela, Cristobal Colon, AMNH 121034–121040, five males, two females, 30 May–17 June 1913, Leo Miller and F.X. Iglseder (these specimens are now considered C. f. flavipectus, see Zimmer, 1942a: 14); Cumanacoa, AMNH 68085, 73302, males, 30 and 29 June 1896, W.H. Phelps (nos. 1139 and 1115); San Antonio, AMNH 73303, male, 30 July 1896, W.H. Phelps (no. 1453); Maripa, AMNH 78486–78488, two males, one female, 6 December 1901–18 February 1902; Maipures, AMNH 121041, 121042, females, 16 January and 28 April 1913, Leo Miller and F.X. Iglseder. Colombia, Villavicencio, AMNH 122536, male, 14 March 1913, Chapman, Cherrie et al.; Buena Vista, AMNH 122538, female, AMNH 122539, male, 3–14 March 1913, Chapman, Cherrie et al. AMNH 121040 was exchanged to the BIM (no. 12536) and later, when the BIM bird collection was donated to AMNH, it was renumbered AMNH 439855. Of the specimens Chapman listed, I found only one of two from San Antonio and one of two from Villavicencio in addition to the type; Zimmer (1942a: 16) had also found only one from Villavicencio additional to the type.

  • Cyclorhis (sic) cearensis Baird

  • Cyclorhis (sic) cearensis Baird, 1866: 391 (Bahia and Ceara, Brazil).

    Now Cyclarhis gujanensis cearensis Baird, 1866. See Allen, 1889a: 123–130, fig. 4; Hellmayr, 1935: 202–204; Zimmer, 1942a: 15; Deignan, 1961: 480; Dickinson, 2003: 482; and Brewer, 2010: 415.

    Syntype:

    AMNH 40156, unsexed, collected in Bahia, Brazil, undated. From the George N. Lawrence Collection (no. 179).

    Comments:

    In the original description, Baird listed three specimens in his type series, two of these are in USNM and are listed as [syn]types by Deignan (1961: 480); the third specimen listed by Baird is the above specimen, no. 179 in the Lawrence Collection. This specimen bears an AMNH type label, apparently attached by Allen (1889a: 123–130). In his treatment of Cyclarhis viridis, Allen synonymized cearensis with viridis, but in fig. 4 (p. 125) noted that the specimen pictured (“No. 179, Coll. Lawrence”) was a type of cearensis. For some reason, probably because Hellmayr (1935: 202) noted that the “type” of cearensis was in USNM, Zimmer (1942a: 15), in his list of Bahia skins of cearensis, called the above specimen a paratype, and someone, perhaps Zimmer, has so annotated the AMNH type label. On the reverse of the AMNH type label is the following pencilled comment: “This is not a type! Type from Ceara see reference above. G.K.C[herrie].” The “reference above” is a reference to Baird's description of cearensis, which includes Bahia specimen no. 179 from the Lawrence Collection about which he (Baird, 1866: 391) says: “A specimen from Bahia (thus likewise from the easternmost part of Brazil) is quite similar” to the Ceará specimens. Thus, as no holotype was designated by Baird, and Deignan (1961: 480) listed syntypes, indicating that no lectotype had been designated, the above specimen retains its syntype status.

  • Cyclarhis gujanensis dorsalis J.T. Zimmer

  • Cyclarhis gujanensis dorsalis J.T. Zimmer, 1942a: 13 (Parotani, Cochabamba, Bolivia, altitude, 8800 feet).

    Now Cyclarhis gujanensis dorsalis J.T. Zimmer, 1942. See Blake, 1968: 107; Dickinson, 2003: 482; and Brewer, 2010: 415.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 137910, adult male, collected at Parotani, 17.34S, 66.21W (Paynter, 1992), 8800 ft, Cochabamba, Bolivia, on 27 June 1915, by Leo Miller (12628) and Howarth Boyle.

    Comments:

    Zimmer gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description, and (on p. 15) listed the specimens of dorsalis that he examined. The paratypes, all collected by Miller and Boyle in 1915, are: Pulque, AMNH 139567, male, 6 November; Río Cachimayo, AMNH 139574, male, 7 December; Parotani, AMNH 137908, male, 29 June, AMNH 137909, female, 27 June; Tujma, AMNH 139572, 139573, males, 23, 24 June; Chilon, AMNH 139568, 139569, males, 6,8 October; Valle Grande, AMNH 139570, female, AMNH 139571, male, 31 October; California, AMNH 139566, female, 15 October.

  • Cyclarhis nigrirostris mindoensis Chapman

  • Cyclarhis nigrirostris mindoensis Chapman, 1924: 1 (Mindo, western Ecuador).

    Now Cyclarhis nigrirostris atrirostris P.L. Sclater, 1887. See Chapman, 1926: 592; Hellmayr, 1935: 210–211; Blake, 1968: 108; Dickinson, 2003: 482; and Brewer, 2010: 415.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 180646, adult male, collected at Mindo, 00.02S, 78.48W (Paynter, 1993), Pichincha, western Ecuador, on 2 August 1923, by Olalla and sons.

    Comments:

    Chapman gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed three additional specimens in his type series. Paratypes: Ecuador, Mindo, AMNH 180644, female, AMNH 180645, male, 15 August 1923, by the Olallas. Colombia, Ricaurte, AMNH 118107, male, 14 September 1912, by W.B. Richardson. Chapman (1926: 592) noted the syonymy of his mindoensis with atrirostris.

    VIREONIDAE, VIREOLANIINAE

  • Vireolanius melitophrys crossini Phillips

  • Vireolanius melitophrys crossini Phillips, 1991: 166 (Chimicotitlán, ESE of Chilpancingo, Guerrero, ca. 17°22′30″N 99°22′30″W).

    Now Vireolanius melitophrys crossini Phillips, 1991. See Dickerman and Parkes, 1997: 230; Dickinson, 2003: 482; and Brewer, 2010: 416.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 831494, male [immature?], collected at Chimicotitlán, ca. 17°22′30″N, 99°22′30″W, ESE of Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mexico, on 13 February 1976, by Sóstenes Romero H.

    Comments:

    Although there was no number or year given or place of deposit mentioned in Phillips' description of crossini, this specimen is marked “crossini type” by Phillips on the Phillips Collection label. The AMNH number of the holotype is given by Dickerman and Parkes (1997: 230). Phillips gave measurements for males and females and said that the form was resident in “coastal mts of Michoacán, Guerrero, and Sn Oaxaca, and probably coastally from Sn Jalisco (Sa. de Autlán  =  Miahuatlán) all the way to Veracruz, etc.,” but did not enumerate his specimens. The holotype is the only specimen that came to AMNH.

  • Vireolanius pulchellus viridiceps Ridgway

  • Vireolanius pulchellus viridiceps Ridgway, 1903: 108 (Panama).

    Now Vireolanius pulchellus viridiceps Ridgway, 1903. See Hellmayr, 1935: 189; Blake, 1968: 109; Wetmore et al., 1984: 207–208; Dickinson, 2003: 482; and Brewer, 2010: 416.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 40148, female, collected in Panama, in 1882, by J. McLeannan (no. 314). From the George N. Lawrence Collection.

    Comments:

    Ridgway cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description but did not give the number of specimens he examined. McLeannan was the stationmaster at the Lion Hill station of the Panama Railroad and that is usually considered the type locality of new forms collected by him. No other specimens were mentioned by Ridgway and there are no other specimens of this form in AMNH collected early enough to have been seen by him.

  • Vireolanius mikettae Hartert

  • Vireolanius mikettae Hartert, 1900c: 38 (Paramba, North Ecuador, 3500 feet alt.).

    Now Vireolanius leucotis mikettae Hartert, 1900. See Hellmayr, 1935: 193; Blake, 1968: 110; Dickinson, 2003: 482; and Brewer, 2010: 417.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 505383, adult male, collected at Hacienda Paramba ( =  Paramba), 3500 ft, 00.49N, 78.21W (Paynter, 1993), Imbabura, Ecuador, on 23 July 1899, by R. Miketta (no. 483). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Hartert did not designate a type in the original description, but later he (Hartert, 1902f: 616) noted he had the single specimen.

    VIREONIDAE, VIREONINAE

  • Vireo huttoni vulcani Griscom

  • Vireo huttoni vulcani Griscom, 1930: 3 (Quetzaltenango (8500 ft), Guatemala).

    Now Vireo huttoni vulcani Griscom, 1930. See Hellmayr, 1935: 121; Blake, 1968: 113; Dickinson, 2003: 484; and Brewer, 2010: 427.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 399263, adult male, collected at Quezaltenango, 8500 ft, 14.50N, 91.20W (Times atlas), Guatemala, on 22 November 1919, by Austin Paul Smith (no. 19044). From the Jonathan Dwight Collection (no. 56442).

    Comments:

    In the original description, Griscom cited the Dwight Collection number of the holotype and listed 19 specimens that he examined, including the type. The following 14 paratypes are in AMNH: Quetzaltenango, AMNH 399260 (Dwight no. 56439), male, AMNH 399261 (56446), female, AMNH 399262 (56440), male, AMNH 399264 (56447), female, AMNH 399265 (56441), male, 17–27 November 1919, by Austin Paul Smith. By A.W. Anthony, Momostenango, AMNH 396576 (58842), female, AMNH 396577 (58843), male, 24 and 25 December 1924; Zanjon, AMNH 396578 (58844), male, AMNH 396579 (58845), sex?, 9 January 1925; Chichicastenango, AMNH 396580 (60439), male, 7 February 1925; Tecpam, AMNH 396581 (63998), AMNH 396582 (63999), males, AMNH 396583 (64001), AMNH 396584 (64002), females, 21–27 July 1926. One male from Tecpam and two males and one female from Quetzaltenango listed by Griscom were not cataloged at AMNH and are probably at MCZ.

  • Vireosylva chivi caucae Chapman

  • Vireosylva chivi caucae Chapman, 1912: 159 (Cali, Cauca, Colombia).

    Now Vireo olivaceus caucae (Chapman, 1912). See Chapman, 1917b: 539; Hellmayr, 1935: 139; Zimmer, 1941: 10; Blake, 1968: 123; Dickinson, 2003: 484–485; and Brewer, 2010: 430–431.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 109126, adult male, collected at Cali, 3500 ft, 03.27N, 76.31W (Paynter, 1997), Valle del Cauca, Colombia, on 10 May 1911, by F.M. Chapman and W.B. Richardson.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype and noted that he had nine specimens of caucae from the Cauca Valley and adjoining mountains; however, I found only eight specimens had been cataloged at AMNH, including the holotype. The seven paratypes in AMNH, all from Cauca and collected by Richardson or Richardson and Chapman, are: Caldas, 2000 ft, AMNH 107339, male, 18 November 1910; Las Lomitas, 5000 ft, AMNH 108341, male, 26 February 1911; Los Cisneros, 600 ft, AMNH 108342, female, 18 March 1911; Cali, 3600 ft, AMNH 108343, female; Cali, 3500 ft, AMNH 109125, female, 10 May 1911; Palmira, 3500 ft, AMNH 109127, female, 22 May 1911; E. of Palmira, 6800 ft, AMNH 109128, male, 24 April 1911. Chapman (1912: 140) borrowed material from several institutions, and perhaps the other paratype is a specimen he borrowed.

  • Vireo olivaceus pectoralis J.T. Zimmer

  • Vireo olivaceus pectoralis J.T. Zimmer, 1941: 11 (Pucará, Río Huancabamba, northern Perú; altitude 2850 feet).

    Now Vireo olivaceus pectoralis J.T. Zimmer, 1941. See Blake, 1968: 123–124; Dickinson, 2003: 484–485; and Brewer, 2010; 430–431.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 186051, adult male, collected at Pucará, 2850 ft, 06.00S, 79.07W (Stephens and Traylor, 1983), Río Huancabamba, Cajamarca, northern Peru, on 26 September 1924, by Harry Watkins (no. 8612).

    Comments:

    Zimmer cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and (on p. 13) listed the specimens of pectoralis he examined. Paratypes in AMNH, all collected by Watkins: Pucará, AMNH 186047, female, 26 September 1924; Huarandosa, AMNH 182192, sex?, AMNH 182193, female, AMNH 182194, male, 6–10 September 1923; Perico, AMNH 182195, male, AMNH 182196, 182197, females, AMNH 182198, male, 14–25 July 1923; San Ignacio, AMNH 181587, female, AMNH 181588, sex?, AMNH 181589, 181590, males, AMNH 181591, female, 3–18 May 1923; Cabico, Río Chamaya, AMNH 186048, female, 21 September 1924; Sauces, Río Chamaya, AMNH 186049, 186050, males, 15–16 September 1924; Jaen, AMNH 186045, 186046, females, 6 August 1924; Lomo Santo, AMNH 186044, female, 28 May 1924. AMNH 186045 is apparently the specimen Zimmer (1941: 13, fn. 2) exchanged with SMF, although the catalog was not so marked. Two paratypes from Hacienda Limón were on loan from FMNH.

  • Vireo olivaceus diversus J.T. Zimmer

  • Vireo olivaceus diversus J.T. Zimmer, 1941: 7 (Roca Nova, Paraná, Brazil, altitude 930–1150 meters).

    Now Vireo olivaceus diversus J.T. Zimmer, 1941. See Blake, 1968: 124–125; Dickinson, 2003: 484–485; and Brewer, 2010: 430–431.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 504979, adult male, Roça Nova, 930–1150 m., Serra do Mar, 25.00S, 48.00W (Paynter and Traylor, 1991), Paraná, Brazil, on 12 October 1901, by Alphonse Robert (no. 669). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Zimmer cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed (on p. 14) the specimens he examined. The following paratypes are in AMNH: Brazil, Paraná, Roça Nova, AMNH 504976–504978, 504980–504983, five males, two females, 3 October–5 November 1901, by A. Robert; Guayra, AMNH 319051–319053, one female, two sex?, 15–17 April 1930, by E. Kaempfer; Porto Almeida, AMNH 319046–319050, two males, three females, 21–29 March 1930, by E. Kaempfer; Corvo, AMNH 319038–319045, four males, two females, two sex?, 7–21 February 1930, by E. Kaempfer. Brazil, São Paulo, Ubatuba, AMNH 140133, female, March 1905, from Museu Paulista (no. 5336); Itapura, AMNH 140132, male, September 1904, from Museu Paulista (no. 4877); Fazenda Cayoá, AMNH 504984, 504985, males 14 September and 22 October 1903, by Hempel; Estaçao de Rio Grande, AMNH 140134, 140135, males, 1905, from Museu Paulista (–); São Sebastião, AMNH 379255, male, 24 September 1901, from the Dwight Collection no. 22939). Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Mt. Itatiaya, Monte Serrat, AMNH 189243, male, 24 December 1921, by E.G. Holt. Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, Nonohay, AMNH 322124–322130, three males, two females, two sex?, 14 February–3 March 1929; Lagôa Vermelha, AMNH 322122, 322123, two males, 30 December 1928; Erebango, AMNH 322110, 322111, one male, one sex?, 4 April 1929; Sananduva, AMNH 322107, male, 6 January 1929; Sinimbu, AMNH 322112–322115, 4 males, 30 September 1928; São Francisco de Paula, AMNH 322116–322121, 322130bis, five males, two females, 10–27 November 1928; Lagôa de Forno, AMNH 322108, 322109, one male, one female, 27–29 October 1928. All of the Rio Grande do Sul specimens were collected by E. Kaempfer. Brazil, Paraguay, Abai, AMNH 320623–320627, two males, one female, two sex?, 5–9 February 1931, by E. Kaempfer. I did not find in AMNH the specimens from Uruguay listed by Zimmer. Paratypes that he listed from Argentina were borrowed from FMNH. Mato Grosso specimens were questionably included in diversus and are not considered paratypes.

  • Vireosylvia (sic) atripennis Lawrence

  • Vireosylvia (sic) atripennis Lawrence, 1863: 106 (Sombrero Island, W.I.).

    Now Vireo altiloquus altiloquus (Vieillot, 1808). See Baird, 1866: 330–331; Hellmayr, 1935: 146–148; Blake, 1968: 125–126; Dickinson, 2003: 485; and Brewer, 2010: 432.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 40076, sex?, collected on Sombrero Island, 18.37N, 63.26W (Times atlas), administered by Anguilla I., Lesser Antilles, West Indies, on 19 April 1862, by A.A. Julien. From the George N. Lawrence Collection.

    Comments:

    Lawrence apparently had the single specimen and remarked that “the most distinguishing character is the black quill feathers.” Baird (1866: 330–331) was convinced the darker coloration was due “in part at least, to a blackish foreign matter, partly deposited in grains, which can be rubbed off, and is removable to a considerable extent by benzine, but not by water. After washing the quills on one side in benzine, I found no appreciable difference there from V. calidris [ =  V. altiloquus] of Jamaica and St. Croix.” There remains, after Baird's treatment, slight indication of black on the quills. The published measurements are the same as those written by Lawrence on his label, and he has marked it “Type” and “Vireosylvia atripennis.” When Lawrence (1865a: 98) received an additional specimen from Julien, he named it as a different species (see below).

  • Vireosylvia (sic) virginalis Lawrence

  • Vireosylvia (sic) virginalis Lawrence, 1865a: 98 (Island of Sombrero, W.I.).

    Now Vireo altiloquus altiloquus (Vieillot, 1808). See Baird, 1866: 330–331; Hellmayr, 1935: 146–148; Blake, 1968: 125–126; Dickinson, 2003: 485; and Brewer, 2010: 432.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 40077, female, collected on Sombrero Island, 18.37N, 63.26W (Times atlas), Leeward Islands, West Indies, on 1 April 1864, by A.A. Julien. From the George N. Lawrence Collection (no. 142).

    Comments:

    Lawrence noted that he had a single specimen and said “I think it may possibly be distinct; should it so prove on a future comparison I suggest for it the specific name of virginalis.” He did not compare it with his specimen of “V. atripennis,” listed immediately prior to this description (see above). Baird (1866: 330–331) found both of these specimens indistinguishable from V. altiloquus.

  • Vireo gilvus disjunctus J.T. Zimmer

  • Vireo gilvus disjunctus J.T. Zimmer, 1941: 18 (Santa Elena, Antioquia, Colombia; altitude 9000 feet).

    Now Vireo leucophrys dissors J.T. Zimmer, 1941. See Blake, 1968: 128; Olson, 1981: 363–365; Johnson et al., 1988; Dickinson, 2003: 484; and Brewer, 2010: 429–430.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 134056, adult male, collected at Santa Elena, 9000 ft, 06.13N, 69.55W (Paynter, 1997), Antioquia, Colombia, on 18 November 1914, by Leo Miller (no. 10115) and Howarth Boyle.

    Comments:

    Zimmer gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed (on p. 19) the six specimens he examined. The five paratypes are: Santa Elena, AMNH 134057, 134059, 134061–134063, one male and four females, 18 November–2 December 1914, collected by Miller and Boyle; “Bogota,” AMNH 505093, sex?. AMNH 134058 and 134060 were exchanged to other museums before Zimmer named this form and were not part of his type series.

    Olson (1981: 363–365) found that dissors Zimmer (see below) and disjunctus Zimmer were inseparable and, as first revisor, chose dissors to “represent the subspecies of Vireo gilvus inhabiting the entire extent of the Western and Central Andes of Colombia.” Studies by Johnson et al. (1988: 442) supported earlier treatment of leucophrys as a full species, distinct from Vireo gilvus. This has been followed by more recent ornithologists.

  • Vireo josephae mirandae Hartert

  • Vireo josephae mirandae Hartert, 1917: 32 (Galiparo, Cerro del Avila).

    Now Vireo leucophrys mirandae Hartert, 1917. See Hellmayr, 1935: 154–155; Zimmer, 1941: 15; Blake, 1968: 128; Olson, 1981: 363–364; Johnson et al., 1988; Dickinson, 2003: 484; and Brewer, 2010: 429–430.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 505095, adult male, collected at Picacho de Galipán ( =  Galiparo), 2000 m, 10.34N, 66.54W (Paynter, 1982), Pico Avila ( =  Cerro del Avila), Venezuela, on 15 December 1913, by S.M. Klages (no. 1178).

    Comments:

    Hartert cited Klages' unique field number of the holotype in the original description and noted that he had five specimens. The four paratypes are: Picacho de Galipán, AMNH 505096–505098, three females, 18 December 1913–31 January 1914; Loma Redonda, N. coast mountains, AMNH 505099, male, 9 January 1914, all collected by Klages. Several Klages specimens in AMNH from the same localities were never in the Rothschild Collection and are not part of Hartert's type series.

  • Vireo gilvus dissors J.T. Zimmer

  • Vireo gilvus dissors J.T. Zimmer, 1941: 18 (Cerro Munchique, west of Popayan, Colombia, altitude 7000 feet).

    Now Vireo leucophrys dissors J.T. Zimmer, 1941. See Blake, 1968: 129; Olson, 1981: 363–365; Johnson et al., 1988; Dickinson, 2003: 484; and Brewer, 2010: 429–430.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 109938, adult male, collected on Cerro Munchique, 7000 ft, 02.32N, 76.57W (Paynter, 1997), Coast Range west of Popayan, Cauca, Colombia, on 8 June 1911 by W.B. Richardson.

    Comments:

    Zimmer gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed (on p. 19) the 15 specimens he examined. The 14 paratypes are: Cerro Munchique, AMNH 109937, 109939, 109940, two males, one female, 3–7 June 1911, by Richardson; E. of Palmira, AMNH 109129–109132, three males, one female, 19–30 April 1911, by Chapman and Richardson; Primavera, AMNH 505089, female, 1904, by Raap; San Antonio, AMNH 108344, 108345, 109134, three females, 5 February–30 March 1911, by Chapman and Richardson; Salento, AMNH 112614, 112615, two males, 27–29 September 1911, by Allen and Miller; El Eden, AMNH 112613, female, 21 October 1911, by Allen and Miller.

    As noted above under disjunctus, Olson (1981: 363–365), as first revisor, selected dissors as the valid name of the form inhabiting the Western and Central Andes of Colombia, and Johnson et al. (1988), treated leucophrys as a full species.

  • Vireo gilvus maranonicus J.T. Zimmer

  • Vireo gilvus maranonicus J.T. Zimmer, 1941: 17 (Chaupe (near San Ignacio, Rio Chinchipe), northern Perú; altitude 6100 feet).

    Now Vireo leucophrys maranonicus J.T. Zimmer, 1941. See Blake, 1968: 129; Johnson et al., 1988; Dickinson, 2003: 484; and Brewer, 2010: 429–430.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 181593, adult male, collected at Chaupe, 6100 ft, near San Ignacio, 05.08S, 78.59W (Stephens and Traylor, 1983), Río Chinchipe, northern Peru, on 3 February 1923, by Harry Watkins (no. 6908).

    Comments:

    Zimmer gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and (on p. 19) listed the 19 specimens he examined. The 18 paratypes, all collected by Watkins, are: Chaupe, AMNH 181592, 181594–181597, three males, two females, 3 February–16 March 1923; La Lejia, AMNH 235056, male, 19 March 1925; Palambla, AMNH 175545–175550, one male, four females, one sex?, all on 9 October 1922; Taulis, AMNH 236077–236080, two males, two females, 16–19 June 1926; Seques, AMNH 236081, 236082, male, female, 30 July–9 August 1926.

    Johnson et al. (1988) treated leucophrys as a full species, and this has since been followed.

  • [Sylvia poicilotis Wied]

  • AMNH 6762 bears a type label with the Wied name Sylvia poicilotis in what appears to be Allen's hand, but he did not list this name in his (Allen, 1889c) paper on the Maximilian types in AMNH. It is labeled “not a type, J.T.Z[immer].” It is apparent, both from the original Wied label pasted on the reverse of the AMNH label and from Wied (1831: 715) that his use of Sylvia poicilotis is intended as a new combination of Hylophilus poicilotis Temminck. When it was shown not to be that species, Nordmann (1835: 14) introduced the name Sylvia amaurocephalus, based on a Wied specimen in ZMB (Hellmayr, 1935: 159). It is now considered a full species, Hylophilus amaurocephalus (Nordmann, 1835) (see Willis, 1991, Raposo et al., 1998, and Dickinson, 2003: 485). AMNH 6762 had been placed in the general collection, but because it bears an AMNH type label, it has been returned to the type collection with a separate label noting that it is not a type.

  • Hylophilus thoracicus griseiventris Berlepsch and Hartert

  • Hylophilus thoracicus griseiventris Berlepsch and Hartert, 1902: 11 (Suapure).

    Now Hylophilus thoracicus griseiventris Berlepsch and Hartert, 1902. See Hellmayr, 1935: 162–163; Zimmer, 1942a: 1; Blake, 1968: 130; Dickinson, 2003: 485; and Brewer, 2010: 435.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 505219, adult male, collected at Suapure, 07.14N, 65.10W (Paynter, 1982), Bolivar, Venezuela, on 11 February 1899, by Samuel M. Klages.

    Comment:

    In the original description, Berlepsch and Hartert designated as holotype the male specimen collected by Klages and listed their additional specimens of griseiventris as a female collected by Klages at the same time and specimens (without numbers) collected by Whitely in British Guiana. They expressed doubt that a “Bogota” specimen in the Berlepsch Collection belonged with griseiventris and it is not considered a paratype. The only paratype in AMNH is: AMNH 505220, female, collected at Chaupe on the same date by Klages.

    In the original description, the date of collection was written “2.xi.1899,” but Hartert (1920: 456), when listing Rothschild types, wrote the date as “11.ii.1899.” Klages specimens were collected over a broad range of dates, but a spot check of his specimens showed that he generally wrote the month first. In the case of these two specimens, Klages wrote “11/2/1899” and the date was probably 2 November 1899.

  • Pachysylvia semibrunnea leucogastra Chapman

  • Pachysylvia semibrunnea leucogastra Chapman, 1924: 1 (below San José de Sumaco, eastern Ecuador).

    Now Hylophilus semibrunneus Lafresnaye, 1845. See Hellmayr, 1935: 169–170; Dickinson, 2003: 485; and Brewer, 2010: 436–437.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 183578, adult male, collected below San José Nuevo ( =  San José de Sumaco), 00.26S, 77.20W (Paynter, 1993), Napo, Ecuador, on 17 April 1929, by Olalla and sons.

    Comments:

    Chapman gave the AMNH number of the holotype and listed a second specimen. The paratype is: AMNH 179690, adult male, collected below San José de Sumaco, on 25 March 1923, by the Olallas.

  • Hylophilus aurantiifrons Lawrence

  • Hylophilus aurantiifrons Lawrence, 1861b: 324 (Atlantic side of the Isthmus).

    Now Hylophilus aurantiifrons aurantiifrons Lawrence, 1861. See Hellmayr, 1935: 170; Wetmore et al., 1984: 231–233; Dickinson, 2003: 485; and Brewer, 2010: 437.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 40121, adult male, collected on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus, Panama, during the “winter” of 1860–1861, by James McLeannan and John R. Galbraith. From the George N. Lawrence Collection (no. 175).

    Comments:

    Lawrence had the single specimen. Wetmore et al. (1984: 232) restricted the type locality to Frijoles, 09.10N, 79.48W (Siegel and Olson, 2008), Colón, Panama, “since the bird is known to occur at that locality” and McLeannan was known to have collected near there.

  • Pachysylvia aurantiifrons saturata Hellmayr

  • Pachysylvia aurantiifrons saturata Hellmayr, 1906: 12 (San Antonio, Cumaná).

    Now Hylophilus aurantiifrons saturatus (Hellmayr, 1906). See Hartert, 1920: 456; Hellmayr, 1935: 171; Dickinson, 2003: 485; and Brewer, 2010: 437.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 505278, female, collected at Rincón de San Antonio ( =  San Antonio), ca. 10.16S, 63.43W (Paynter, 1982), Venezuela, on 18 March 1898, by Henry Caracciola (no. 978). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Contrary to various authors, including Hellmayr (1935: 171) himself, a holotype was designated in the original description, as a footnote on page 12. The number “978” was cited as a Rothschild Collection number, but Rothschild specimens were not cataloged; this number is Caracciolo's field number. All of the data given match those on AMNH 505278, which bears a Rothschild type label and is the specimen listed by Hartert (1920: 456) as the type of saturatus. Rincón de San Antonio was not definitely located by Paynter (1982), but it is probably on the Sucre/Monagas border and southeast of Cumaná.

    Hellmayr (1906: 12) said that he had 8 males and females from Caparo, collected in April and May (year?) and 14 specimens from the vicinity of Cumaná. The following paratypes in AMNH, from the Rothschild Collection and collected before 1906, are: Venezuela, Strait of Cumaná, Santa Ana Valley, AMNH 505279 (Caracciolo no. 290), AMNH 505280 (287), male, female; 14 February; Campos Alegre Valley, AMNH 505281 (85), AMNH 505282 (51), male, female, 6–7 February; La Tigrera, AMNH 505283 (424), AMNH 505284 (420), two females, 18 February; Quebrada Secca, AMNH 505285 (352), female, 16 February; Celci Puede, AMNH 505286 (1606), female, 5 May; Forest of los Palmales, AMNH 505287 (392), female, 17 February, all collected by H. Caracciolo in 1898. Trinidad, Caparo, AMNH 505292–505297, four males, two females, April–May 1902, all collected by E. André.

    See Phelps (1945: 339) for information on H. Caracciolo.

  • Hylophilus viridiflavus Lawrence

  • Hylophilus viridiflavus Lawrence, 1861b: 324 (Atlantic side of the Isthmus).

    Now Hylophilus flavipes viridiflavus Lawrence, 1861. See Hellmayr, 1935: 174–175; Wetmore et al., 1984: 238–241; Dickinson, 2003: 486; and Brewer, 2010: 437–438.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 40132, female, collected on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus, Panama, during the “winter” of 1860–1861, by James McLeannan and John R. Galbraith. From the George N. Lawrence Collection (nos. 176 and 198).

    Comments:

    The female was described and Galbraith's notes quoted in the description said “Rare; but one obtained, which was found in the jungle.” The number “176” on this specimen is apparently the species number in the Lawrence Collection; “198” is apparently the collectors' number. It is marked “Type” by Lawrence and bears an AMNH type label. Wetmore et al. (1984: 238, 240) restricted the type locality to Frijoles, 09.10N, 79.48W (Siegel and Olson, 2008), Colón, Panama.

    I cannot explain the statement by Wetmore et al. (1984: 241) that McLeannan took “possibly only 3 in addition to the type.” While McLeannan did collect alone both before and after the period when he collected with Galbraith, only a single specimen of viridiflavus came to AMNH with the Lawrence Collection. If other specimens collected by McLeannan alone are found, they are not paratypes, as the single specimen was described.

  • Hylophilus acuticaudus Lawrence

  • Hylophilus acuticaudus Lawrence, 1865b: 37 (Venezuela).

    Now Hylophilus flavipes acuticauda Lawrence, 1865. See Hellmayr, 1935: 175–176; Dickinson, 2003: 486; and Brewer, 2010: 437–438.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 40133, unsexed, collected in Venezuela, by S.C. Nash. From the George N. Lawrence Collection (no. 399).

    Comments:

    Lawrence apparently had the single specimen. The measurements pencilled on his label of this specimen are the same as those given in the original description and it is marked “Type” by Lawrence. Todd (1929b: 198) thought that the holotype of acuticauda came from the coastal region of northern Venezuela and designated Puerto La Cruz, Carabobo, Venezuela, as the type locality. Phelps and Phelps (1963: 302) place this locality in the state of Aragua, and Paynter (1982) in the Distrito Federal at 10.32N, 67.21W.

  • [Hylophilus pallidifrons Dalmas, 1900]

  • AMNH 505337, female, collected at Castare, Tobago Island, on 23 May 1903, by collectors for E. André, bears an AMNH type label, filled in by J.T. Zimmer and marked “?Type” of Hylophilus pallidifrons Dalmas. This was apparently in response to Hellmayr's (1935: 177, text and fn.) remark that the type of this form was in the Rothschild Collection and that he had examined it; he also noted that he had seen four specimens from Castare in addition to the type. Neither this specimen, nor any of the other five specimens collected by André can be types of Dalmas' name as they were collected in 1903, three years after the name was introduced. There is no indication on these specimens that they were ever in the Dalmas Collection. Rothschild had, in fact, purchased part of the Dalmas Collection, other parts going to ZSM and MNHN (Hartert, 1919a: 150–151, Hellmayr, 1931: 163, Phelps, 1945: 331). Specimens that Rothschild purchased from Dalmas have labels printed “E Museo Dalmas.” Because this specimen bears an AMNH type label, it remains with the types with an added label to indicate that this is incorrect.

  • Hylophilus bulunensis Hartert

  • Hylophilus bulunensis Hartert, 1902f: 617 (Bulún, N.W. Ecuador, about 160 ft above the sea).

    Now Hylophilus ochraceiceps bulunensis Hartert, 1902. See Hellmayr, 1935: 179; Dickinson, 2003: 486; and Brewer, 2010: 438.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 505298, adult male, collected at Pulún ( =  Bulún), 160 ft, 01.05N, 78.40W (Paynter, 1993), Esmeraldas, Ecuador, on 6 December 1900, by G. Flemming (no. 253). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Hartert had a single specimen when this form was described and Flemming's field number of the holotype was given in the original description.

  • Hylophilus pusillus Lawrence

  • Hylophilus pusillus Lawrence, 1861b: 323 (Atlantic side of the Isthmus).

    Now Hylophilus decurtatus decurtatus (Bonaparte, 1838). See Todd, 1929b: 204–205; Hellmayr, 1935: 183–184; Blake, 1968: 137; Wetmore et al., 1984: 229–230; Dickinson, 2003: 486; and Brewer, 2010: 438–439.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 40125, male, AMNH 40126, male, AMNH 40127, female, collected on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama, Panama, in the “winter” of 1860–1861, by James McLeannan and John R. Galbraith. From the George N. Lawrence Collection (nos. 400, 174, and 401, respectively).

    Comments:

    Lawrence did not designate a type or enumerate his specimens in the original description, but both male and female were described. All three of the above specimens are marked “Type” by Lawrence.

  • Pachysylvia minor darienensis Griscom

  • Pachysylvia minor darienensis Griscom, 1927b: 7 (Cape Garachiné, eastern Panama).

    Now Hylophilus decurtatus darienensis (Griscom, 1927). See Hellmayr, 1935: 185; Wetmore et al., 1984: 230–231; Dickinson, 2003: 486; and Brewer, 2010: 438–439.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 257146, adult male, collected at Punta Garachiné ( =  Cape Garachiné), 08.06N, 78.25W (Siegel and Olson, 2008), Darién, Panama, on 5 March 1927, by Ludlow Griscom, Maunsell S. Crosby, and others. Paul F. Covel (no. 247) was taxidermist.

    Comments:

    Griscom cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and noted that he examined “two females and one sex?.” This was undoubtedly a misprint for “two males and one sex?.” The two paratypes are AMNH 233499, male, and AMNH 233500, sex?, both collected at Cape Garachiné on 5 March 1927 by Griscom et al.

    ICTERIDAE, ICTERINAE

  • Ostinops decumanus maculosus Chapman

  • Ostinops decumanus maculosus Chapman, 1920: 26 (Yungas (alt. 3600 ft), Prov. Cochabamba).

    Now Psarocolius decumanus maculosus (Chapman, 1920). See Hellmayr, 1937: 14–16; Blake, 1968: 140; Dickinson, 2003: 768; and Fraga, 2011: 754.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 138547, adult male, collected at Yungas, 3600 ft, 16.20S, 66.45W (Paynter, 1992), Cochabamba, Bolivia, on 3 June 1915, by Leo Miller (no. 12186) and Howarth Boyle.

    Comments:

    Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed (on pp. 27–28) specimens that he included in maculosus. Of the 12 male (in addition to the type) and eight female Bolivian specimens he included, I found the following nine male and six female paratypes cataloged in AMNH: Yungas, AMNH 138546, 138548–138554, four males and four females, June 1915, by Miller and Boyle; Locotal, AMNH 138556, 138557, two females, May 1915, by Miller and Boyle; Todos Santos, AMNH 138544, 138545, two males, July 1915, by Miller and Boyle; Mission San Antonio, Rio Chimoré, AMNH 138555, male, August 1915, by Miller and Boyle; Tres Arroyas, Rio Espiritu Santo, AMNH 148980, male, February 1915, by G.K. Cherrie; Beni River, AMNH 30651, male, August 1886, by H.H. Rusby. Of these I did not find AMNH 138550 in the collection. I found only one of the Peruvian paratypes in AMNH: Chauillay, Urubamba Cañon, AMNH 145816, male, July 1916, by Chapman and Cherrie. I found 32 of the 33 Brazilian paratypes in AMNH: Urucum near Corumbá, AMNH 128324–128327, two males and two females, December 1913, by Miller and Cherrie; Chapada, AMNH 32804–32827, 32829–32832, 16 males, 12 females, by H.H. Smith, 1882–1885. While 13 females were indicated, only 12 were entered in the AMNH catalog. AMNH 32832bis was not considered a paratype because all of the listed males were found and because the “bis” number was added after the other specimens were cataloged and the specimen label did not bear Chapman's measurements, as had all of the other specimens. AMNH 32828, also a male, had been mounted for exhibition in 1905 and would not have been available to Chapman when he named maculosus. Other paratypes were borrowed by Chapman, but he did not indicate which specimens they were.

    Fraga (2011: 754) noted that recent DNA studies do not support recognition of maculosus and he synonymized it with nominate decumanus.

  • Ostinops sincipitalis neglectus Chapman

  • Ostinops sincipitalis neglectus Chapman, 1914: 190 (Monteredondo, eastern slope of Eastern Andes, alt. 5800 ft).

    Now Psarocolius angustifrons neglectus (Chapman, 1914). See Hellmayr, 1937: 23; Blake, 1968: 141; Dickinson, 2003: 768; and Fraga, 2011: 753–754.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 123115, adult male, collected at Monteredondo, ca. 04.17N, 73.48W (Paynter, 1997), Cundinamarca, eastern slope of the eastern Andes, Colombia, on 1 March 1913, by T.M. Ring.

    Comments:

    Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and gave details for three paratypes. I can verify only one of the paratypes: AMNH 100917, male, collected near Mérida, Pedregosa, 2000 m, 30 November 1902, by S. Briceño Gabaldón. Chapman (1914: 190) listed two additional paratypes, “an adult male and female from the eastern slope below Andalucia (5000 ft).” There are three specimens, AMNH 117486–117488, labeled as from Andalucia, 5000 ft, one unsexed and two sexed as females, but judging by size, one female and two males, all three collected on 10 June 1912 by Miller. They were all labeled neglectus with one additionally marked “near alfredi.” AMNH 117489, sexed as a male, was collected on the eastern slope below Caquetá, 2500 ft, on 22 June 1912 by Miller. It has no yellow on the forehead and is labeled “angustifrons + neglectus” and is discussed as a possible intergrade by Chapman (1917: 627).

    Chapman (1917: 50–58) gave details of this expedition. Ring was collecting at Monteredondo while the rest of the expedition personnel were based at Quetame, which name appears on the AMNH label of this specimen. However, Ring's field label gives the correct locality, as did Chapman in the description of neglectus.

  • Cassicus (sic) vitellinus Lawrence

  • Cassicus (sic) vitellinus Lawrence, 1864: 107 (New Granada, Isthmus of Panama).

    Now Cacicus cela vitellinus (Lawrence, 1864). See Hellmayr, 1937: 28–29; Blake, 1968: 144; Wetmore et al., 1984: 346–349; Dickerman, 2003: 769; and Fraga, 2011: 749–750.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 41901, male, and AMNH 41902, female, collected in New Granada, Isthmus of Panama, in the “winter” of 1860–1861, by James McLeannan and John R. Galbraith. From the George N. Lawrence Collection.

    Comments:

    When Lawrence (1861a: 297) first received the the first of these specimens, he misidentified it as Cassiculus icteronotus Vieillot, 1816, but without giving any details. Later, after receiving a second specimen he realized his mistake, and named Cassicus vitellinus, describing both male and female but without specifying the number of specimens he had. The wing and tail measurements published with his description of the male and female are the same as those written on the labels of the syntypes, and both are marked “Type” by Lawrence. Apparently, the female syntype is the specimen that Lawrence had originally, as it bears one label marked “Cassicus icteronotus” in Lawrence's hand, with a second label marked “Cassicus vitellinus” and “Type” by Lawrence. It is possible for Lawrence to have received this specimen from the joint collectors prior to his publication of Part 1 of his catalog in January 1861, as their collecting was done in the “winter” of 1860–1861.

    There are two additional, undated, specimens of this form from the Lawrence Collection, collected by McLeannan. McLeannan collected alone both before and after his joint collecting with Galbraith, and these two specimens, AMNH 41903 and 41904, were probably collected later, as both have labels bearing only the name C. vitellinus. They are not marked “Type.”

    Fraga (2011: 749) suggested that subspecies vitellinus and flavicrissus may represent a species separate from C. cela based on differences in plumage color and voice, but retained them in the one species.

  • Cacicus uropygialis pacificus Chapman

  • Cacicus uropygialis pacificus Chapman, 1915: 657 (Alto Bonito, R. Sucio, Chocó, Colombia).

    Now Cacicus uropygialis pacificus Chapman, 1915. See Hellmayr, 1937: 33–34; Blake, 1968: 145–146; Dickinson, 2003: 769; and Fraga, 2011: 748–749.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 134533, adult male, collected at Alto Bonito, 1500 ft, ca. 07.05N, 76.30W (Paynter, 1997), Antioquia, Colombia, on 17 February 1915, by Leo Miller (no. 11227) and Howarth Boyle.

    Comments:

    Chapman gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and gave measurements for 13 males (including the type) and seven females from Colombia and Ecuador. The following specimens are considered paratypes of pacificus: Colombia, Rio Salaqui, AMNH 113363, male, 23 February 1912, by Kerr; Alto Bonito, AMNH 134534, male [female], 18 February, AMNH 134535, 134537, males, 23 February, AMNH 134538, sex?, 17 February, AMNH 134539, female, 23 February, all collected in 1915 by Miller and Boyle; Baudo, AMNH 123504, male, 29 June, AMNH 123505, male, 17 June, both collected in 1912 by Kerr, the latter specimen exchanged to O. Bangs in 1918, now in MCZ; Barbacoas, AMNH 118349, male, 3 September, AMNH 118350, female?, 1 September (measurments on label), AMNH 118353, female, 5 August (no measurementson label), all collected in 1912 by W.B. Richardson; Puerto Valdivia, AMNH 134531, 134532, males, 14 December 1914, by Miller and Boyle, the latter specimen exchanged with Bangs in September 1918 and now in MCZ; La Vieja, AMNH 123506, female, 2 October 1912, by Kerr. Ecuador, Esmeraldas, AMNH 119038, male, 27 October, AMNH 119039, female, 24 October (exchanged to ANSP in 1928), AMNH 119040, female, 25 October (exchanged to MCZ in 1928), AMNH 119041, male, 24 October, AMNH 119042, male, 20 November, AMNH 119043, male, 27 November, all collected by Richardson in 1912.

    I was not able to verify that the following specimens should be considered paratypes: AMNH 134536, male, Alto Bonito, 19 February 1915 was exchanged with USNM, no date, and was perhaps not available to Chapman. AMNH 118351, female, Barbacoas, 22 August 1912, was exchanged to USNM, no date, and I did not find AMNH 118352, male, Barbacoas, 18 August 1912 in the collection. AMNH 155193, although collected by Richardson on 24 August 1912 at Barbacoas, was not cataloged until 1920, and then only to genus. It is not a paratype.

    Chapman (1917: 58–68, 640) gave more information on the Miller and Boyle expedition and the locality Alto Bonito.

    The subspecies pacificus is usually considered a subspecies of C. uropygialis, but Fraga (2011: 749) has separated the subspecies pacificus and microrhynchus as the separate species C. microrhynchus based on vocal differences. He also suggested that pacificus may merit treatment as a full species based on vocal differences, but that more research is required.

  • Amblycercus holosericeus flavirostris Chapman

  • Amblycercus holosericeus flavirostris Chapman, 1915: 659 (Barbacoas, Nariño, Colombia).

    Now Amblycercus holosericeus flavirostris Chapman, 1915. See Chapman, 1917b; Hellmayr, 1937: 43–44; Blake, 1968: 148; AOU, 1998: 656; Dickinson, 2003: 769; and Fraga, 2011: 747.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 118354, adult female, collected at Barbacoas, sea level, 01.21N, 78.09W (Paynter, 1997), Nariño, Colombia, on 13 August 1912, by W.B. Richardson.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype and listed the specimens he had measured. There are also a few additional specimens in the same series that would have been accessible to Chapman but may not have been measured. These are also included as paratypes, as is a specimen from Guineo, Rio Calima, Colombia, recorded by Hellmayr (1911: 1122) and included in flavirostris by Chapman. Paratypes in AMNH: Colombia, “Bogotá,” AMNH 41929, 41930, sex?, undated, from the G.N. Lawrence Collection; El Piñon, AMNH 123122, female, 6 April 1913, by Chapman et al.; Rio Toché, AMNH 113198, female, 26 October 1911, by Allen and Miller; Los Tambos, AMNH 71624, male, 18 August 1898, by J.H. Batty; Alto Bonito, AMNH 134540, female, 17 February 1915, by Miller and Boyle. Ecuador, Esmeraldas, AMNH 119044–119046, males, AMNH 119047, 119048, females, 21 October–8 November 1912, by Richardson; Naranjo, AMNH 125220–125222, one male, two females, 8–11 May 1913, by Richardson; Santa Rosa, AMNH 130542, 130543, two females, 8–11 September 1913, by Richardson; Guayaquil, AMNH 130544, male, 15 August 1913, by Richardson. AMNH 119044 was exchanged to ANSP in 1928, and AMNH 119046 was exchanged to MCZ in 1928.

    The affiliation of this species with the Icteridae is uncertain and more than one species may be involved (See AOU, 1998: 656, and Fraga, 2011: 747).

  • Amblycercus holosericeus australis Chapman

  • Amblycercus holosericeus australis Chapman, 1919: 333 (Incachaca (alt. 7700 ft), Prov. Cochabamba, Bolivia).

    Now Amblycercus holosericeus australis Chapman, 1919. See Hellmayr, 1937: 44–45; Blake, 1968: 149; Dickinson, 2003: 769; and Fraga, 2011: 747.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 138594, adult male, collected at Incachaca, 7700ft, 17.14S, 65.49W (Paynter, 1992), Cochabamba, Bolivia, on 12 May 1915, by Leo E. Miller (no. 11714) and Howarth Boyle.

    Comments:

    Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and examined an additional two Peruvian specimens from the Urubamba Valley. Chapman (1921b) did not include this species in his list of Urubamba Valley specimens and there are no Urubamba Valley specimens in AMNH or USNM (C. Milensky, personal commun.) that might have been part of the Yale University–National Geographic Society Expedition to the Urubamba Valley that Chapman had been studying when he described this subspecies. Most of the specimens from that expedition are in USNM, with a subset deposited at AMNH. Therefore, I have not been able to identify his paratypes.

    There are four Peruvian specimens that would have been available to Chapman when he described australis. AMNH 166625, male, and AMNH 170769, female, collected by Watkins on 11 March 1917, from Limbani, Puno, Peru, have “Nat. Geog. Soc.” stamped on Watkins' field label; the male was cataloged with specimens from that expedition. AMNH 146600, male, and AMNH 146601, female, were collected by Watkins at Santo Domingo, Puno, Peru, on 24 September 1916 and purchased by AMNH from Watkins in 1918. Both of these localities are near the Bolivian border and far from the Urubamba Valley, and nothing on the labels of these specimens indicates that either pair might have been part of Chapman's description.

  • Icterus hondae Chapman

  • Icterus hondae Chapman, 1914: 191 (Honda, alt. 600 ft, Magdalena River, Colombia).

    Now Icterus chrysater hondae Chapman, 1914. See Hellmayr, 1937: 131–132; Blake, 1968: 151; Olson, 1981: 369–370; Omland et al., 1999; Dickinson, 2003: 771; and Fraga, 2011: 759.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 123163, adult male, collected at Honda, 600 ft, 05.12N, 74.45W (Paynter, 1997), Magdalena River, Colombia, on 3 February 1913, by Frank M. Chapman and George K. Cherrie.

    Comments:

    Chapman gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and noted that he had only one additional specimen. The paratype is: AMNH 123162, adult male, collected at Honda on 4 February 1913 by Chapman and Cherrie. Olson (1981: 369–370) and Dickinson (2003: 771) recognized hondae; Fraga (2011: 759) synonymized it with I. chrysater giraudii. Olson (1981: 370) gave characters for recognition of hondae based on the above two specimens, and noted that additional specimens of hondae from the upper Magdalelna River Valley are needed.

  • Icterus xanthornus trinitatis Hartert

  • Icterus xanthornus trinitatis Hartert, 1913: 76 (Savannah Grande, Trinidad).

    Now Icterus nigrogularis trinitatis Hartert, 1913. See Hellmayr, 1937: 134; Blake, 1968: 152; Omland et al., 1999; Dickinson, 2003: 771; and Fraga, 2011: 764–765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 521859, adult male, collected at Savannah Grande, Trinidad, on 13 February 1897, by Percy Rendall (no. 56). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    This is the single specimen from the Rothschild Collection with these data and it was listed by Hartert (1919a: 136) as the type. In addition, specimens of this form in the Rothschild Collection, collected by André, were included. The paratypes, all collected by André, are: Trinidad, Caparo, AMNH 521836–521846, eight males, one immature male, two females, March–April 1902; “Trinidad,” original label lost, AMNH 521847, 1902; Pointe Gourde, AMNH 521848–521850, males, January 1903; Lavantill, AMNH 521851, 521852, males, March and April 1903; Chaguaramas, 521853–521855, males, January 1903; Leelet, AMNH 521858, male, July 1903. Two specimens, AMNH 521856 and 521857, collected by Carr at Caguaranas in May and June 1894, were not mentioned by Hartert and are not considered paratypes.

  • Icterus pectoralis anthonyi Griscom

  • Icterus pectoralis anthonyi Griscom, 1930: 18 (Finca El Cipres, near Ocos, Pacific coast of Guatemala [error]).

    Now Icterus pectoralis guttulatus Lafresnaye, 1844. See Griscom, 1932: 398–399; Hellmayr, 1937: 145; Blake, 1968: 154–155; Dickerman, 1981; and Dickinson, 2003: 770.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 398802, adult male, collected at Finca El Cipres, 9 mi from Mazatenango, Pacific slope, at base of Volcan Zumail, Suchitepequez (Griscom, 1932: 417, map), Guatemala, on 28 July 1924, by A.W. Anthony (no. 473). From the Jonathan Dwight Collection (no. 58330).

    Comments:

    Griscom cited the Dwight Collection number of the holotype in the original description and noted that he had 48 specimens (including the type) from Guatemala and three from Nicaragua. Later, Griscom (1932: 398) listed the localities from which his Guatemalan specimens had come, but by that time did not include Nicaragua in the range. Of the 47 Guatemalan paratypes, 35 came to AMNH: Finca El Cipres, AMNH 398801, 398803–398806, 398808–398811, five males, four females, 27 July–1 August 1924; Finca El Espino, AMNH 398807, female, 23 July 1926; Hacienda California, AMNH 398812–398824, 398826–398828, eight males, eight females, 5–27 June 1926, 25 September–10 November 1927; Ocos, AMNH 398825, 398829, males, 24 October 1927, all by A.W. Anthony; Pantaleon, AMNH 399361–399366, two males, four females, 22 October–2 November 1919; San Felipe, AMNH 399367, male, 4 December 1919, all by Austin Paul Smith. I did not find paratypes AMNH 398816 and 398819 from Hacienda California in the AMNH collection and they were perhaps exchanged later, without the catalog having been marked. The Guatemalan collection was divided with MCZ before it was cataloged at AMNH and the other paratypes are probably there. I also did not find the three Nicaraguan specimens from Leon, Chinandega, and Volcan Viejo; these were perhaps borrowed from other institutions by Griscom.

    Dickerman (1987: 84) called attention to the error in the location of the type locality given in the original description. Griscom (1932: 398) did not correct this in his text, but he did make a correction (Griscom, 1932: 417, map) without calling attention to the earlier error. Mazatenango is at 14.31N, 91.30W (Times atlas).

    The subspecies anthonyi was recognized by Hellmayr (1937: 145), synonymized with I. pectoralis pectoralis by Blake (1968: 154–155), and synonymized with I. pectoralis guttlatus by Dickerman (1981), Dickinson (2003: 770), and Fraga (2011: 766).

  • Icterus gularis troglodytes Griscom

  • Icterus gularis troglodytes Griscom, 1930: 13 (San Felipe, Retalhuleu, Pacific slope of Guatemala).

    Now Icterus gularis mentalis Lesson, 1831. See Griscom, 1932: 396; Hellmayr, 1937: 148; Blake, 1968: 156; Dickinson, 2003: 771; Dickerman, 2007: 35–38; and Fraga, 2011: 765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 399358, adult male, collected at San Felipe, 2500 ft, 14.40N, 91.30W (Times atlas), Retalhuleu, Pacific slope of Guatemala, on 7 December 1919, by Austin Paul Smith (no. 19209). From the Johathan Dwight Collection (no. 56504).

    Comments:

    Griscom cited the Dwight number of the holotype in the original description, and noted (on p. 14) that he had 29 specimens from Ocos to San José (including the type), one male from Antigua and one male from San Lucas. Later, he (Griscom, 1932: 396) listed these 31 specimens by locality. Of the 30 paratypes, the following 21 are in AMNH: Finca El Cipres, AMNH 398723, 398725–398730, two males, one immature male, four females, 23 July–24 August 1924; Antigua, AMNH 398724, male, 6 June 1924; Hacienda California, AMNH 398731–398736, 398738, two males, four females, one immature female, 7 June–3 July 1926, 29 September 1927; Ocos, AMNH 398739, male (as on label), AMNH 398740, female, 14–16 October 1927; San Lucas, AMNH 398737, male, 27 May 1927, all collected by A.W. Anthony. Pantaleon, AMNH 399356, male, 18 October 1919; San Felipe, AMNH 399357, female, 5 December 1919; San José, AMNH 399359, male, 29 January 1920, all collected by Austin Paul Smith.

    Hellmayr (1937: 148) noted that Icterus mentalis Lesson, 1831, could not be identified with certainty because the type locality was not recorded and recognized instead I. g. tamaulipensis Ridgway, 1901. Blake (1968: 156) and Dickinson (2003: 771) apparently accepted Hellmayr's analysis and listed tamaulipensis, yucatanensis, and troglodytes as valid subspecies of Icterus gularis without mentioning mentalis; Dickerman (2007: 35–38) accepted mentalis Lesson, 1831, as a valid name, restricted the type locality to the city of Veracruz and considered yucatanensis, tamaulipensis, and troglodytes to be synonyms of mentalis. This was accepted by Fraga (2011: 765).

    As in the previous form, the collection was divided between AMNH and MCZ before it was cataloged. The remaining paratypes are probably at MCZ. See Casto and Burke (2010: 13) for information on Austin Paul Smith.

  • Icterus gularis gigas Griscom

  • Icterus gularis gigas Griscom, 1930: 13 (Sacapulas, Rio Negro Valley, central Guatemala).

    Now Icterus gularis gularis (Wagler, 1829). See Griscom, 1932: 396; Hellmayr, 1937: 148–149; Blake, 1968: 156; Dickinson, 2003: 771; Dickerman, 2007: 38; and Fraga, 2011: 765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 398742, adult male, collected at Sacapulas, Río Negro Valley, central Guatemala, on 4 February 1928, by A.W. Anthony (no. 6513). From the Jonathan Dwight Collection.

    Comments:

    Griscom cited Anthony's unique field number for the holotype in the original description; it had no Dwight Collection number. Griscom (1932: 396) noted that he had eight males and 10 females, including the type, from Sacapulas. Of the 17 paratypes, there are 11 at AMNH: AMNH 398741, 398743–398752, four males, seven females, 4 February–13 March 1928, by A.W. Anthony. This collection was divided with MCZ before cataloging, and the remaining paratypes may be in that institution.

    Hellmayr (1937: 148–149) recognized gigas and considered xerophilus a synonym of it. Both Blake (1968: 156) and Dickinson (2003: 771) followed him. More recently both Dickerman (2007: 38) and Fraga (2011: 765) synonymized gigas and xerophilus with nominate gularis.

    Sacapulas is on the Río Negro, 25 mi north of Quiché, at ca. 15.15N, 91.10W (Griscom, 1932: 421 and map). See Griscom (1932: 11–15) for a summary of Anthony's collecting localities.

  • Icterus gularis xerophilus Griscom

  • Icterus gularis xerophilus Griscom, 1930: 14 (Progreso, Motagua River Valley, central Guatemala).

    Now Icterus gularis gularis (Wagler, 1829). See Griscom, 1932: 396; Hellmayr, 1937: 148–149; Blake, 1968: 156; Dickinson, 2003: 771; Dickerman, 2007: 38; and Fraga, 2011: 765.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 398756, adult male, collected at Progreso, 17.18N, 90.08W (Times atlas), Motagua River Valley, central Guatemala, on 5 July 1924, by A.W. Anthony (no. 287). From the Jonathan Dwight Collection (no. 58303).

    Comments:

    Griscom cited the Dwight Collection number in the original description and said that he had 21 specimens, including the type, from Progreso; Griscom (1932: 396) noted that there were 16 males and five females. Of the 20 paratypes, the following 14 are cataloged in AMNH: AMNH 398753–398755, 398757–398767, eight males, two immature males, four females. I did not find AMNH 398762 in the collection and it is possible that it has been exchanged to another institution without the catalog having been marked. Part of this collection went to MCZ before cataloging and the remaining paratypes may be in that institution.

    Hellmayr (1937: 148) recognized I. gularis gigas and synonymized xerophilus with it. Blake (1968: 156) and Dickinson (2003: 771) accepted that. More recently, Dickerman (2007: 38) synonymized both xerophilus and gigas with nominate gularis, and Fraga (2011: 765) agreed. Dickerman (2007: 38) incorrectly gave the original citation to I. g. xerophilus as Griscom (1930: 4); the description was on page 14.

    See Griscom (1932: 11–15, 415, map) for more information on Anthony's collecting localities.

  • Icterus pustulatus yaegeri Phillips

  • Icterus pustulatus yaegeri Phillips, 1995: 101 (8 km north of crossing of Rio San Pedro at Peñitas, northwestern Nayarit).

    Now Icterus pustulatus yaegeri Phillips, 1995. See Dickerman and Parkes, 1997: 231; Dickinson, 2003: 771; and Fraga, 2011: 763.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 831716, immature male, collected 8 km (5 mi on label) north of crossing of Rio San Pedro at Peñitas, northwestern Nayarit, Mexico, on 16 December 1956, by Allan R. Phillips. From the Allan R. Phillips Collection (no. 4443).

    Comments:

    Phillips gave his no. 4443 for the holotype in the original description. There is no indication on any specimens of pustulatus in AMNH that Phillips considered them paratypes of yaegeri. Dickerman and Parkes (1997: 231) and Dickinson (2003: 771) accepted yeageri, but Fraga (2011: 763) considered the diagnostic characters uncertain.

  • Icterus pustulatus dickermani Phillips

  • Icterus pustulatus dickermani Phillips, 1995: 101 (Joluchuca, 17°21½′ N, 101°12½′ W, southeast of Petatlán, southwestern Guerrero).

    Now Icterus pustulatus dickermani Phillips, 1995. See Dickerman and Parkes, 1997: 231; Dickinson, 2003: 771; and Fraga, 2011: 763.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 831717, [immature?] female, collected at Joluchuca, 17.215N, 101.125W, southeast of Petatlán, southwestern Guerrero, Mexico, on 18 December 1968, by Santos Farfán B. (no. 27). From the Allan R. Phillips Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Phillips gave Farfán's field number of the holotype. There is no indication on any AMNH specimens of pustulatus that Phillips considered them paratypes of dickermani. Dickerman and Parkes (1997: 231) and Dickinson (2003: 771) accepted dickermani as valid; Fraga (2011: 763) thought the diagnostic characters uncertain.

  • Icterus pustulatus interior Phillips

  • Icterus pustulatus interior Phillips, 1995: 101 (Cañón de Lobos 20 km east of Cuernavaca, Morelos).

    Now Icterus pustulatus interior Phillips, 1995. See Dickerman and Parkes, 1997: 231; Dickinson, 2003: 771; and Fraga, 2011: 763.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 831715, adult female, collected at Cañón de Lobos, 20 km east of Cuernavaca, 18.57N, 99.15W (Times atlas), Morelos, Mexico, on 4 November 1972, prepared by Santos Farfán B. From the Allan R. Phillips Collection (no. 10650).

    Comments:

    In the original description, Phillips gave his collection number of the holotype. There is no indication on any AMNH specimens of pustulatus that Phillips considered them paratypes of interior. Dickerman and Parkes (1997: 231) and Dickinson (2003: 771) accepted interior as a valid subspecies of pustulatus; Fraga (2011: 763) thought the diagnostic characters uncertain.

  • Icterus sclateri alticola Miller and Griscom

  • Icterus sclateri alticola Miller and Griscom, 1925: 4 (Progreso, Guatemala).

    Now Icterus pustulatus alticola Miller and Griscom, 1925. See Griscom, 1932: 397; Hellmayr, 1937: 155–156; Blake, 1968: 157; Dickinson, 2003: 771; and Fraga, 2011: 763.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 398792, adult male, collected at Progreso, 17.18N, 90.08W (Times atlas), Guatemala, on 17 September 1924, by A.W. Anthony (no. 830). From the Jonathan Dwight Collection (no. 58978).

    Comments:

    Miller and Griscom gave the Dwight Collection number of the holotype in the original description and listed one Guatemalan specimen collected by von Patten, three males, three females, one sex?, collected at Progreso, one female from Volcan Zunil, and one male from El Tanque, Nicaragua. At the time of publication of this name, Miller and Griscom (1925: 1) were working on their Nicaraguan collection and had borrowed specimens from Dwight and others for comparison. It is not now possible to tell which specimens from Progreso are paratypes of alticola as all of the Dwight specimens were cataloged together and Griscom identified and initialed them all as alticola. As the description was published in 1925, it seemed possible that only specimens collected in July 1924 were available. But this is not correct, because the type was collected in September 1924. Later, Griscom (1932: 397), when working with the entire Dwight Collection, noted that he had 22 specimens of alticola; there are 15 alticola, including the type, in AMNH. Because the collection was divided with MCZ, the remaining specimens may be in that institution and some of them may be paratypes. There are, however, two definite paratypes in AMNH: AMNH 42020, male, Guatemala, from Dr. v[on] P[atten], from the Lawrence Collection; and AMNH 144752, male, El Tanque, Nicaragua, 11 April 1917, by Miller, Griscom and Richardson (now considered a specimen of I. pustulatus sclateri). I did not find the female specimen from Volcan Zunil, Guatemala, listed by Miller and Griscom (1925: 4), and it was perhaps also borrowed. See Griscom (1932: 11–15, 420, map) for a summary of Anthony's collecting localities.

  • Icterus sclateri maximus Griscom

  • Icterus sclateri maximus Griscom, 1930: 15 (Sacapulas, Rio Negro Valley, interior of Guatemala).

    Now Icterus pustulatus maximus Griscom, 1930. See Griscom, 1932: 397; Hellmayr, 1937: 155–156; Blake, 1968: 157; Howell and Webb, 1995: 748–749; Dickinson, 2003: 771; and Fraga, 2011: 763.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 398772, adult male, collected at Sacapulas, Río Negro Valley, interior of Guatemala, on 12 February 1928, by A.W. Anthony (no. 6563). From the Jonathan Dwight Collection.

    Comments:

    Griscom cited Anthony's unique field number of the holotype in the original description (the specimen had no Dwight number), and (on p. 17) noted that he had 17 specimens. Griscom (1932: 397) gave these as 14 males and three females; the 11 paratypes, all from Sacapulas, in AMNH are: AMNH 398769–398771, 398773–398780, eight males, three females, 4 February–24 March 1928, by A.W. Anthony. Part of the collection was sent to MCZ before cataloging, therefore, the additional paratypes may be in that institution.

    Hellmayr (1937: 156) considered maximus a synonym of alticola, and was followed by Blake (1968: 157). Howell and Webb (1995: 748) recognized maximus, as did Dickinson (2003: 771) and Fraga (2011: 763).

    Griscom (1932: 421, map) noted that Sacapulas was 25 mi north of Quiché, at ca. 15.15N, 91.10W.

  • Icterus cucullatus masoni Griscom

  • Icterus cucullatus masoni Griscom, 1926: 18 (Manatee, British Honduras).

    Now Icterus cucullatus igneus Ridgway, 1885. See Hellmayr, 1937: 152; Blake, 1968: 158; Omland et al., 1999; Dickinson, 2003: 770; and Fraga, 2011: 769.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 59876, adult male, collected at Manatee, Belize ( =  British Honduras), on 26 December (not February) 1889, by D.C. Ingraham.

    Comments:

    The AMNH number of the holotype was given in the original description, although AMNH was not mentioned. There are four paratypes: Mexico, Quintana Roo, AMNH 254755, Chunyaxche, adult male, 30 January; AMNH 254756, immature male, Palmul, 9 February; AMNH 254757, female, Vigia Chica, 27 January, all collected in 1926 by Griscom. “Honduras,” AMNH 42001, male, from the Lawrence Collection.

  • Xanthornus icterus ridgwayi Hartert

  • Xanthornus icterus ridgwayi Hartert, 1902b: 299 (Aruba).

    Now Icterus icterus ridgwayi (Hartert, 1902). See Hartert, 1919a: 137; Hellmayr, 1937: 138–139; Blake, 1968: 159; Omland et al., 1999; Dickinson, 2003: 769–770; and Fraga, 2011: 766–767.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 521891, adult male, collected on Aruba Island, Dutch West Indies, on 26 June 1892, by Ernst Hartert (no. 105). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Hartert designated as holotype the male specimen he collected on Aruba on 26 June 1892 and said that he had five specimens from Aruba and Curaçao. Only four specimens from those two islands came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection, and they were, in fact, the only four specimens listed by Hartert (1893a: 297), although the date for the Aruba specimens was incorrectly given as 27 June. The whereabouts of the fifth specimen is not known. Paratypes in AMNH: Curaçao, near Beekenburg, AMNH 521889, female, AMNH 521890, male, 2 August 1892, by Ernst Hartert (nos. 264 and 266, respectively); Aruba, AMNH 521892, female, 26 June 1892, by Ernst Hartert (no. 106).

    Hartert (1893a) had earlier reported on his visit to the Dutch West Indies.

  • Psarocolius auricollis Wied

  • Psarocolius auricollis Wied, 1839: 367 (Fort Pierre, South Dakota).

    Now Icterus bullockii (Swainson, 1827). See Hellmayr, 1937: 104–105; Blake, 1968: 161; Dickinson, 2003: 771; and Fraga, 2011: 763–764.

    Type:

    AMNH 2230. Information regarding this specimen is here summarized, but no decision on its type status could be reached.

    In the mid-19th century, D.G. Elliot owned one of the most complete collections of species of birds from North America. In 1868, when Elliott was planning a lengthy but indefinite stay in Europe, he became concerned for the safety of his collection while he was away and offered it to the then-forming AMNH. The approximately 1100 specimens were purchased as the first collection for the new museum. His specimens were mounted for exhibit by John G. Bell, a New York taxidermist, and were put on display in the Arsenal in Central Park, headquarters for the new museum until a permanent home could be provided (Anon., 1915: 133). At the same time, Elliot was authorized to purchase in Europe for the new museum several collections of specimens of birds and mammals. His selections included a large number of Maximilian, Prince of Wied, specimens from Brazil. These were mounted specimens also intended for display. It was not until 1883 that the AMNH bird catalog was begun with, at that time, separate volumes for mounted specimens and study skins. The Elliot and Wied collections, along with several other collections of mounted birds were combined and arranged systematically before they were entered in the catalog.

    AMNH 2230 was originally entered in the catalog as a male from the upper Missouri River from the Elliot Collection. In addition to his collections in Brazil, Wied led an expedition to the upper Missouri River in 1832–1834. It is entirely possible that Elliot had this specimen, which appears to be a Wied specimen, in his North American collection and had purchased it long before he purchased the Wied South American specimens for AMNH. Later, someone has overwritten “Elliot Collection” with “Maximilian Coll.” On the type label is a note “See mounted catalogue for note by J.T.Z.” Zimmer, opp. #2230, noted “Type of Psarocolius auricollis Wied?”

    There is no longer an original label on the specimen, only an exhibit label, which is printed as being from the Elliot Collection. The locality on these exhibit labels is usually printed, but in this case, a strip of paper has been glued over the printed locality and “western North America” added in pen. It probably originally said “Upper Missouri” as in the catalog.

    Apparently, this specimen had been chosen, and the catalog so stamped, to be sent on exchange to Queens College in August 1953. It was probably investigated by Zimmer at that time and found to be a possible type. Hellmayr (1937: 104) had noted that the type was in AMNH. The catalog was then marked “Dismounted for Study Collection” and a “type?” label added by Zimmer.

    Hellmayr (1937: 104) gave the type locality as Fort Pierre, South Dakota, and Wied (1839: 367) described P. auricollis in Chapter 11, “Reise von Catonment Leavenworth bis zu den Punca-Indianern, vom 22. April bis zum 12. Mai.” The above specimen may well be one of the specimens collected by Wied at that time, but because of lack of definite information on its provenance, it seems impossible to be sure of its status.

  • Xanthornus affinis Lawrence

  • Xanthornus affinis Lawrence, 1851: 113 (Rio Grande, Texas).

    Now Icterus spurius spurius (Linnaeus, 1766). See Hellmayr, 1937: 105–107; Blake, 1968: 161–162; Scharf and Kren, 1996: 3; Omland et al., 1999; Dickinson, 2003: 770; and Fraga, 2011: 770.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 41954 (Lawrence no. a414a), adult male, AMNH 14958 (c414a), immature male, AMNH 41960 (b414a), all collected at Brownsville, 25.54N, 97.30W (Times atlas), Rio Grande, Texas, by J.P. McCown. From the George N. Lawrence Collection.

    Comments:

    Lawrence did not designate a type in the original description and described both the adult male and immature male. Five specimens, all male, of this form were cataloged with the Lawrence Collection at AMNH, but I have found only three, two adult males and one immature male, still present in the collection. Only AMNH 41954 is marked “Type” by Lawrence and is the only specimen that had been included in the AMNH type collection. AMNH type labels have been added to the other two specifomens and they have been added to the type collection. The other two specimens, AMNH 41956, 41962, males, collected in Texas by McCown, if found, should also probably be considered syntypes, although none of the specimens is dated. If either of these specimens had been exchanged, the most likely recipients would have been ANSP or USNM, but neither N. Rice (personal commun.), ANSP, nor C. Milensky (personal commun.), USNM, found them in those collections.

    Although some authors record this name as having been introduced in 1852, it appeared in the section of volume 5 of the Annals published in May 1851 (not 1881, Foster, 1892: 2). In the original description, Lawrence said that affinis was found breeding in April and that his specimens had been collected in “the past year,” i.e., 1850. On the labels of all three syntypes, Lawrence recorded the collecting locality as Brownsville.

    Fraga (2011: 770) treated I. spurius as monotypic.

  • Icterus spurius phillipsi Dickerman and Warner

  • Icterus spurius phillipsi Dickerman and Warner, 1962: 311 (1 mile west of Acámbaro, Guanajuato, México).

    Now Icterus spurius phillipsi Dickerman and Warner, 1962. See Blake, 1968: 162; Scharf and Kren, 1996: 3; Dickinson, 2003: 770; Dickerman, 2007: 34; and Fraga, 2011: 770.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 817691, adult male, collected 1 mi west of Acámbaro, 20.01N, 101.42W (Times atlas), Guanajuato, Mexico, on 7 May 1958, by Robert W. Dickerman (no. 8746). From the James Ford Bell Museum of Natural History (no. 14167, formerly Minnesota Museum of Natural History, MMNH).

    Comments:

    In the original description, Dickerman and Warner gave the MMNH number of the holotype and noted (on p. 312) that they examined 80 specimens of phillipsi. Because Dickerman and Warner borrowed widely for their study and because none of the AMNH specimens have an indication that they were considered paratypes of phillipsi, I have been unable to verify that any of the paratypes are in AMNH.

    Fraga (2011: 770) treated I. spurius as monotypic.

  • Icterus fuertesi Chapman

  • Icterus fuertesi Chapman, 1911: 3 (Paso del Haba, south shore of Tamesi River, 35 miles northwest of Tampico, Mexico).

    Now Icterus spurius fuertesi Chapman, 1911. See Hellmayr, 1937: 107; Blake, 1968: 162; Scharf and Kren, 1996: 3; Omland et al., 1999; Dickinson, 2003: 770; and Fraga, 2011: 770–771.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 95909, adult male, collected at Paso del Haba, south shore of Tamesi River, 35 mi northwest of Tampico, 22.18N, 97.52W (Times atlas), Mexico, on 6 April 1910, by Louis A. Fuertes (no. 2200).

    Comments:

    Chapman gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and noted that he had four specimens. Two of the three paratypes are in AMNH: AMNH 95907, immature male, AMNH 95908, female, collected at the type locality on 7 April 1910 by F.M. Chapman. The fourth paratype remained in Fuertes' Collection (no. 2201). This new form was illustrated by Fuertes in plate 1, opposite page 1 of the description.

    Scharf and Kren (1996: 3) and Fraga (2011: 770) treated I. fuertesi as a separate monotypic species, but other authors have maintained it as a subspecies of Icterus spurius.

  • Icterus prosthemelas praecox Phillips and Dickerman

  • Icterus prosthemelas praecox Phillips and Dickerman, 1965: 298 (Almirante, Bocas del Toro Province, western Panamá).

    Now Icterus prosthemelas praecox Phillips and Dickerman, 1965. See Blake, 1968: 162; Wetmore et al., 1984: 367–368; Dickerman and Parkes, 1997: 231; Omland et al., 1999; Dickinson, 2003: 770; and Fraga, 2011: 770.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 248065 (not 392316), juvenile male, collected at Almirante, 09.20N, 82.18W (Siegel and Olson, 2008), Bocas del Toro Province, western Panamá, on 22 August 1927, by R.R. Benson (no. 797).

    Comments:

    As noted by Charles O'Brien on the AMNH type card, the AMNH number of the holotype was erroneously recorded as AMNH 392316; Dickerman and Parkes (1997: 231) also call attention to this error. The holotype is AMNH 248065. There were four paratypes recorded from Costa Rica, only two of which are in AMNH: Estrella Valley, Atalanta, AMNH 392315, 392316, immature males, both collected on 1 July 1921, by Austin Paul Smith.

  • Icterus northropi Allen

  • Icterus northropi Allen, 1890: 344 (Andros Island, Bahamas).

    Now Icterus northropi Allen, 1890. See Hellmayr, 1937: 117; Blake, 1968: 163; Omland et al., 1999; Dickinson, 2003: 770; Garrido et al., 2005; and Fraga, 2011: 771.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 49911, adult male, AMNH 49912, adult female, collected on Andros Island, Bahamas, on 3 June and 14 April 1890, by John I. Northrop.

    Comments:

    Because syntypes were designated in the original description, other specimens have no nomenclatural standing. Northrop (1891) published on his specimens and observations of the birds on Andros and illustrated I. northropi in a plate. I. northropi has usually been considered a subspecies of I. dominicensis, but most recent authors support full species status for it.

  • Agelaius phoeniceus arthuralleni Dickerman

  • Agelaius phoeniceus arthuralleni Dickerman, 1974: 8 (Lago Peten Itza, Departamento Peten, Guatemala).

    Now Agelaius phoeniceus arthuralleni Dickerman, 1974. See Dickinson, 2003: 774; and Fraga, 2011: 789.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 803755, female, collected at Lago Petén Itzá, ca. 17.00N, 89.30W, Petén, Guatemala, on 20 February 1968, by Robert W. Dickerman (no. 14026).

    Comments:

    Dickerman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and said that he examined specimens from Lago Petén Itzá, Laguna Perdida, and L. de Zolz. The following AMNH specimens from Petén Itzá, sexed as females, are considered paratypes: AMNH 803748, 803750, 803752, 803754, 803756–803758, 803760, all collected on 19–20 February 1968, by Dickerman.

    The AMNH number of this holotype is AMNH 803755, not 805755 as cited by Dickerman (1987: 83).

  • Agelaius xanthophthalmus Short

  • Agelaius xanthophthalmus Short, 1969: 1 (15 km north-northeast of Tingo María, 4 km north of the Tulumayo River, and about 2 km northwest of the village of Pumahuasi, elevation approximately 2150 feet, Depto. Huánuco, Perú).

    Now Agelasticus xanthophthalmus (Short, 1969). See Johnson and Lanyon, 1999; Dickinson, 2003: 772; Eaton, 2006; Schulenberg et al., 2010: 628; and Fraga, 2011: 797.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 789778, adult male, collected at 15 km north-northeast of Tingo María, 4 km north of the Tulumayo River, and ca. 2 km northwest of Pumahuasi, ca. 2150 ft, ca. 09.04S, 75.40W (Stephens and Traylor, 1983), Huánuco, Peru, on 17 August 1968, by Lester L. Short (no. 2999).

    Comments:

    The AMNH number of the holotype was cited in the original description. The type series comprised two specimens; the second specimen, the paratype, is AMNH 789779, female, collected on the same day at the type locality. In the original description, Short designated this bird an allotype of xanthophthalmus. According to the Code (ICZN, 1999: 75), “The term ‘allotype’ may be used to indicate a specimen of opposite sex to the holotype; an ‘allotype’ has no name-bearing function.”

    In addition to Agelaius, this species has been included in the genera Chrysomus (Dickinson, 2003: 772) and Agelasticus (Fraga, 2011: 797).

  • Agelaius icterocephalus bogotensis Chapman

  • Agelaius icterocephalus bogotensis Chapman, 1914: 191 (Suba Marshes, Bogotá Savanna, Colombia).

    Now Chrysomus icterocephalus bogotensis (Chapman, 1914). See Hellmayr, 1937: 179; Blake, 1968: 173; Johnson and Lanyon, 1999; Dickinson, 2003: 772; Cadena et al, 2011: 540–545; and Fraga, 2011: 798.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 123126, adult female, collected in the Saba Marshes, 8750 ft, 04.45N, 74.05W (Paynter, 1997), Bogotá Savanna, Colombia, on 21 February 1913, by Frank M. Chapman.

    Comments:

    Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and noted that he had a series of seven males and nine females. The 15 paratypes are: Bogotá Savanna, AMNH 123124, 123125, 123127, 123128, two males, two females, collected in February 1913, by Chapman et al.; La Holando, AMNH 126891–126897, four males, three females, collected in May 1913 by M. Gonzalez; Puente Andalucia, AMNH 126898, female, AMNH 126899, male in female plumage, AMNH 126900, male, collected in April 1913, by M. Gonzalez; La Herrera, AMNH 126901, female, collected in May 1913,by M. Gonzalez. Of these, the following were exchanged: AMNH 126892, male, to O. Bangs in 1918, now in MCZ; AMNH 126894, male, to USNM; AMNH 126895, female, AMNH 126900, male, to BMNH in 1921. I did not find AMNH 126896 in the collection and it was perhaps exchanged without the catalog having been marked.

  • Icterus atro-olivaceus Wied

  • Icterus atro-olivaceus Wied, 1831: 1216 (an der Ostküste von Brasilien, in der Gegend von Coral de Batuba, bei der Lagoa Feia).

    Now Agelasticus cyanopus atroolivaceus (Wied, 1831). See Allen, 1889c: 226; Hellmayr, 1937: 180; Parkes, 1966: 1–12; Blake, 1968: 174; Dickinson, 2003: 772; and Fraga, 2011: 797–798.

    Syntype:

    AMNH 4731, female, Curral Ubatuba ( =  Coral de Batuba), near Lagõa Feia, ca. 22.10S, 41.20W (Paynter and Traylor, 1991), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From the Maximilian Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Wied (p. 1218) noted that he had not seen a male and that his hunters had shot two females upon which he based his description.

    Allen's listing of this specimen as Wied's type of atro-olivaceus was questioned by Hellmayr (1937: 180), who thought that Wied's description did not fit well with A. cyanopus and that the collecting locality was far removed from the range of the species. Parkes (1966: 1–12) made a detailed study of A. cyanopus, including a study of the type of atroolivaceus at AMNH. He was able to compare this type to other specimens of cyanopus from Rio de Janeiro sent him on loan by Helmut Sick and commented: “Comparison of this series with Wied's type makes it clear that all of these birds belong to an isolated population of Agelaius cyanopus, whose distinctive characters account for the discrepancies noted by Hellmayr” (Parkes, 1966: 6). Parkes also noted Hellmayr's inadvertant listing of the name as atro-violaceus, a misspelling that has been repeated in a number of subsequent publications. Currently it is accepted as a valid subspecies, atroolivaceus, in the species cyanopus, but included by some authors in the genus Chrysomus (e.g., Dickinson, 2003: 772), and by others in the genus Agelasticus (e.g., Fraga, 2011: 797–798).

    Bokerman (1957: 215) gave 20 September 1815 as the date of Wied's visit to Curral Ubatuba.

  • Sturnella magna saundersi Dickerman and Phillips

  • Sturnella magna saundersi Dickerman and Phillips, 1970: 308 (9 km S of Niltepec, Oaxaca, at an elevation of 5–25 m).

    Now Sturnella magna saundersi Dickerman and Phillips, 1970. See Dickerman and Parkes, 1997: 231; Dickinson, 2003: 775; and Fraga, 2011: 806–807.

    Syntypes in AMNH:

    AMNH 801592 (RWD no. 13260), adult male, AMNH 801595 (RWD no. 13258), immature male, collected 9 km S. Niltepec, 16.33N, 94.35W (Times atlas), Oaxaca, Mexico, on 15 January 1966, by R.W. Dickerman.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Dickerman and Phillips designated 11 syntypes of saundersi, based on their field numbers. Three of the syntypes collected by Dickerman originally came to AMNH. The third syntype, AMNH 801593 (RWD no. 13262), was sent to USNM in November 1973. AMNH 801595 was thought to be uncataloged as the number had not been written on the label, so it was recataloged with the number AMNH 810401. The earlier number is the correct one.

    Dickerman and Parkes (1997: 231) listed AMNH 801594 as a syntype of saundersi, but this is incorrect. That specimen bears RWD no. 13263, which was not given for any of the syntypes.

    Because syntypes were specifically designated, other specimens have no nomenclatural standing.

  • Sturnella magna quinta Dickerman

  • Sturnella magna quinta Dickerman, 1989: 161 (Frechal, Rio Surumu, Amapa, Brazil).

    Now Sturnella magna quinta Dickerman, 1989. See Joseph, 2001: 69–71; Dickinson, 2003: 775; and Fraga, 2011: 806–807.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 237404, adult male, collected at Flexal ( =  Frechal), 03.50N, 60.32W (Paynter and Traylor, 1991), Rio Surumu, Roraima (not Amapa), northeastern Brazil, on 10 September 1927, by T. Donald Carter (no. 268, not 208) on the Lee Garnett Day Expedition.

    Comments:

    Dickerman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed (on p. 162) 20 paratypes from Surinam and 14 from Amapá, Brazil. Paratypes in AMNH are: Surinam, Zanderij, AMNH 348596–348603, 388079–388089, eight males, nine females, two juveniles, by Haverschmidt in 1948–1949; in the interior, AMNH 521462, female, 1 November 1905, by H.R. Putscher. Brazil, state of Roraima, Flexal, AMNH 237400–237403, 237405, 237406, four males, two females, 4–15 September 1927, on the Day Expedition; Limão (not Lima), Rio Cotinga, AMNH 237407–237410, two males, two females, 30 September–1 October 1927, on the Day Expedition. I did not find specimens from Porto Platon in AMNH.

    Joseph (2001: 69–71) discussed the type locality of “Frechal” and showed that it must be the locality “Flexal” in Roraima given by Paynter and Traylor (1991). Paynter and Traylor (1991) did not locate a Flexal in Amapá, but subsequent to their publication, Vanzolini (1992) gave the coordinates for such a place as 00.05N, 52.11W, certainly not in the vicinity of the Rio Surumu.

    Tate (1930) provided a map of the Lee Garnett Day Expedition, showing it approaching Mount Roraima from the south, through the state of Roraima in Brazil. As Joseph (2001: 70) commented, “Frechal” and Limão are close together in the Savannas south of Mount Roraima. Chapman (1931: 133–134) assigned the same 11 specimens to S. m. monticola Chubb, 1921, type locality Mount Roraima. Hellmayr (1937: 218–219), while he saw no differences between monticola and praticola, reluctantly recognized monticola, but Blake (1968: 180) considered it a synonym of praticola. Haverschmidt and Mees (1994: 537) assigned Surinam birds to the subspecies praticola, where it is said to occur in Surinam only in the area around the Zanderij airport (ca. 05.26N, 55.08W, Stephens and Traylor, 1985). Because of the error regarding the type locality, the subspecies quinta should be reexamined.

  • Cassidix mexicanus loweryi Dickerman and Phillips

  • Cassidix mexicanus loweryi Dickerman and Phillips, 1966: 129 (Chicxulub Puerto, Yucatán).

    Now Quiscalus mexicanus loweryi (Dickerman and Phillips, 1966). See Blake, 1968: 189; Dickerman and Parkes, 1997: 230; Dickinson, 2003: 775; and Fraga, 2011: 780.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 803125, adult female, collected at Chicxulub Puerto, Yucatán, Mexico, on 25 January 1965, by Robert W. Dickerman (no. 12595). From Cornell University (no. CU 30456).

    Comments:

    Both the Cornell University number and the Dickerman field number of the holotype were given in the original description, and 10 paratypes were listed from the vicinity of Progreso, Yucatán. None of the paratypes is in AMNH.

  • Quiscalus quiscula stonei Chapman

  • Quiscalus quiscula stonei Chapman, 1935: 25 (Lakehurst, New Jersey).

    Now Quiscalus quiscula stonei Chapman, 1935. See Blake, 1968: 191; Dickinson, 2003: 775; and Fraga, 2011: 778.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 99687, adult male, collected at Lakehurst, 40.01N, 74.19W (Times atlas), New Jersey, on 8 June 1907, by W. DeW. Miller and James P. Chapin.

    Comments:

    Chapman gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description. This form was based on intergrade individuals that have a breeding range from southern Louisiana to southern New York in the area between the breeding ranges of Q. quiscula quiscula and Q, quiscula ridgwayi. As the specimens were not labeled by Chapman and the area involved is not well-defined, I have not been able to decide which other specimens Chapman considered part of his type series.

  • Quiscalus fortirostris Lawrence

  • Quiscalus fortirostris Lawrence, 1868: 360 (Barbadoes).

    Now Quiscalus lugubris fortirostris Lawrence, 1868. See Hellmayr, 1937: 87; Blake, 1968: 193; Dickinson, 2003: 774; and Fraga, 2011: 779.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 42098, female, AMNH 42099, male, collected on Barbados ( =  Barbadoes) Island, West Indies, undated, by A.H. Alexander. From the George N. Lawrence Collection.

    Comments:

    Lawrence described both male and female in the original description and said that the types were in his collection. Both of these specimens are marked “Type” by Lawrence, and they are the only two specimens of this form in AMNH from the Lawrence Collection. A.H. Alexander was a New York taxidermist (Wynne, 1969: 4) from whom Lawrence received specimens on occasion.

  • Molothrus (Lampropsar) Cabanisii Cassin

  • Molothrus (Lampropsar) Cabanisii Cassin, 1866: 22 (Guiana and Santa Martha, New Grenada).

    Now Molothrus bonariensis cabanisii Cassin, 1866. See Stone, 1891: 346; Stone, 1899: 34; Chapman, 1917: 361; Hellmayr, 1937: 65–66; Blake, 1968: 197; Dickinson, 2003: 773; and Fraga, 2011: 786–787.

    Syntype:

    AMNH 42067, unsexed, collected in Santa Marta, Colombia ( =  New Grenada), undated, by “J.A.” From the George N. Lawrence Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Cassin said that he had one specimen from “Guiana” in PNAS, and a second specimen from “Santa Martha, New Grenada” in the Lawrence Collection along with others in PNAS without locality data. Chapman (1917: 631) listed as type the Santa Marta specimen in AMNH labeled “Lampropsar cabanisii” by Cassin. AMNH 42067 is so labeled and is marked “Type” by Lawrence. Stone (1891: 346) in his revision of species allied to M. bonairensis, listed the range of cabanisii as Colombia and Venezuela, with birds from Guiana included in atronitens ( =  minimus) and later (Stone, 1899: 34) listed the type of cabanisii as PNAS no. 3651 from the Rivoli Collection but without a locality. Hellmayr (1937: 65) noted that the locality “Guiana” was an error. Cassin's type is not listed by Meyer de Schauensee (1957: 239).

  • Molothrus bonairensis aequatorialis Chapman

  • Molothrus bonairensis aequatorialis Chapman, 1915: 661 (Barbacoas, Narino, southwestern Colombia).

    Now Molothrus bonairensis aequatorialis Chapman, 1915. See Hellmayr, 1937: 66; Blake, 1968: 197; Dickinson, 2003: 773; and Fraga, 2011: 786–787.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 118355, adult female, collected at Barbacoas, 01.41N, 78.09W (Paynter, 1997), Nariño, southwestern Colombia, on 5 August 1912, by William B. Richardson.

    Comments:

    Chapman cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed measurements for six males and four females in addition to the holotype. In addition to the birds Chapman measured, there are four specimens that would have been available to him but were either missexed or immature. These 14 specimens, all collected by William B. Richardson, are considered paratypes of aequatorialis: Barbacoas, AMNH 118356, immature sex?, 5 October 1912; Tumaco, AMNH 118357–118359, one male, one female?, one immature male, 28–30 July 1912; Esmeraldas, AMNH 119049–119054, three males, three females, 5 November to 1 December 1912; Manavi, AMNH 120246, male, 16 December 1912, AMNH 120247, male, 14 February 1913, AMNH 125225, “female” in male plumage, 7 March 1913; Daule, AMNH 125224, female, 28 April 1913. Of these AMNH 119053, female from Esmeraldas, was exchanged to ANSP in July 1928. Two additional specimens, AMNH 155194 and 155195, females, were collected by Richardson at Esmeraldas on 26 October and 4 December 1912, but these two specimens were not cataloged until August 1920, after aequatorialis was described, and they are not paratypes; one of these, AMNH 155194, was exchanged to MCZ in July 1928.

    See Chapman (1917b: 49–50) for an account of Richardson's expedition.

  • Molothrus occidentalis Berlepsch and Stolzmann

  • Molothrus occidentalis Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 1892: 378 (Peru occ. (Lima etc.)).

    Now Molothrus bonariensis occidentalis Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 1892. See Hartert, 1919a: 137; 1928: 192–193; Hellmayr, 1937: 66–67; Blake, 1968: 197; Dickinson, 2003: 773; and Fraga, 2011: 786–787.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 521045, male, collected at Lima, 12.03S, 77.03W (Stephens and Traylor, 1983), Peru, on 10 November 1889, by J. Kalinowski (no. 258); AMNH 521046, female, collected at Lima, Peru, on 18 October 1889, by J. Kalinowski (no. 179); AMNH 521047, female, collected at Lima, Peru, on 6 October 1889, by J. Kalinowski (no. 140). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    No type was designated in the original description, Berlepsch and Stolzmann describing male and female and noting only that Kalinowski had collected “nombreux exemplaires; octobre et novembre 1889, janvier 1890.” Hartert (1919a: 137) at first listed only the adult male specimen as a cotype ( =  syntype), giving its Kalinowski no. 258, and it is marked “Typus” on the original label. This specimen came to AMNH bearing a Rothschild type label and was cataloged at that time as the type. Hartert (1928: 192–193) later added the female collected on 18 October as a syntype, but it bears no Rothschild type label; it is also marked “Typus” on the original label. AMNH 521047 was not listed by Hartert and is not marked “Typus,” but is part of the same series and should also be considered a syntype. AMNH type labels have been added to the two additional syntypes. There are four more syntypes in MIZ (Mlíkovský, 2009: 128).

  • Molothrus minimus Dalmas

  • Molothrus minimus Dalmas, 1900: 138 (Ile de Tobago).

    Now Molothrus bonariensis minimus Dalmas, 1900. See Hellmayr, 1937: 57–59; Blake, 1968: 197–198; Dickinson, 2003: 773; and Fraga, 2011: 786–787.

    Syntype:

    AMNH 521003, adult male, collected on Tobago Island, Trinidad and Tobago, in 1898, by Comte de Dalmas. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Dalmas, in the original description, did not say how many specimens he had but described the male, female, and young. Rothschild bought part of the Dalmas Collection, other parts going to Munich and Paris (Hartert, 1919a: 151; Hellmayr, 1931: 163; Phelps, 1945: 333). Specimens that Rothschild purchased bear labels printed “E Museo Dalmas,” as this syntype does. Other syntypes, if extant, may be in one of the other collections. The original tag on this specimen is stamped Tobago 1898, and on the reverse is written: “Molothrus n. sp., ♂.” Dalmas (1900: 132) noted that he was on Tobago in the months of November and December 1898. A separate small tag bears the number “110.1.13” of unknown significance. A wing measurement of the male was given by Dalmas as “112 [mm],” but I measure it as 102 mm, indicating a misprint in Dalmas' account. Six additional males from Tobago in AMNH had wing measurements of 98–101 mm.

  • Icterus violaceus Wied

  • Icterus violaceus Wied, 1831: 1212 (Rio Parahyba and Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro).

    Now Molothrus bonariensis bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789). See Allen, 1889c: 226; and Hellmayr, 1937: 59–64.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 6771, female, AMNH 6772, male, and AMNH 4719, male, collected in “Brasilia” by Maximilian, Prince of Wied. From the Maximilian Collection.

    Comments:

    Allen (1889c: 226) listed two Wied names under Molothrus bonariensis: Oriolus violaceus Wied (1820: 53) and Icterus violaceus Wied (1831: 1212). The earlier name appears in Wied's text but is a nomen nudum there. It is not mentioned by Hellmayr (1937: 59–64).

    As syntypes of Icterus violaceus Wied, Allen (1889c: 226) listed only AMNH 6771 and 6772 (incorrectly given as 6671 and 6672). The original Wied label that is glued to the back of the AMNH label on AMNH 6772 was marked “Icterus violaceus mihi” in Wied's hand and had applied to two specimens, a male and female. The female is AMNH 6771, and it was labeled “female” by Allen. The two specimens had probably been tied together originally.

    There is a third syntype in AMNH, a Wied specimen of violaceus in male plumage that was on exhibit and perhaps because of this was overlooked by Allen. It is AMNH 4719, male, also with an original Wied label bearing the name “Icterus violaceus mihi” in Wied's hand and applying to two specimens, a male and a male juvenile. I did not find the male juvenile in the collection although there is an entry in the AMNH catalog at number 4721 of a “male juv?” without other data.

  • Molothrus bonariensis milleri Naumburg and Friedmann

  • Molothrus bonariensis milleri Naumburg and Friedmann, 1927: 494 (Urucum, near Corumbá, Matto Grosso, Brazil).

    Now Molothrus bonariensis bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789). See Naumburg, 1930: 394; Hellmayr, 1937: 59–64; Blake, 1968: 198; Dickinson, 2003: 773; and Fraga, 2011: 786–787.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 128345, female, collected at Urucum, 19.09S, 57.38W (Paynter and Traylor, 1991), near Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, on 12 December 1913, by George K. Cherrie (no. 17389) on the Roosevelt Rondon Expedition.

    Comments:

    Naumburg and Friedmann cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description, giving measurements of four adult males, three adult females and describing the juvenile plumage of the male and the female. They had specimens from Corumbá, Descalvados, and Cuyabá. Paratypes are: Urucum near Corumbá, AMNH 128339–128344, 128346, four males, one immature male, two females; Cuyabá, AMNH 128347, immature male, all collected by Cherrie in November and December 1913 on the Roosevelt Rondon Expedition; Descalvados, AMNH 149800, female, collected on 27 December 1916, collected by Cherry on a later expedition supplemental to the Roosevelt Rondon Expedition.

    FRINGILLIDAE

    Zuccon et al. (2012) have published on the phylogenetic relationships and generic limits of the Fringillidae.

    FRINGILLINAE

  • Fringilla coelebs ombriosa Hartert

  • Fringilla coelebs ombriosa Hartert, 1913: 78 (Island of Hierro (Ferro)).

    Now Fringilla coelebs ombriosa Hartert, 1913. See Vaurie, 1959: 593; Mayr, 1968: 202; Dickinson, 2003: 746; Fry and Keith, 2004: 453; and Clement, 2010: 513–514.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 709989, adult male, collected on Hierro Island, 27.45N, 18.00W (Times atlas), Canary Islands, Spain, on 16 February 1903, by Captain Polatzek. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Hartert designated as type a male specimen collected by Polatzek on Hierro Island on 16 February 1903; the above specimen is the only male specimen collected on that date. Hartert did not say how many specimens he examined. The following eight specimens came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection and are paratypes: Hierro Island, males, AMNH 709986, 30 January 1903, AMNH 709987, 26 January 1903, AMNH 709988, 5 February 1903, AMNH 709990, February 1905; females, AMNH 709991, February 1905, AMNH 709992, 5 February 1903, AMNH 709993, 12 February 1903, AMNH 709994, 16 February 1903.

  • Fringilla spodiogenys koenigi Rothschild and Hartert

  • Fringilla spodiogenys koenigi Rothschild and Hartert, 1893: 97 (Marokko).

    Now Fringilla coelebs africana Levaillant, 1850. See Hartert, 1904a: 128; Hartert 1919a: 156; Vaurie, 1959: 593; Fry and Keith, 2004: 452–454; and Clement, 2010: 513–514.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 709803, adult male, collected in Morocco ( =  Marokko), on 5 April 1884. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    No type was designated in the original description, the authors stating that they measured four males and three females from Morocco. Rothschild and Hartert (1894: 76) later added that they had, since the description, seen additional material from Morocco, but only the original seven specimens comprise the type series. The only locality within Morocco mentioned in the original description was Tangiers ( =  Tanger) in relation to the female specimens. Later, Hartert (1919a: 156), designated as lectotype the male specimen from Tangiers, collected on 5 April 1884, by Olcese, from the Bartlett Collection, ex Wilh. Schlüter. AMNH 709803 bears the Rothschild type label with the number “7167” (not elsewhere cited), locality of “Tanger” and reference to the original description; on the original label it is sexed as a male, collected 5 April 1884 in Morocco. It bears an original number “7167c” of unknown significance and is marked “Type” in hand unknown, without further information about the collector. The fact that Hartert did not cite the number “7167” of his intended type has led to ambiguity in this designation, as there are two males bearing the date 5 April 1884. In order to remove this ambiguity, I hereby designate Hartert's intended type, AMNH 709803, the lectotype of Fringilla spodiogenys koenigi Rothschild and Hartert, 1893, as it has without question always been considered the type. There are six paralectotypes in AMNH, all marked as collected by Olcese: AMNH 709805, [male], Tanger, Morocco, collected 5 April 1884; AMNH 709806, male, Tanger, Moroc, no date, “3f,” marked “Co-type” by Hartert; AMNH 709807, [male], Tanger, Moroc, no date; AMNH 709808, male, Maroc, no date, “3e”; AMNH 709810, [male], Tangiers, Morocco, no date; AMNH 709811, female, Maroc, no date, “3g,” marked “type of ♀” by Hartert. The specimens listed above as [male], bore an upside-down female symbol, and Rothschild and Hartert apparently based their designation of four males and three females on the results of their measurements. I consider all of them paralectotypes of koenigi.

    The information concerning the provenance of the type of koenigi, “Ex. Coll. Bartlett, ex. Wilh. Schlüter” (Hartert, 1919a: 98), must have been information known to him but not appearing on any of the labels.

    There are two additional specimens of koenigi that came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection: AMNH 709804 came to Rothschild from the Museum Boucard, and AMNH 709809, came to him from the Museum of Henry H. Slater. I do not consider these specimens paralectotypes.

  • Fringilla teydea polatzeki Hartert

  • Fringilla teydea polatzeki Hartert, 1905b: 164 (Gran Canaria).

    Now Fringilla teydea polatzeki Hartert, 1905. See Vaurie, 1959: 596; Mayr, 1968: 206; Dickinson, 2003: 746; Fry and Keith, 2004: 453; and Clement, 2010: 514–515.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 710024, adult male, collected on Grand Canary Island, Canary Islands, Spain, on 1 May 1905, by Captain Polatzek. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Hartert gave the number of the holotype as “No. 1505, im Rothschildschen Museum.” This number had been added to Polatzek's label and was apparently contrived by Hartert from the date of collection, as the Rothschild specimens were not cataloged. His other specimens do not bear numbers. Hartert gave measurements for four males, however, five males in addition to the holotype came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection and I have considered all of them paratypes of polatzeki: Grand Canary Island, AMNH 710020, 24 April, AMNH 710021, 24 April, AMNH 710022, 26 April, AMNH 710023, 1 May, AMNH 710025, 1 August, all collected by Polatzek in 1905.

    CARDUELINAE

  • Serinus orientalis C.L. Brehm

  • Serinus orientalis C.L. Brehm, 1831: 254 (im südöstlichen Europa bis nach Wien).

    Now Serinus serinus (Linnaeus, 1766). See Hartert, 1903: 83; Vaurie, 1959: 599; Howell et al., 1968: 210; Dickinson, 2003: 746; Kinzelbach et al., 2009: 63–64; and Clement, 2010: 516–517.

    Syntype:

    AMNH 456744, juvenile male, collected in Vienna ( =  Wien), 48.13N, 16.22E (Times atlas), Austria, on 8 August 1824. From the Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    S. orientalis Brehm was not among the Brehm types listed by Hartert (1918) and was only discovered in the general collection at AMNH after enquiries by E. Dickinson in 2008. In the original description Brehm described male, female, and young. The above specimen bears the original Brehm label, marked “Serinus flavescens orientalis, ♂ juv. 8. August 1824 Wien.” A juvenile female, collected on the same day in “Wien” is labeled meridionalis by Brehm (see below). Because of the conflicting evidence, I have not considered it a syntype of either name. Other specimens labeled orientalis by Brehm were collected after the publication of the name.

    Kinzelbach et al. (2009) found that Serinus estherae orientalis Chasen was preoccupied by Serinus orientalis C.L. Brehm, 1831, and provided a replacement name for that of Chasen.

  • Serinus meridionalis C.L. Brehm

  • Serinus meridionalis C.L. Brehm, 1831: 255 (in Tyrol und der Schweiz).

    Now Serinus serinus (Linnaeus, 1766). See Hartert, 1903: 83; Vaurie, 1959: 599; Howell et al., 1968: 210; Dickinson, 2003: 746; and Clement, 2010: 516–517.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 456733, adult male, AMNH 456734, adult female, both collected on 15 July 1820, in Tyrol. From the Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    S. meridionalis Brehm was not among the Brehm types listed by Hartert (1918). Three specimens labeled meridionalis by Brehm were discovered in the AMNH general collection when looking for the syntype of S. orientalis (above). The adult male and female were tied together and are labeled as from Tyrol, given as a locality for this form by Brehm. They are considered syntypes of meridionalis. The third specimen, AMNH 456745, juvenile female, 8 August 1824, Wien, while labeled meridionalis is from a locality given for orientalis. It was also collected on the same day as a juvenile male of orientalis (see above). I have not considered it a syntype of either name.

  • Spinus citrinelloides kikuyensis Neumann

  • Spinus citrinelloides kikuyensis Neumann, 1905: 356 (Kikuyu).

    Now Serinus citrinelloides kikuyensis (Neumann, 1905). See Hartert, 1919a: 156; Howell et al., 1968: 212; Fry and Keith, 2004: 460–462; and Clement, 2010: 521.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 710620, adult male, collected in the Kikuyu Mountains, Kenya, undated, by William Doherty. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Neumann said that the type was an adult male in the Rothschild Collection, collected by Doherty at Kikuyu, and added that he had six such specimens. There are, in addition to the type, six adult male specimens in AMNH from the Rothschild Collection, collected by Doherty in the Kikuyu Mountains. Neumann's designation of the type did not serve to distinguish it from one additional undated Doherty specimen, nor did Hartert (1919a: 156) further distinguish the type. Neumann has written his new name and “Typus” on AMNH 710620, and that is the specimen that bears the Rothschild type label and was cataloged as the type when the Rothschild Collection came to AMNH. In order to remove the ambiguity from Neumann's intended type, I hereby designate AMNH 710620 the lectotype of Spinus citrinelloides kikuyensis. Neumann, in the original description also compared females and immature males from the Kikuyu Mountains, of which there are four, with specimens of S. c. citrinelloides. I consider all of Doherty's specimens from the Kikuyu Mountains in addition to the lectotype to be paralectotypes: AMNH 710613, male, October 1900; AMNH 710614, immature male, November 1900; AMNH 710615, immature male, November 1900; AMNH 710616, male, December 1900; AMNH 710617, male, January 1901; AMNH 710618, male, January 1901; AMNH 710619, male, March 1901; AMNH 710621, male, undated; AMNH 710622, female, November 1900; AMNH 710623, female, March 1901.

    Neumann also included in kikuyensis an example from Naiwascha-See collected by Fischer in ZMB and Kenyan examples collected by Lord Delamere.

    This subspecific name is frequently misspelled as kikuyuensis (e.g., Fry and Keith, 2004: 461), but it was spelled kikuyensis in the original description. Hartert (1902g: 620) provided information on this collecting locality.

  • Serinus leucopygius riggenbachi Neumann

  • Serinus leucopygius riggenbachi Neumann, 1908a: 44 (Thiés near Dakar).

    Now Serinus leucopygius riggenbachi Neumann, 1908. See Hartert, 1919a: 160; Vaurie, 1956a: 5–6; Howell et al., 1968: 215; Fry and Keith, 2004: 470–471; and Clement, 2010: 522–523.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 713382, adult male, collected at Thiés, 14.49N, 16.52W (Times atlas), Senegal, on 24 May 1907, by F.W. Riggenbach (no. 519). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Neumann said that the male type, in the Rothschild Collection, was collected on 24 May 1907 at Thiés, but there are two Riggenbach specimens collected on that date, therefore the type designation is ambivalent. Hartert (1919a: 160) listed this type, giving Riggenbach's unique field number of 519, thus designating the specimen that is now AMNH 713382 the lectotype. The following specimens are paralectotypes: Senegal, Thiés, AMNH 713383 (Riggenbach no. 515), AMNH 713384 (518), 713385 (514), males; AMNH 713386 (516), 713387 (517), 713388 (513), 713389 (521), females, collected in May and June 1907; Gassam, AMNH 713390 (1292), 713391 (1264), 713392 (1253), males; AMNH 713393 (1243), female, collected in August and September 1907; Onomim, AMNH 713394 (872), male, collected in September 1907. There are two additional undated Rothschild specimens from Gambia that are probable paralectotypes: AMNH 713395, ex Bartlett Collection; AMNH 713396, ex Boucard Collection.

  • Serinus leucopygius pallens Vaurie

  • Serinus leucopygius pallens Vaurie, 1956a: 6 (Azzal, north of Agadés, Aïr Massif).

    Now Serinus leucopygius pallens Vaurie, 1956. See Hartert, 1921: 135; Howell et al., 1968: 215; Dickinson, 2003: 746–747; Fry and Keith, 2004: 470–471; and Clement, 2010: 522–523.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 713404, adult female, Azzal, north of Agadéz ( =  Agadés), 17.00N, 07.56E (Times atlas), Aïr Massif, Niger, on 14 July 1920, by A. Buchanan. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Vaurie gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and (on pp. 5–6) listed the 10 specimens of the new subspecies that he examined. These were the same Buchanan specimens listed by Hartert (1921: 135). The nine paratypes of pallens are: Tatukut, Damergou, AMNH 713397–713399, three males, 22–24 March 1920; Zinder, AMNH 713400–713402, two males, one female?, 30 June 1920; Azzal, AMNH 713403, female, 14 July 1920; Kano, AMNH 713405, male juvenile, 5 December 1919; Farniso, near Kano, AMNH 713406, male juvenile, 23 December 1919.

    The subspecies pallens has been recognized by most recent authors, but Fry and Keith (2004: 470) include it in riggenbachi without explanation.

  • Serinus flavigula Salvadori

  • Serinus flavigula Salvadori, 1888: 272 (Malca-ghebdu).

    Now Serinus flavigula Salvadori, 1888. See Rand, 1968: 116–119; Erard, 1974; Dickinson, 2003: 747; Fry and Keith, 2004: 484–485; Ash and Atkins, 2009: 365; and Clement, 2010: 524–525.

    Syntype:

    AMNH 713268, unsexed, collected at Melka Ghebdu ( =  Malca-Ghebdu), 09.31N, 39.56E (Ash and Atkins, 2009: 417), Shewa ( =  Shoa), Ethiopia, on 19 February 1885 (not 1886), by Vincenzo Ragazzi (no. 512). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    This specimen was listed by Salvadori (1888: 272) as one of his three specimens of S. flavigula, although he misread the date as 1886. It bears the original label with the number 512 on it. On the reverse of this label, Salvadori has written: “Serinus flavigula Salvad., nov. sp. ?” (with the ? marked out) “Typical specimen,” “b,” and “7.a.” The “b” refers to the letter opposite this specimen in the original description. I do not know the significance of the “7a.”

    This type was not mentioned by Hartert in any of his Rothschild type lists and was apparently first referred to as in AMNH by Erard (1974: 308), after which it was found in the collection by Carlo Violani and added to the AMNH types. Rand (1968) considered S. flavigula to be “yellow-throated aberrant specimens or mutants” of S. atrogularis xanthopygius. Erard (1974: 320–322) thought it was best considered a full species as Irwin (1961: 138–139) had suggested. Subsequent authors have followed them for this very rare species.

  • Serinus angolensis somereni Hartert

  • Serinus angolensis somereni Hartert, 1912: 63 (Toro, Uganda).

    Now Serinus atrogularis somereni Hartert, 1912. See Hartert, 1919a: 160, Howell, et al., 1968: 216; Dickinson, 2003: 747; Fry and Keith, 2004: 471–473; and Clement, 2010: 523.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 713306, AMNH 713307, male and female, collected at Bwezu, Toro, Uganda, in November 1910, by R.A.L. van Someren (nos 69 and 70 B.G.). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Hartert designated as types the male and female bearing the numbers 69 and 70 B.G. Because syntypes were designated, other specimens mentioned by Hartert have no nomenclautral standing. Apparently only one label originally served for both birds; this label was copied and the copy tied on the other specimen. Only specimen AMNH 713306 bore a Rothschild type label, which had been marked “syntypes of Serinus angolensis somereni” by Hartert, and he (Hartert, 1919a: 160) listed both as types. A type label has been added to the second specimen and it is now included in the type collection.

  • Serinus pseudobarbatus van Someren

  • Serinus pseudobarbatus van Someren, 1919: 56 (Fort Ternan, Kavirondo).

    Now Serinus mozambicus barbatus (Heuglin, 1864). See van Someren, 1922: 172; Hartert, 1928: 199; Howell, et al., 1968: 218; Fry and Keith, 2004: 479–482; and Clement, 2010: 527–528.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 713851, adult male, collected at Fort Ternan, 00.12S, 35.205E (Polhill, 1988), Kavirondo, Kenya, on 24 August 1918. From the V.G.L. van Someren Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, van Someren said that the type, bearing the above data, was in the Rothschild Collection; he gave inclusive measurements but did not enumerate his specimens. Van Someren (1922: 172) gave eight measurements, mentioned young specimens, and listed the following localities: Kisumu, Fort Ternan, Kibigori, and Kibingei. Only one of the paratypes came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection: AMNH 713852, female, collected at Fort Ternan on 24 August 1918, from van Someren.

    The type locality is Fort Ternan, not Fort Fernan, misread by Hartert (1928: 199) from the original label.

  • Serinus buchanani Hartert

  • Serinus buchanani Hartert, 1919b: 50 (Maktan, British East Africa).

    Now Serinus buchanani Hartert, 1919. See Hartert, 1928: 199; Howell, et al., 1968: 221; Zimmerman et al., 1999: 562; Dickinson, 2003: 747; Fry and Keith, 2004: 488–489; and Clement, 2010: 528.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 713518, adult male, collected at Maktau (not Maktan), 03.25S, 38.07E (Polhill, 1988), Teita, Kenya, on 18 September 1915, by Angus Buchanan (no. 1). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Hartert gave Buchanan's field number of the holotype and noted that he had one male, one female, and a nest with eggs. The paratype in AMNH is: AMNH 713519, female, collected at Maktau on 19 October 1915 by A. Buchanan (no. 26). The nest and eggs did not come to AMNH.

    This form had been treated as a subspecies of S. donaldsoni, but Zimmerman et al. (1999: 562) treated it as a full species, and subsequent authors have agreed.

  • Serinus maculicollis taruensis van Someren

  • Serinus maculicollis taruensis van Someren, 1921a: 114 (M'buyuni).

    Now Serinus dorsostriatus maculicollis Sharpe, 1895. See Hartert, 1928: 199; Howell et al., 1968: 221; Dickinson, 2003: 747; Fry and Keith, 2004: 483–484; and Clement, 2010: 529.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 713666, adult male, collected at M'buyuni, 03.14S, 38.30E (Polhill, 1988), Kenya, 27 June 1918. From the V.G.L. van Someren Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, van Someren said that his type was a male collected on 17 June 1918 at M'buyuni and that he had five male and three female specimens. Four specimens of taruensis came to AMNH in addition to the type. The following two specimens are paratypes: AMNH 713667, female, M'buyuni, 3 July 1918, and AMNH 713669, male, Manugu, 8 August 1918. AMNH 713668, male, 2 July 1918 from Masongaleni is a probable paratype but this locality was not mentioned, and AMNH 713670, unsexed, Manugu, 3 August 1918, is also a probable paratype, but unsexed specimens were not mentioned in the description.

    Of recent authors, only Clement (2010: 529) recognized taruensis.

  • Serinus (? flaviventris) loveridgei van Someren

  • Serinus (? flaviventris) loveridgei van Someren, 1921a: 114 (Lumbo, North Mozambique).

    Now Serinus sulphuratus sharpii Neumann, 1900. See Hartert, 1928: 199; Howell et al., 1968: 223; Dickinson, 2003: 747; Fry and Keith, 2004: 489–491; and Clement, 2010: 529–530.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 713613, adult male, collected at Lumbo, 15.00S, 40.40E (Times atlas), Mozambique, on 10 July 1918, by Arthur Loveridge. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, van Someren designated as the holotype a male in the Rothschild Collection collected at Lumbo on 10 July 1918 by Loveridge. He apparently had two males, but the second male, a paratype, did not come to AMNH.

    Howell et al. (1968: 223) recognized S. sulphuratus shelleyi, with loveridgei a synonym. More recent authors have synonymized shelleyi and loveridgei with S. s. sharpii (not sharpei).

    Loveridge (1922: 837) listed his localities for collections made during the years 1915–1919 and noted that new forms had been named by van Someren.

  • Poliospiza striolata ugandae van Someren

  • Poliospiza striolata ugandae van Someren, 1921a: 114 (Mt. Elgon).

    Now Serinus striolatus striolatus (Rüppell, 1840). See van Someren, 1922: 168; Hartert, 1928: 199; Howell et al., 1968: 227; Dickinson, 2003: 748; Fry and Keith, 2004: 495–497; and Clement, 2010: 535.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 714161, female, collected on Mount Elgon, ca, 01.08N, 34.33E (Polhill, 1988), Uganda, on 18 July 1916. From the V.G.L. van Someren Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, van Someren noted that his type, in the Rothschild Collection, was a female, collected on Mount Elgon on 18 July 1916, and said that he had seven males and three females from Mount Elgon and South Ankole and that “Specimens from the Kivu districts appear to be indistinguishable from ugandae.” Paratypes in AMNH are: AMNH 714163, male, AMNH 714164, female, and AMNH 714165, male, collected in July 1907 by collectors for van Someren. AMNH 714167–714181, seven males, eight females, collected in the Kivu district, in August and November/December 1907 by Grauer would have been seen by van Someren in the Rothschild Collection and are also paratypes of ugandae.

    Howell et al. (1968: 227) recognized S. striolatus affinis and considered ugandae a synonym of it. Recent authors have considered affinis a synonym of nominate striolatus.

  • Serinus striolatus graueri Hartert

  • Serinus striolatus graueri Hartert, 1907: 84 (Ruwenzori, 7000 feet).

    Now Serinus striolatus graueri Hartert, 1907. See Hartert, 1919a: 159; Howell et al., 1968: 227; Dickinson, 2003: 748; Fry and Keith, 2004: 495–497; and Clement, 2010: 535.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 714162, adult female, collected in the Ruwenzori Mountains, 7000 ft, ca. 00.05–00.50N, 29.45–30.25E (Polhill, 1988), Uganda-Congo (Kinshasa) border, undated, by Rudolf Grauer (no. 3571). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Hartert cited Grauer's no. 3571 in the original description, and noted that Grauer collected two specimens. The paratype is: AMNH 714166, male, from the Ruwenzori Mountains, 7000 ft, undated, by Grauer. The number “3571” appears to have been added by Hartert, the paratype has no Grauer number.

  • Linurgus elgonensis van Someren

  • Linurgus elgonensis van Someren, 1918b: 283 (forests on Elgon).

    Now Linurgus olivaceus elgonensis van Someren, 1918. See Hartert, 1928: 199; Howell et al., 1968: 282; Fry and Keith, 2004: 531–533; Arnaiz-Villena and Moscoso, 2007: 826–834; and Clement, 2010: 541.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 714358, adult male, collected on Mount Elgon, ca. 01.08N, 34.33E (Polhill, 1988), Kenya/Uganda border, on 16 November 1916. From the V.G.L. van Someren Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, van Someren did not designate a type but noted that he had three male and two female specimens. Van Someren (1922: 156) later mentioned that the type was in the Rothschild Collection without giving further information; by that time he had acquired an additional male, but only the three cited in the original description were part of his type series. Hartert (1928: 199) listed the male collected on 16 November 1916 as the type, thereby designating it the lectotype. This specimen, now AMNH 714358, is marked on the original label “TYPE Linurus elgonensis vS” and bears a Rothschild type label. No paralectotypes of elgonensis came to AMNH.

  • Chloris curvirostris C.L. Brehm

  • Chloris curvirostris C.L. Brehm, 1855: 95 (in Schweden und Deutschland).

    Now Carduelis chloris chloris (Linnaeus, 1758). See Hartert, 1903: 61; Hartert, 1918: 10; Howell et al., 1968: 235; Dickinson, 2003: 749; and Clement, 2010: 542–543.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 456671, female, collected in Stockholm, 59.20N, 18.95E (Times atlas), Sweden, on 30 April 1849. From the Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Hartert (1918: 10) listed the Brehm specimen collected in Stockholm on 30 April 1849 as the type, thereby designating it the lectotype of C. curvirostris. He also listed a pair and a nestling from Renthendorf as labeled curvirostris by Brehm. These three specimens were perhaps AMNH 456668, male, 20 June 1817, AMNH 456669, male, AMNH 456670, female, 4 September 1837, cataloged as curvirostris but exchanged to ZFMK. They may be paralectotypes of curvirostris. Hartert (1918: 10) listed W. Meves as the collector of this lectotype.

    Hartert (1903: 61) restricted the type locality of Carduelis chloris to Sweden and listed C. curvirostris Brehm as a synonym, as have subsequent authors.

  • Chloris septentrionalis C.L. Brehm

  • Chloris septentrionalis C.L. Brehm, 1831: 261 (Er bewohnt schon Nord-deutschland, z.B. die Gegend bei Kiel geht aber warscheinlich viel höher nördlich hinauf, lebt vom November bis zum April in Mitteldeutschland).

    Now Carduelis chloris chloris (Linnaeus, 1758). See Hartert, 1903: 61; Hartert, 1918: 10; Dickinson, 2003: 749; and Clement, 2010: 542–543.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 456673, adult male, collected at Kiel, 54.20N, 10.08E (Times atlas), Germany, in 1824. From the Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Hartert (1918: 10) listed the Brehm specimen collected in Kiel in 1824 as the type of septentrionalis, thereby designating it the lectotype and said that the specimen was the only one in the Brehm collection from Kiel and was probably collected by Boie. Other Brehm specimens in AMNH labeled septentrionalis by him were collected after 1831.

  • Chloris chloris smithae Koelz

  • Chloris chloris smithae Koelz, 1939: 74 (Balkh, Afghanistan).

    Now Carduelis chloris turkestanica (Zarudny, 1907). See Vaurie, 1956a: 8–10; Vaurie, 1959: 601–602; Howell et al., 1968: 236; Dickinson, 2003: 749; and Clement, 2010: 542–543.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 466940, adult male, collected at Wazirabad ( =  Balkh), 36.46N, 66.50E (Times atlas), Afghanistan, on 1 December 1937, by Walter Koelz.

    Comments:

    Koelz, in the original description, said that the type was an adult male (wing 91 mm), collected at Balkh, Afghanistan, 1 December 1937, and that he had an additional male and two females with the same data. AMNH 466940 bears the AMNH type label and Koelz's original label is marked “type” by him; I measure its wing at 91. Paratypes are: AMNH 466939, male, AMNH 466941, 466942, females, collected at Balkh on 1 December 1937, by Koelz.

  • Chloris sinica tschiliensis Jacobi

  • Chloris sinica tschiliensis Jacobi, 1923: 25 (Peking, Jingschujingtsze, Balihandiën).

    Now Carduelis sinica sinica (Linnaeus, 1766). See Vaurie, 1959: 602; Howell et al., 1968: 236; Dickinson, 2003: 749; and Clement, 2010: 543–544.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 709209, adult male, AMNH 709210, female, collected at Westgräben bei Beijing ( =  Peking) 39.55N, 116.25E (Times atlas), on 11 March 1916, by H. Weigold on the Stoetzner'sche Szetschwan-Expedition. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Jacobi said that he had six males and five females collected at Peking, Jingschujingtsze, and Balihandiën, on 11 March, 2 May, and 26 June, and a juvenile female collected at Peking on 26 June. The above specimens were both collected near Beijing on 11 March 1916 and are both marked “Cotypus.” Wing measurements in pencil on the reverse of the original labels are: male 82, female 77.5, both measurements being given in the original description. These syntypes were not listed by Hartert in his lists of types in the Rothschild Collection and had not previously been included with AMNH types. Töpfer (2013) has recently discovered the whereabouts of the remaining 10 syntypes: six, with an additional one lost in World War II, SNSK; one, ZFMK; two, MCZ.

  • Chloris sinica ussuriensis Hartert

  • Chloris sinica ussuriensis Hartert, 1903: 64 (Sidemi-Mündung, Ostsibirien (Ussuri)).

    Now Carduelis sinica ussuriensis (Hartert, 1903). See Vaurie, 1959: 602–603; Howell et al., 1968: 236–237; Dickinson, 2003: 749; and Clement, 2010: 543–544.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 709174, adult male, collected at the mouth of the Sedimi ( =  Sidemi) River, 43.00N, 131.29E (USBGN, 1959), Ussuri, eastern Siberia, Russia, on 30 April 1884. From the Dörries Collection (no. 2116) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Hartert gave the Dörries Collection number of the holotype and the range from eastern Siberia to Amur, Korea, and Sachalin and Askold islands. Paratypes in AMNH are: AMNH 709169–709173, 709175–709194, 14 males, seven females, four unsexed, collected on the Sedimi River, Amur Bay, 1884–1886, from the Dörries Collection; AMNH 709195–709208, 12 males, two females, from Gensan, Korea, collected by Robert Hall in April and May 1903. Of these, I did not find AMNH 709187 in the collection.

    The name ussuriensis was published in November 1903 (Hartert, 1910: XIII). Rothschild noted in his unpublished and incomplete list of purchases (Archives, Department of Ornithology, AMNH) that he had received 212 specimens of Korean birds from Hall in August 1903, so those specimens would have been in Hartert's hand before the publication of ussuriensis.

  • Spinus obscurus C.L. Brehm

  • Spinus obscurus C.L. Brehm, 1855: 108 (Aeusserst selten in Deutschland).

    Now considered an aberrant specimen of Carduelis spinus (Linnaeus, 1758). See Hartert 1903: 71; and Hartert, 1918: 10.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 456881, female, collected in the Thüringer Wald, Germany, on 6 April 1819. From the Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Brehm described only the female and said that it was very rare in Germany. He probably had a single specimen, which is apparently lacking all yellow pigment in the plumage.

  • Spinus nigricauda Chapman

  • Spinus nigricauda Chapman, 1912: 160 (Paramo, Santa Isabel, alt. 12700 ft, Central Andes, Colombia).

    Now Carduelis spinescens nigricauda (Chapman, 1912). See Hellmayr, 1938: 273; Howell, et al., 1968: 240; Dickinson, 2003: 750; and Clement, 2010: 549.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 112752, adult male, collected on the Paramo of Santa Isabel, 12,700 ft, ca. 04.47N, 75.26W (Paynter, 1997), Central Andes, Colombia, on 15 September 1911, by Arthur A. Allen and Leo E. Miller (no. 392).

    Comments:

    Chapman based his description on two specimens which he listed as adult males and gave the AMNH number of the holotype as AMNH 112752. This holotype was unsexed by the collectors. The paratype is AMNH 112753, adult male, collected at the type locality on 20 September 1911 by Allen and Miller (no. 515). Chapman (1917b: 32–40) described this expedition and the collecting localities.

  • Spinus crassirostris amadoni George

  • Spinus crassirostris amadoni George, 1964: 249 (about 20 kilometers northeast of Tarata (via Tacna-Puno road), 12,000 feet elevation, Departamento de Tacna, southern Perú).

    Now Carduelis crassirostris amadoni (George, 1964). See Howell et al., 1968: 241; Schulenberg et al., 2010: 630; and Clement, 2010: 553.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 789486, adult male, collected ca. 20 km northeast of Tarata (via Tacna-Puno road), 12,000 ft, Tacna, Peru, on 28 March 1963, by William George (no. 1995).

    Comments:

    George cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and noted that he had collected an additional eight specimens (one of which was preserved in spirits). He also included in his new subspecies three specimens collected by Dorst (1962: 433) in 1960. Paratypes in AMNH: 117 km NE Tacna, AMNH 489481, female, 6 January 1963; 20 km NE Tarata, AMNH 489482, 489483, 489485, 489487, 489488, three males, two females, 28 March 1963; 8 km N Lampa, AMNH 489484, male, 19 October 1962, all collected by W. George. AMNH 1640 (alcohol collection), male, Tarata, 28 March 1963, collected by George, is also a paratype. Tarata is at 17.28S, 70.02W (Stephens and Traylor, 1983).

  • Spinus peruanus paulus Todd

  • Spinus peruanus paulus Todd, 1926: 51 (Zamora (3250 ft), Loja, Ecuador).

    Now Carduelis magellanica paula (Todd, 1926). See Hellmayr, 1938: 278; Howell et al., 1968: 241; Dickinson, 2003: 750; and Clement, 2010: 553.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 168124, adult male, collected at Zamora, 3250 ft, Rio Zamora, Loja, Ecuador, on 29 November 1920, by George K. Cherrie (no. 22655).

    Comments:

    Todd gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and typed (!) and initialed (WECT) his new name on the back of the AMNH label of the specimens he included as part of his type series. Of the 50 paratypes Todd (1926: 52) listed, the following were in AMNH: Ecuador, Calasnique, AMNH 41838, male, 30 September 1874; Alamor, AMNH 152925, 152926, male, female, 10, 13 July 1919, AMNH 172407, 172408, males, 23, 30 August 1921; Portovelo, AMNH 168122, female, 3 September 1923; Zamora, AMNH 168125–168127, two males, one female, 1–4 December 1920; Punta Santa Ana, AMNH 168128, male, 19 December 1920; El Paso, AMNH 168129–168138, seven males, three females, 9–14 January 1921; Bucay, AMNH 172410, male, 1 December 1921; Pallatanga, AMNH 173554, male, 29 July 1922. Peru, Milagros, AMNH 152923, 152924, male, female, 3–5 July 1919; Huancabamba, AMNH 175632–175638, four males, three females, 20 November–11 December 1922; Palamba, AMNH 175639–175642, two males, two females, 20 September–28 October 1922. Of these, AMNH 168130 and 168136 were exchanged to ANSP and AMNH 168133, 168134, and 168138 were exchanged to MCZ in July 1928. I did not find AMNH 175633 in the collection and it was perhaps exchanged without the catalog having been marked.

  • Spinus magellanicus urubambensis Todd

  • Spinus magellanicus urubambensis Todd, 1926: 65 (Cuzco (11,000 ft), Peru).

    Now Carduelis magellanica urubambensis (Todd, 1926). See Hellmayr, 1938: 279–280; Howell et al., 1968: 241; Dickinson, 2003: 750; and Clement, 2010: 553.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 129181, adult male, collected at Cuzco, 11,000 ft, 13.31S, 71.59W (Stephens and Traylor, 1983), Cuzco, Peru, on 16 October 1914, by Harry and Casimir Watkins.

    Comments:

    Todd cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed 33 specimens in his type series. Of the 32 paratypes, the following 12 were in AMNH: Peru, Cuzco, AMNH 129182, 129185, male, female, 18–26 November 1914; Tica-Tica, AMNH 145594–145596, three males, 2–3 July 1916; Lauramarca, AMNH 99181, male, 24 June 1899; Lucre, AMNH 99182, sex?, 10 July 1899; Oroya, AMNH 166138–166142, three males, two females, 3–7 March 1913. These paratypes had Todd's name typed on the AMNH label and initialed by him.

  • Spinus magellanicus tucumanus Todd

  • Spinus magellanicus tucumanus Todd, 1926: 62 (Lavalle (1800 ft), Santiago del Estero, Argentina).

    Now Carduelis magellanica tucumana (Todd, 1926). See Hellmayr, 1938: 283–284; Howell et al., 1968: 242; Dickinson, 2003: 750; and Clement, 2010: 553.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 142201, adult male, collected at Lavalle, 1800 ft, 28.12S, 65.08W (Paynter, 1995), Santiago del Estero, Argentina, on 17 June 1916, by Leo E. Miller (no. 17041) and Howarth S. Boyle.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Todd gave the AMNH number of the holotype and listed his 45 specimens, including the type. Of the 44 paratypes, the following 12 are in AMNH: Tilcara, AMNH 142210, 142211, male, female, 8–12 February 1916; Rosario de Lerma, AMNH 142199, 142200, males, 9–12 January 1916; Tafe del Valle, AMNH 142205, male, 6 April 1916; above San Pablo, AMNH 142206, male, 3 March 1916; AMNH 142207, male 19 May 1916; Lavalle, AMNH 142202–142204, female, two males, 17–26 June 1916; Angaco Sud, AMNH 142208, 142209, male, female, 7–9 August 1916. These paratypes had Todd's new name typed on the back of the AMNH label and were initialed by him.

  • Spinus alleni Ridgway

  • Spinus alleni Ridgway, 1899: 37 (Chapada, Matto Grosso, Brazil).

    Now Carduelis magellanica alleni (Ridgway, 1899). See Hellmayr, 1938: 282–283; Todd, 1926: 52–54; Howell et al., 1968: 242; Dickinson, 2003: 750; and Clement, 2010: 553.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 32618, adult male, collected at Chapada dos Guimarães ( =  Chapada), 15.26S, 55.45W (Paynter and Traylor, 1991), Mato Grosso, Brazil, on 21 May 1883, by H.H. Smith.

    Comments:

    When Allen (1891: 375) published on the Herbert H. Smith collection from Chapada, Mato Grosso, he identified his siskins as Spinus yarrelli (Audubon) and noted that he had two males, two young males and a female. Ridgway (1899: 37) found that this was not the correct identification and named the Chapada birds Spinus alleni with the type specimen listed as AMNH 32618, data cited as above. Hellmayr (1938: 282–283) accepted this name, included it as a subspecies of his Spinus magellanicus and gave an expanded range for the form, as did Todd (1926: 53). Both authors (Hellmayr, 1938: 273, Todd, 1926: 30–32) considered Spinus yarrellii a separate species with a range in eastern Brazil and northern Venezuela. This was also followed by Howell et al. (1968: 240, 242), both forms by then included in the genus Carduelis. Dickinson (2003: 750) and Clement (2010: 553) did not include Mato Grosso in the range of alleni, probably an inadvertant omission, as the type locality is Chapada.

    Ridgway, by mentioning Allen's (1891) paper, made bibliographic reference to all of the specimens Allen had and the other four specimens are paratypes of Ridgway's name (ICZN, 1999: 76, Art. 72.4.1): Chapada, AMNH 31524, 32619–32621, one adult male, two young males, one female, colleted at Chapada dos Guinarães, in May and June 1883 (one dated June 1885), by H.H. Smith.

  • Spinus olivaceus Berlepsch and Stolzmann

  • Spinus olivaceus Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 1894: 387 (Vitoc).

    Now Carduelis olivacea (Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 1894). See Todd, 1926: 46–47; Hellmayr, 1938: 287; Howell et al., 1968: 243; Dickinson, 2003: 750; Schulenberg et al., 2010: 630; and Clement: 2010: 554.

    Syntype:

    AMNH 516205, adult male, collected at Vitoc, Garita del Sol, ca. 11.17S, 75.21W (Vaurie, 1972), Junin, Peru, on 13 February 1893, by Jean Kalinowski (no. 1872). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Berlepsch and Stolzmann said that Kalinowski collected three males and one female on 24 July and 13 February 1893 at Vitoc and also included two specimens in the Berlepsch Collection, collected by G. Garlepp at Huayabamba, in their type series; they did not designate a type. Hartert (1919a: 157) recorded the above syntype in the Rothschild Collection, now AMNH 516205; it is marked “Typus” by Berlepsch and Stolzmann and bears a Rothschild type label. Mlíkovský (2009: 141) reported two additional syntypes in MIZ.

    Mlíkovský (2009: 140) noted that Wolters (1953: 280) had provided a replacement name for Spinus olivaceus Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 1894 [preoccupied by Fringilla olivacea Rafinesque, 1810, now Carpodacus erythrinus (Pallas, 1770), if Carpodacus is merged with Carduelis].

  • Spinus tristis pallidus Mearns

  • Spinus tristis pallidus Mearns, 1890: 244 (Fort Verde, Yavapai County, in central Arizona).

    Now Carduelis tristis pallida (Mearns, 1890). See Hellmayr, 1938: 296; Howell et al., 1968: 245; Middleton, 1993; Dickinson, 2003: 750; and Clement, 2010: 559.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 52666, adult male, collected at Fort Verde, Arizona, on 3 May 1888, by Edgar A. Mearns. From the Mearns Collection (no. 6311).

    Comments:

    In the original description, Mearns designated as holotype his no. 6311; this specimen bears an AMNH type label and the original label is marked “Type” by Mearns. He gave measurements for 10 males and 11 females from Arizona and his type series included a “quite large series of winter specimens of both sexes” and six specimens in winter plumage collected by Scott, on which Allen had commented (in Scott, 1887: 198). Mearns' paratypes from his series in AMNH are: Fort Verde, Arizona, AMNH 52667 (Mearns no. 5987), AMNH 52668 (5986), males, 20 January 1888; AMNH 52669 (4577), female, AMNH 52670 (4576), male, 6 March 1886; AMNH 52671 (3666) male, 30 December 1884; AMNH 52672 (3672), AMNH 52673 (3673), AMNH 52674 (3674), AMNH 52675 (3675), four females, 3 January 1885; AMNH 52676 (4342), AMNH 52677 (4344), AMNH 52678 (4346), AMNH 52679 (4348), two females, two males, 23 December 1885; AMNH 52680 (4559), female, 5 March 1886. Two additional Mearns specimens from this series came to AMNH with the Sennett Collection and are also paratypes of pallida: AMNH 83211 (4518, Sennett no. 5971), AMNH 83212 (4519, 5970), female, male, 1 March 1886.

    Of these paratypes, AMNH 52667 also bears an AMNH type label and is marked “Type of pallidus” by Mearns; it remains in the type collection with a label attached to explain its paratype status. AMNH 52676 is also marked “Type of pallidus” by Mearns, but had no AMNH type label attached; it is a paratype and remains in the regular collection.

    The six paratypes collected by W.E.D. Scott are the following: Catalina Mills, Arizona, AMNH 83205 (Scott no. 994, Sennett no. 3354, old AMNH no. 28731), female, 3 February 1886; AMNH 83206 (989, 3349, 28726),; AMNH 83207 (991, ?, 28728), males, 19 December 1885; AMNH 83208 (993, 3353, 28730),; AMNH 83209 (992, 3352, 28729), males, 30 December 1885; AMNH 83210 (990, 3350, 28727), female, 19 December 1885. These six specimens had inadvertently been cataloged with the W.E.D. Scott Collection when it was purchased by AMNH ( =  old AMNH no.) and the catalog is marked “Belong to Mr. Sennett—cataloged here by mistake.” When the Sennett Collection came to AMNH, they were then cataloged with the rest of the Sennett specimens. AMNH 83207 has both legs missing and neither a Scott nor a Sennett label is present; the AMNH label is tied on around the neck. Scott's number was ascertained from the old catalog entry.

    The holotype of pallidus is the only specimen among all of the above in AMNH that is in full breeding plumage.

  • [Acanthis carduelis britannica Hartert]

  • Acanthis carduelis britannica Hartert, 1903: 68 (Rottingdean, Sussex).

    Now Carduelis carduelis britannica (Hartert, 1903). See Hartert, 1919a: 156; Hellmayr, 1938: 264; Vaurie, 1959: 608; Dickinson, 2003: 751; and Clement, 2010: 561–562.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Hartert gave the number “1100” for the type in the Rothschild Collection, a male, collected at Rottingdean, Sussex, England, in April 1902, by the Brazenor Brothers. Later, he (Hartert, 1919a: 156) listed this type, but omitted any mention of the number “1100.” Hellmayr (1938: 264) noted that the type, formerly in the Rothschild Collection, was in the AMNH, New York, but did not say that he had examined it. As a matter of fact, the holotype did come to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection in 1932, but was one of the types of British birds that was presented to BMNH in 1936. It had been cataloged as AMNH 450918 and now bears BMNH Reg. no. 1936.10.15.14 (Warren and Harrison, 1971: 77).

    Hartert (1903: 68) noted that he had 66 specimens of britannica but did not give further information that would assist in recognizing them. Certainly the 32 specimens in AMNH collected in Sussex by the Brazenors between December 1888 and April 1902 are paratypes: AMNH 710231–710235, 710237–710260, 710264–710266.

  • Acanthis carduelis africanus Hartert

  • Acanthis carduelis africanus Hartert, 1903: 69 (Mhoiwla bei Mazagan in Marokko).

    Now Carduelis carduelis parva Tschusi, 1901. See Hartert, 1919a: 156; Vaurie, 1959: 608; Thévenot et al., 2003: 432–434; Dickinson, 2003: 751; Fry and Keith, 2004: 541–543; and Clement, 2010: 561–562.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 710336, adult male, collected at Mhoiwla, near Mazagan, 33.15N, 08.30W (Thévenot et al., 2003), Morocco, on 1 February 1902, by F.W. Riggenbach (no. 78).

    Comments:

    In the original description, Hartert cited Riggenbach's no. 78 for the holotype and said that he had 17 specimens collected by Riggenbach and himself in Morocco, five from Tunis, one from Aguilas, Spain, and others from Algiers. The following paratypes, collected prior to 1903, came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection: Mhoiwla, AMNH 710337–710341, five males, February and May 1902, by Riggenbach, AMNH 710345, female, 8 April 1901, by Hartert; Tunis, AMNH 710391, sex?, 19 April 1858, from the Jardine Collection. Spain, Alguilas, AMNH 710326, male, 3 February 1898, Gray Coll.

    See Hartert (1902c: 310–322; 1902d: 322–339) for an account of his trip.

  • [Linaria americana Wied]

  • Hellmayr (1938: 265) listed this name, introduced by Wied (1858: 338), and said that the type, from the upper Missouri River (winter) in the Wied Collection, was now in AMNH. Allen's (1889c) study of Wied types was based on Wied's Brazilian collection, specimens from which had been purchased for the newly founded AMNH and Linaria americana was thus not mentioned by him. There is an AMNH catalog entry of a mounted bird from the Wied Collection from Missouri at AMNH 3063, with no indication that there was any reason to consider it a type. I have been unable to find this specimen.

  • Linaria Holboellii C.L. Brehm

  • Linaria Holboellii C.L. Brehm, 1831: 280 (Er kommt nur Selten…in das mittlere Deutschland).

    Now Carduelis flammea flammea (Linnaeus, 1758). See Hartert, 1918: 10; Vaurie, 1959: 617–618; Dickinson, 2003: 751; and Clement, 2010: 564–565.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 456888, male, 21 December 1825; AMNH 456889, adult female, 15 Dcember 1825; AMNH 456890, adult male, 23 December 1825; AMNH 456891, adult female, 23 December 1825; AMNH 456895, male, captured 20 November 1822, died 29 August 1823. All of these specimens were collected in the Roda Valley ( =  Rodathal, as on label), Germany, and are labeled Holboellii by Brehm. From the Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Hartert (1918: 10) listed as the probable type of Holboellii the specimen that was captured on 20 November 1822 and died 29 August 1823 (now AMNH 456895), but he was unsure of its type status. It does not bear a Rothschild type label, although it does have a red mark across the end of the Rothschild label, a mark Hartert sometimes used to indicate type status. Previously, someone had attached an AMNH type label with a reference to Hartert (1918: 10). However, in the original description, Brehm did not designate a type but said that he had specimens collected in November 1822 and in 1825; he also described the female and said that “Die einmal vermauserten Männchen” (AMNH 456888) is like the female. Therefore, I consider all of the above specimens syntypes of Holboellii. AMNH 456890 and 456891 were tied together, indicating that Brehm considered them a pair.

    I do not consider AMNH 456887 a syntype as it is a male captured 20 November 1820 and died on 10 August 1821, dates not mentioned by Brehm. Additional specimens labeled Holboellii by Brehm were collected after the 1831 publication date of the name.

  • Acanthis flavirostris stoliczkae Hartert

  • Acanthis flavirostris stoliczkae Hartert, 1903: 77 (Gilgit).

    Now Carduelis flavirostris montanella (Hume, 1873). See Hartert, 1919a: 157; Vaurie, 1956a: 17–18; Vaurie, 1959: 613–614; Dickinson, 2003: 751; and Clement, 2010: 566–567.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 710954, adult male, collected at Gilgit, 35.54N, 74.20E (Times atlas), Kashmir, on 7 March 1880, by J. Scully (no. 738). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Hartert gave Scully's number 738 for the holotype but did not mention additional specimens. Later, Hartert (1919: 157) called attention to the earlier introduction of the name montanella Hume, 1873, which applied to his form.

    J. Scully and J. Biddulph collected together and separately in Gilgit and in their reports on their collections, they referred to this form as Linaria brevirostris (Biddulph, 1881: 86; Scully, 1881: 578–579). Biddulph did not obtain this species, but Scully, at a slightly later date, obtained 66 males and 32 females, for which he gave measurements. The number W 3.03 (wing measurement in inches) appears on Scully's label of the holotype. Three specimens additional to the holotype came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection, but because Hartert did not mention other specimens, I have not considered them paratypes.

  • Acanthis cannabina meadewaldoi Hartert

  • Acanthis cannabina meadewaldoi Hartert, 1901a: 323 (Esperanza, Tenerife).

    Now Carduelis cannabina meadewaldoi (Hartert, 1901). See Hartert, 1903: 75; Hartert, 1919a: 157; Vaurie, 1956a: 19–21; Vaurie, 1959: 616; Dickinson, 2003: 752; and Clement, 2010: 569–570.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 711702, adult male, collected at Esperanza, Tenerife Island, 28.15N, 16.35W (Times atlas), Canary Islands, on 22 March 1901, by C. Floericke (no. 1283). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Hartert designated the male specimen collected at Esperanza on 22 March 1901 as the type. He did not mention Floericke or his field number, but AMNH 711702 is the only such specimen that came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection, and it bears a Rothschild type label. Hartert (1901a: 335) commented that his own stay on Tenerife had been a brief one in April 1901 but that he had bought a few specimens from Floericke, who had collected there for a month.

    In the original description, Hartert gave measurements for more than one adult male, but gave no information about them. A number of other specimens from Teneriffe were in the Rothschild Collection, but they were all collected by R. Thanner. Those that have a year of collection on the labels were collected between December 1901 and May 1904; meadewaldoi was published earlier, in October 1901. There are three males collected in March and one female collected in February, without a year, but there is no indication that these entered into Hartert's description, especially as no female was mentioned.

  • Montifringilla brandti walteri Hartert

  • Montifringilla brandti walteri Hartert, 1904a: 138 (Sung-Pan, Sue-shan, in Szetschwan im nordwestlichen China).

    Now Leucosticte brandti haematopygia (Gould, 1853). See Hartert, 1919a: 158; Vaurie, 1949: 27–28; Vaurie, 1959: 622–623; Howell et al., 1968: 258–259; Dickinson, 2003: 752; and Clement and Arkhipov, 2010: 571–572.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 712199, male?, collected at Sung-pan, Sue-shan, Sichuan, China, on 6 April 1894 (Russian date, according to Hartert, 1919a: 158), by Berezowsky (no. 286). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Hartert had a single specimen and noted that Rothschild (1902: 167) had mentioned it earlier as being “darker than the darkest of our Himalayan birds.”

    Vaurie (1959: 622–623) and Dickinson (2003: 752) recognized walteri; however, Howell et al. (1968: 258–259), while recognizing walteri, included a footnote (initialed R.A.P[aynter], Jr.) stating that Vaurie [in 1968] considered walteri to be a synonym of haematopygia. Clement and Arkhipov (2010: 571–572) agreed with this.

  • Leucosticte kadiaka McGregor

  • Leucosticte kadiaka McGregor, 1900 (1901): 8 (Karluk, Kadiak Island, Alaska).

    Now Leucosticte tephrocotis griseonucha (Brandt, 1842). See Hellmayr, 1938: 260; Howell et al., 1968: 260; Macdougall-Shackleton et al., 2000; Dickinson, 2003: 752; and Clement, 2010: 573.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 366294, adult male, collected at Karluk, 57.33N, 154.32W (Times atlas), Kodiak ( =  Kadiak) Island, Alaska, on 14 March 1897, by Cloudsley Ritter (no. 96). From the McGregor Collection (no. 3048) via the Johathan Dwight Collection (no. 37699).

    Comments:

    McGregor gave his collection number of the holotype in the original description, which had been miscopied as 3047 on his label and changed to 3048. This is apparently the correct number as it is also present on the small field tag. The specimen bears, in addition to the field tag, McGregor's collection label marked “TYPE” in red, a Dwight Collection label, and an AMNH type label. McGregor noted that his specimens were in such worn plumage that wing and tail measurements could not be made, and he gave average bill and middle toe measurements for four males from Kodiak Island. Perhaps he meant that his comparative material was worn, as there are five male specimens in AMNH, all in fresh plumage and apparently from the McGregor Collection, but only the holotype bears a label to that effect. The other four have bracketing numbers on the field label and were collected over the winter of 1896–1897 (one of them on the same date as the holotype). They are: AMNH 366290 (Dwight no. 37696, McGregor no. 3049), AMNH 366291 (37694, 3052), AMNH 366292 (37695, 3051), AMNH 366293 (37698, 3047). I see no way to determine which, if any, of these specimens served as McGregor's paratypes.

    A footnote at the bottom of page 8 noted that “an author's edition of 100 copies was distributed Nov. 25, 1900.”

  • Erythrospiza githaginea amantum Hartert

  • Erythrospiza githaginea amantum Hartert, 1903: 89 (Oliva, Fuertaventura).

    Now Bucanetes githagineus amantum (Hartert, 1903). See Hartert, 1919: 158; Vaurie, 1956: 3–5; Vaurie, 1959: 626–627; Howell et al., 1968: 263; Dickinson, 2003: 753; and Clement, 2010: 578.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 712386, adult male, collected at Oliva, 28.36N, 13.53W (Times atlas), Fuerteventura ( =  Fuertaventura) Island, Canary Islands, on 22 March 1899, by Ramon Gomez (no. 1211).

    Comments:

    Hartert cited Gomez's number of the holotype in the original description. He gave wing measurements for multiple males, giving no total number, and said that amantum occurred on Fuerteventura, Lanzarote, and Gran Canaria islands. The followiing specimens in AMNH, collected before the publication of amantum in May 1903, are considered paratypes: AMNH 712387, 712388, 712390, 712391, 712398, two males and three females, collected at Oliva, Fuerteventura Island, 4–18 March 1889, by Gomez; AMNH 712402, male, collected on Lanzarote Island, on 24 March 1902 by Polatzek.

  • Erythrospiza githaginea zedlitzi Neumann

  • Erythrospiza githaginea zedlitzi Neumann, 1907: 145 (westlich Biskra).

    Now Bucanetes githagineus zedlitzi (Neumann, 1907). See Hartert, 1919a: 158; Vaurie, 1956b: 3–5; Vaurie, 1959: 626–627; Howell et al., 1968: 263; Dickinson, 2003: 753; and Clement, 2010: 578.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 712339, unsexed [male], collected west of Biskra, 34.50N, 05.41E (Times atlas), Algeria, on 30 January 1903, by E. Flückiger (no. 423). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Neumann designated as the type an adult male in the Rothschild Collection collected west of Biskra on 30 January 1903 by Flückiger. AMNH 712339 was unsexed by Flückiger, but a male symbol had been added to the Rothschild label; this specimen also bears a Rothschild type label. Hartert (1919a: 158) listed as the type an adult male collected on 20 January 1903; the data otherwise matched and this was obviously a misprint as no specimen was collected on 20 January. The second specimen collected on 30 January 1903 west of Biskra, was also unsexed by Flückiger, but no sex symbol had been added to the Rothschild label.

    Neumann (1907: 146) studied over 30 specimens of zedlitzi collected between November and April and held in a number of collections. He gave the range as Algiers and Tunisia with the localities and collectors listed separately. Specimens in AMNH that are definitely paratypes are: AMNH 712340, male, south of Biskra, 7 January 1903, no. 266; AMNH 712341, male, Biskra, 31 January 1903, no. 437; AMNH 712342, unsexed, west of Biskra 30 January 1903, no. 424; and AMNH 712343, unsexed, near Biskra, 26 January 1903, no. 384 or 385 (both numbers appear on the label), all collected by Flückiger. AMNH 712364, male, 25 December 1902 and AMNH 712365, female, 24 December 1902, both collected at Gafsa, Tunisia, by Paul W.H. Spate. Three specimens, AMNH 712366–712368, undated and unsexed, collected near Gafsa by Hilgert, are possible paratypes. One male, AMNH 712369, collected at Sidi Ali-ben-Aoun, Tunisia, on 14 March 1897, is from a locality not listed by Neumann.

  • Procarduelis rubescens Blanford

  • Procarduelis rubescens Blanford, 1872: 694, pl. 74 (in Sikkim, in montibus Himalayanis).

    Now Carpodacus rubescens (Blanford, 1872). See Hartert, 1919a: 156; Vaurie, 1956b: 6; Vaurie, 1959: 629; Howell et al., 1968: 268; Dickinson, 2003: 753; and Clement, 2010: 581.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 710175, adult male, undated, collected in Sikkim by Mandelli. From the Elwes Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Blanford did not designate a type in the original description but based his description on a male and a female specimen, noting that the female may be a young male. The specimens were sent to Blanford by Mandelli.

    Hartert (1919a: 156) listed the male as the type of rubescens, thereby designating it the lectotype. Rothschild had received this specimen with the Elwes Collection and its label was annotated in Blandford's hand “Type described P.Z.S. 1871, p. 693, pl. lxxiv. W.T.B.” Hartert did not know what happened to the female, “which came to Blanford together with the male; probably it has been lost somewhere.”

  • Carpodacus mexicanus nigrescens Griscom

  • Carpodacus mexicanus nigrescens Griscom, 1928: 5 (Miquihuana, Tamaulipas, Mexico).

    Now Carpodacus mexicanus potosinus Griscom, 1928. See Hellmayr, 1938: 156; Howell et al., 1968: 274; Dickinson, 2003: 754; and Clement, 2010: 585.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 230408, adult male, collected at Miquihuana, 23.35N, 99.46W (Times atlas), Tamaulipas, Mexico, on 10 [not 11] July 1922, by W.W. Brown. From the Leonard C. Sanford Collection.

    Comments:

    Griscom cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and noted that he had two males and two females of the form. There are two paratypes at AMNH: Miquihuana, AMNH 230409, male, 5 July 1922; and AMNH 230410, female, 20 June 1922, both collected by W.W. Brown.

  • Carpodacus rubicilloides lapersonnei R. and A. Meinertzhagen

  • Carpodacus rubicilloides lapersonnei R. and A. Meinertzhagen, 1926: 83 (Shushal, Eastern Ladak (12,000')).

    Now Carpodacus rubicilloides lucifer R. and A. Meinertzhagen, 1926. See Hartert, 1928: 198; Vaurie, 1956b: 15–16; Vaurie, 1959: 641–642; Howell et al., 1968: 280; Dickinson, 2003: 755; and Clement, 2010: 594.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 712639, adult male, collected at Shushal, 12,000 ft (14,500 ft on label), eastern Ladak, Kashmir, on 11 June 1925, by the Meinertzhagens. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, the Meinertzhagens gave the above data for the holotype in the Rothschild Collection and noted that the new subspecies occurred in Ladak and Gyangtse. There is only one paratype in AMNH: Gyangtse, Tibet, AMNH 712638, male, 31 May 1905, by Capt. Stern.

  • Erythrina rubicilla diabolica Koelz

  • Erythrina rubicilla diabolica Koelz, 1939: 75 (Sanglech, Afghanistan).

    Now Carpodacus rubicilla diabolicus (Koelz, 1939). See Vaurie, 1949: 51–52; Vaurie, 1959: 642; Howell et al., 1968: 281; Dickinson, 2003: 755; and Clement, 2010: 594–595.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 467040, adult male, collected at Sanglich ( =  Sanglech), 36.20N, 71.14E (Times atlas), Afghanistan, on 27 July 1937, by Walter Koelz.

    Comments:

    Koelz had only two specimens of diabolicus and designated the male the holotype in the original description. The paratype, female, collected at the same place on 26 July 1927 by Koelz, is not in AMNH.

  • Carpodacus puniceus kilianensis Vaurie

  • Carpodacus puniceus kilianensis Vaurie, 1956b: 20 (north side of the Kilian Pass at 15,000 feet, western Kun Lun, Sinkiang).

    Now Pyrrhospiza punicea kilianensis (Vaurie, 1956). See Vaurie, 1959: 643–644; Howell et al., 1968: 281; Dickinson, 2003: 755; Rasmussen and Anderton, 2005: 567–568; and Clement, 2010: 596.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 258993 (not 258994), adult female, collected on the north side of Kilian Davan, 15,000 ft, 36.45N, 78.05E (Times atlas), western Kun Lun mountains, Xinjiang ( =  Sinkiang), China, on 5 August 1893, by W.L. Abbott. Received on exchange from the Smithsonian Institution (no. 150313).

    Comments:

    In the original description, Vaurie cited the AMNH number of the holotype that appeared on its label and (on p. 23) gave measurements of three males and two females (including the type). There is one paratype in AMNH: AMNH 295262, adult male, above Tar-Sar, 12,000 ft, Kashmir, 18 August 1908, A.E. Ward (no. 3042). Vaurie added a note to the label concerning this locality: “apparently north of 34° and west of 79°.”

    Until recently, this species was included in the genus Carpodacus (e.g., Dickinson, 2003: 755); however, it was originally described in the monotypic genus Pyrrhospiza and because of its striking differences from other rosefinches Rasmussen and Anderton (2005: 567–568) returned the species to Pyrrhospiza, as did Clement (2010: 596).

    When this holotype was received on exchange from the Smithsonian Institution in 1928, it was given the number 258993 in the AMNH catalog. An incorrect number was put on the specimen label and published as the number of the holotype. Other specimens received on exchange at this time are correctly numbered.

  • Carpodacus puniceus sikangensis Vaurie

  • Carpodacus puniceus sikangensis Vaurie, 1956b: 20 (Mt. Konka between 16,000 and 16,500 feet, southeastern Sikang).

    Now Pyrrhospiza punicea sikangensis Vaurie, 1956. See Vaurie, 1959: 644–645; Howell et al., 1968: 282; Dickinson, 2003: 755; Rasmussen and Anderton, 2005: 567–568; and Clement, 2010: 596.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 292130, adult male, collected in the Konka Risonquemba (or Risumgongba) ( =  Konka), 16,000–16,500 ft, Xizang ( =  Sikang), China, in June 1928, by J.F. Rock. On exchange from the Smithsonian Institution (no. 312918).

    Comments:

    In the original description, Vaurie gave the AMNH number of the holotype and (on p. 23) gave measurements for 10 males (including the type) and 10 females. There is only one paratype in AMNH: AMNH 292131, female, Mount Konka, 16,000–16,500 ft, southeastern Sikang, China, June 1928, by Rock (on exchange from the Smithsonian Institution, no. 312923).

    These two specimens were part of an exchange received from the Smithsonian Institution in September 1930. Riley (1931) reported on Rock's entire collection and noted (Riley, 1931: 1–2) that Rock collected in the Konka Risonquemba, between 14,000 and 17,000 ft, in June and August 1928. This range is northwest of Mu-li (28.12N, 100.50E, Times atlas), and according to Rock (1931: 7) they were in ca. 28.30N, 100.10E in late June. These mountains were visited by Rock prior to his visits to the Muti Konka and Minya Konka, which are north and east of Mu-li in Sichuan.

    Riley (1931: 78–79) assigned Rock's specimens to Pyrrhospiza punicea szetschuana on geographical grounds. Other paratypes are probably in USNM.

  • Corythus splendens C.L. Brehm

  • Corythus splendens C.L. Brehm, 1840: 590 (Nordamerika).

    Now Pinicola enucleator leucura (P.L.S. Müller, 1776). See Hartert, 1918: 11; Hellmayr, 1938: 257; Dickinson, 2003: 755; and Clement, 2010: 599–600.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 457089, adult male, collected in North America, in January 1833. From the Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Hartert (1918: 11) listed this specimen as the type of Corythus splendens, thereby designating it the lectotype.

    Hellmayr (1938: 257 fn.) commented: “Griscom [1934, Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club 14: 11] restricts leucura, canadensis, and splendens to the larger heavy-billed form, and while this action with respect to the first two names, in the absence of types, may be regarded as final, the proper disposition of C. splendens depends on a critical study of the original example, now in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History, New York.”

  • Pinicola enucleator eschatosus Oberholser

  • Pinicola enucleator eschatosus Oberholser, 1914: 51 (Harry's River, Newfoundland).

    Now Pinicola enucleator leucura (P.L.S. Müller, 1776). See Hellmayr, 1938: 257–258; Howell et al., 1968: 286; Adkinsson, 1999; Dickinson, 2003: 755; and Clement, 2010: 599–600.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 388227, adult female, collected at Harry's River, Newfoundland, Canada, on 1 July 1913, by L.C. Sanford (no. 607). From the Leonard C. Sanford Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Oberholser gave the above data for the holotype. It is difficult to determine his exact type series; he (Oberholser, 1914: 53) gave measurements, apparently of the unflattened wing, for two adult males from Fox Island River, collected on 26 June 1912, and three adult females from Harry's River on June 30, July 1, and July 21, 1913, from Sanford's collection. He apparently did not have Sanford's entire series at hand for there are 11 specimens. I have measured the entire series and give my measurements of the unflattened wing in brackets after those given by Oberholser. As indicated, the female collected on 1 July 1913 is the holotype, 104 [104]. The two female paratypes, collected on Harry's River, are: AMNH 761427, sexed as an immature male, but in female plumage and considered a female adult by Oberholser, collected on 30 June 1913, wing 105.5 [106]; AMNH 761428, female, 21 July 1913, wing 105.5 [106]. The only other female collected on Harry's River was collected in 1914. There are five males and one female collected on the Fox Island River on 26 June 1912. The following two come closest in measurements to those given by Oberholser and are considered paratypes of eschatosus: AMNH 761432, adult male, 116 [116]; AMNH 761434, adult male, 112.5 [112]. Other paratypes measured and/or mentioned in the text are in USNM.

    Adkisson (1999: 3) and Clement (2010: 599) synonymized eschatosus with leucura; Dickinson (2003: 755) recognized it.

  • Propyrrhula subhimachala intensior Rothschild

  • Propyrrhula subhimachala intensior Rothschild, 1922: 12 (Lichiang Range).

    Now Propyrrhula subhimachala (Hodgson, 1836). See Hartert, 1928: 197–198; Vaurie, 1956b: 36–37; Vaurie, 1959: 656; Howell et al., 1968: 286; LeCroy and Dickinson, 2001: 192–193; Dickinson, 2003: 755; Rasmusson and Anderton, 2005: 568; and Clement, 2010: 599.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 714820, [male], collected in the Lichiang Range, northwestern Yunnan, China (no date), by George Forrest. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, the only data given by Rothschild for the type was that it was an undated specimen from the Lichiang Range collected by Forrest. While the specimen label is undated, it is apparently the specimen referred to earlier by Rothschild (1921: 61), who declined to name a new subspecies based on a single molting specimen; there it was said to have been collected in 1918 and was part of a collection made by Forrest for botanist Stephenson Clarke, whose label remains on the type. Rothschild (1922) received another collection made by Forrest in 1921 and named new forms included in that collection, as well as a few collected earlier. When he reported on the entire 1921 collection (Rothschild, 1923: 53), he listed one adult male and three immature males from the Lichiang Range, collected in November 1921, and two females collected on the Mekong-Salwin Divide in September 1921. He listed separately the type from the Lichiang Range in the Rothschild Museum. AMNH 714820 is in heavy wing molt and on the Clarke label is unsexed and undated; it bears a Rothschild Collection label marked “Type” and a Rothschild type label and is undoubtedly the holotype (LeCroy and Dickinson, 2001: 192–193). Of the six paratypes, two from the Lichiang Range are in AMNH: AMNH 714821 (Forrest no. 907), immature male, 10 December 1921; and AMNH 714822 (905), imature male?, 23 November 1921. The remaining four paratypes are in BMNH (LeCroy and Dickinson, 2001: 192–193).

    Most recent authors do not recognize intensior; the species subhimachala is placed by some authors in the genus Pinicola (Howell et al., 1968: 286; Dickinson, 2003: 755) and retained by others in the genus Propyrrhula (Vaurie, 1959: 656; Rasmussen and Anderton, 2005: 568; Clement, 2010: 599).

  • Crucirostra brachyrhynchos C.L. Brehm

  • Crucirostra brachyrhynchos C.L. Brehm, 1853: 185 (Er besucht nur zuweilen, wie im Winter 1818/19, die hiesige Gegend…).

    Now Loxia pytyopsittacus Borkhausen, 1793. See Hartert, 1918: 12; Vaurie, 1956b: 30–31; Vaurie, 1959: 647–648; Howell et al., 1968: 287–288; Dickinson, 2003: 755; and Clement, 2010: 603–604.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 456981, adult male, collected at Renthendorf, 50.48N, 11.58E (USBGN, 1959), Germany, in February 1819. From the C.L. Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Brehm did not enumerate his specimens. Hartert (1918: 12) listed the above male, collected at Renthendorf in February 1819 as the type, thereby designating it the lectotype. It is labeled Crucirostra brachyrhynchos by Brehm, and on the reverse of the Brehm label, it is labeled “Nr. 4” and compared with “Nr. 3.” C. brachyrhynchos is number 4 in the list of forms discussed in this 1853 paper and is pictured as number 4 in the unnumbered plate of heads shown opposite page 182. Most of the specimens cataloged at AMNH as brachyrhynchos were exchanged to ZFMK.

  • Crucirostra major C.L. Brehm

  • Crucirostra major Brehm, 1853: 181 (Dieser Kreuzschnabel erschien in unserer Gegend in dem an Nordlichtern und andern auffallenden Erscheinungen reichen Winter 1847/48).

    Now Loxia pytyopsittacus Borkhausen, 1793. See Hartert, 1918: 11; Vaurie, 1956b: 30–31; Vaurie, 1959: 647–648; Howell et al., 1968: 287–288; Dickinson, 2003: 755; and Clement, 2010: 603–604.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 456971, adult male, collected in the Roda Valley (Rodathal) on 27 (not 28) December 1847, by one of Brehm's sons. From the C.L. Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Brehm, in the original description, noted that his son had shot a male and two females on the 28 December 1847 and that he had obtained a first-year male on 12 February 1848 that had been shot a few days before. Hartert (1918: 11) listed the male collected on 27 December 1847 as the type of major, thereby designating it the lectotype, and noted that it was tied together with its female. This female, AMNH 456972, would thereby become a paralectotype of major. The other two specimens mentioned by Brehm are also paralectotypes: a second female collected on the 28 December 1848 was cataloged as AMNH 456983 and was exchanged to ZFMK and the first-year male obtained on 12 February 1848 is AMNH 456982.

    In the description, Brehm noted that the three specimens collected on the same day were collected on the 28 December 1847, but the label on the two specimens still in AMNH, not in Brehm's hand, is marked 27 December 1847 and is labeled Crucirostra pityopsittacus Brm. The 28 December is perhaps the date on which he received it. Hartert (1918: 11) thought the handwriting was perhaps that of Brehm's son, Oskar; he also noted that Brehm's name, major, is a junior secondary homonym of Loxia major Billberg, 1828.

  • [Loxia curvirostra anglica Hartert]

  • Hartert (1904a: 119) noted in the original description that the holotype of this form, male, no. 1890, was collected on 7 December 1897 at Tring and was in the Rothschild Museum. Hartert (1919a: 160) added that it had been collected at High Scrubs, Tring, and that he considered the name a synonym of Loxia curvirostra curvirostra. Type specimens from the Rothschild Collection with type localities in the British Isles were presented to BMNH in September 1936, this type having formerly been AMNH 450917. It is listed by Warren and Harrison (1971: 26) and is now BMNH register no. 1936.10.15.13.

  • Crucirostra erythroptera C.L. Brehm

  • Crucirostra erythroptera C.L. Brehm, 1853: 199 (Harz and Renthendorf).

    Now Loxia curvirostra curvirostra Linnaeus, 1758. See Hartert, 1918: 13, Vaurie; 1956b: 25–30; Vaurie, 1959: 648–652; Howell et al., 1968: 288–293, Dickinson, 2003: 756; and Clement, 2010: 600–602.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 457006, “male biennis” [second-year male], caught in the Harz Mountains, Germany, in March 1848, died in captivity 10 August 1848; AMNH 457007, “male media aetate” [first-year male], caught in the Harz Mountains 1 April 1851, died in captivity 20 May 1851; AMNH 457011, male, died after three days, AMNH 457012, female, died after 10 days, pair captured in the Roda Valley on 25 April 1847; AMNH 457009, young male, collected 29 August 1819 and AMNH 457008, female, collected early in the year 1817, two specimens collected much earlier at Renthendorf. From the Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    On page 201 of the original description, Brehm listed the six specimens of this form that he had, giving dates of their capture. Four of these survived in captivity for varying amounts of time. All six of these birds came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection. Hartert (1918: 13) considered only two of these birds to be types of erythroptera, but this did not serve to designate a lectotype and all six must be considered syntypes.

    Only AMNH 457006 and 457007, the two specimens with Rothschild type labels, remain in AMNH; the other four syntypes were exchanged to ZFMK. AMNH 457010, cataloged at AMNH as erythroptera, unsexed, from Roda Valley, 10 April 1847, was also exchanged to ZFMK, but I have not considered it a syntype as this date was not mentioned by Brehm.

    AMNH 457007 was numbered “No. 14” by Brehm and this corresponds to illustration no. 14 on the unnumbered plate opposite page 182 in the text of Brehm (1853).

  • Crucirostra intercedens C.L. Brehm

  • Crucirostra intercedens C.L. Brehm, 1853: 187 (Er erscheint selten in unsern Wäldern).

    Now Loxia curvirostra curvirostra Linnaeus, 1758. See Hartert, 1918: 12; Vaurie, 1956b: 25–30; Vaurie, 1959: 648–652; Howell et al., 1968: 288–293; Dickinson, 2003: 756; and Clement, 2010: 600–602.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 457029, adult male, collected in the Roda Valley ( =  Rodathal), Germany, on 20 May 1819 (not 10 May 1819, as on Rothschild label). From the Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Hartert (1918: 12) listed this male, “the only adult male in the collection,” as the type, thereby designating it the lectotype. Another specimen, collected on 12 February 1847, was molting from striped juvenal into adult plumage. The six additional specimens cataloged at AMNH as intercedens were exchanged with ZFMK, and this paralectotype, as well as other paralectotypes marked intercedens by Brehm, may be there.

    This form is illustrated as No. 6 on the unnumbered plate in Brehm (1853: opp. p. 182). A corner of Brehm's label on this specimen where that number might have appeared has been cut off.

  • Curvirostra (sic) macrorhynchos C.L. Brehm

  • Curvirostra (sic) macrorhynchos C.L. Brehm, 1853: 192 (Auch er bewohnt unsere Nadelwälder und geht bis Moskau).

    Now Loxia curvirostra curvirostra Linnaeus, 1758. See Hartert, 1918: 12; Vaurie, 1956b: 25–30; Vaurie, 1959: 648–652; Howell et al., 1958: 288–293; Dickinson, 2003: 756; and Clement, 2010: 600–602.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 457055, male, media aetate (Latin, “of middle age”), collected in the Roda Valley ( =  Rodathal), Germany, on 10 May 1845. From the C.L. Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Brehm, in the original description, said: “Ich erhielt ihn im November 1819, im Februar 1830, im Junius 1844, im Mai 1845, etc.” Hartert (1918: 12) listed this specimen collected on the 10 May 1845 as the type, thereby designating it the lectotype. He also noted that it was the only Brehm specimen in the Rothschild Collection that had the name macrorhynchos written on it by Brehm and that it agreed “excellently with the description.” Brehm did describe this form in the genus Curvirostra, although this specimen is labeled Crucirostra, as were all the other forms described at this time. On the Rothschild type label, the date of collection is incorrectly given as “1834”; 1845 is the correct date.

    “Nr. 10” on the reverse of Brehm's label refers to the figure in the unnumbered plate in Brehm (1853: opp. p. 182). In the text, this is referred to as “Nr. 8,” but “no. 8” appears also for Crucirostra media on page 191. No. 10 is the only number missing and is undoubtedly the correct number for this form.

  • Crucirostra pseudopityopsittacus C.L. Brehm

  • Crucirostra pseudopityopsittacus C.L. Brehm, 1853: 185 (Rodathal und Voigtlandes in der Nahe von Greiz).

    Now Loxia curvirostra curvirostra Linnaeus, 1758. See Hartert, 1918: 12; Vaurie, 1956b: 25–31; Vaurie, 1959: 647–652; Howell et al., 1968: 287–293; Dickinson, 2003: 755–756; and Clement 2010: 600–604.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 457013, adult male, collected in the Roda Valley ( =  Rodathal), Germany, on 17 February 1834. From the C.L. Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Brehm said that of 175 specimens of crossbills in his collection, he had two specimens of pseudopityopsittacus, a male collected on “17 February 1817” in the Roda Valley and a female collected on 20 October 1834 in the neighborhood of Greiz. The date “1817” is apparently a slip of the pen, as the original Brehm label gives the date as 17 February 1834. Hartert (1918: 12) listed this male as the type, thereby designating it the lectotype of pseudopityopsittacus. He further commented: “The name pseudopytiopsittacus is very descriptive, as it is a real giant of Loxia curvir. curvirostra, though it does not come up to L. pytyopsittacus; the bill is not so wide, more elongated, especially the under mandible is less broad; the wing measures 100.7 mm.” I did not find cataloged at AMNH a female collected on 20 October 1834 in Greiz and labeled pseudopityopsittacus; thus, no specimens cataloged as this form and exchanged to ZFMK would be paralectotypes.

    This form is referred to “Abbild. Nr. 5”; the reverse of Brehm's label of the lectotype bears “Nr. 5,” corresponding to figure 5 in the unnumbered plate in Brehm (1953: opp. p. 182).

  • Crucirostra rubrifasciata C.L. Brehm

  • Crucirostra rubrifasciata C.L. Brehm, 1845: cols. 245–250 (Renthendorf).

    Now Loxia curvirostra curvirostra Linnaeus, 1758. See Hartert, 1918: 12–13; Vaurie, 1956b: 25–30; Vaurie, 1959: 648–652; Howell et al., 1968: 288–293; Dickinson, 2003: 756; and Clement, 2010: 600–602.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 457019, adult male, caught at Renthendorf on 2 February 1844 and died 14 February 1844 (2 March in description, col. 250). From the Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Brehm described a number of different plumages and especially noted the specimen that had been taken into captivity on 2 February 1844. It is this specimen that Hartert listed as the type of rubrifasciata, thereby designating it the lectotype. In addition to the original Brehm label and the Rothschild type label, it bears two Rothschild Collection labels. The reverse of one has a note by Hartert: “Brehm sagt, er habe die Art in der Isis beschreiben, Wo?? S. Naumannia 1853, p. 194.” The type label has the correct reference to the description. The second Rothschild Collection label reflects a disagreement. It has a note on the front by “E. H[artert]!”: “Umstehende Behauptung spassig! Ist L. curvirostra aberr. aber nicht species!”; and on the reverse: “Einziger wirklicher Loxia rubrifasciata! V. Bianchi.”

    Ten specimens were entered in the AMNH catalog as rubrifasciata, all except the lectotype having been exchanged to ZFMK. Seven of them were collected before the date of publication of the description and may be paralectotypes, depending on how they were labeled by Brehm.

  • Crucirostra paradoxa C.L. Brehm

  • Crucirostra paradoxa C.L. Brehm, 1853: 190 (Dieser Kreuzschnabel ist sehr selten in unserer Gegend).

    Now Loxia curvirostra curvirostra Linnaeus, 1758. See Hartert, 1904a: 117; Vaurie, 1956b: 25–30; Vaurie, 1959: 648–652; Howell et al., 1968: 288–293; Dickinson, 2003: 756; and Clement: 2010: 600–602.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 457057, adult male, AMNH 457058, female, collected on 15 March 1834, and AMNH 457059, male, 13 March 1834, all at Renthendorf, Germany. From the Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Hartert questioned whether these specimens were syntypes of paradoxa, presumably because dates on the specimens and dates cited in Brehm (1853: 190–191) sometimes varied. However, in other such cases, Hartert accepted the date on the Brehm label and considered the published date a misprint. I think the same applies to these three specimens, all of which are labeled only paradoxa by Brehm.

    In the original description, Brehm noted that he had only obtained it six times in 42 years, and listed the specimens, two of which were a paired male and female collected on 15 March 1834. There is no discrepancy with this date and the two are tied together with string. However, on page 191, reference is made to the female with a brood patch collected on 15 March 1835. I believe this was a typographical error. AMNH 457059 is marked as an adult male collected on 13 March 1834 at Renthendorf and this date does not appear in Brehm's list. However, on the reverse of its label, it is marked “Nr. 7,” which refers to figure no. 7 in the unnumbered plate in Brehm (1853: opp. p. 182) and assures that the specimen was in Brehm's hand when paradoxa was described. The female supposedly taken with the male was not found by Hartert or me.

    These specimens were not cataloged as paradoxa at AMNH. One additional specimen, AMNH 457056, a male collected in October 1827 at Rodathal, was listed by Brehm. It was exchanged to ZFMK and is a syntype if labeled paradoxa by Brehm.

  • Loxia curvirostra taurica Griscom

  • Loxia curvirostra taurica (ex. Sushkin ms) Griscom, 1937: 182 (Crimea, south coast).

    Now Loxia curvirostra curvirostra Linnaeus, 1758. See Vaurie, 1956b: 27–28; Vaurie, 1959: 648–652; Howell et al., 1968: 288–293; Dickinson, 2003: 756; Clement, 2010: 600–602.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 713126, adult male, collected at Mishor, Crimea ( =  Krim, as on label), south coast, southern Russia, on 29 September 1910 (16 September 1910, Julian calendar), by P. Sushkin ( =  Suschkin). From the Sushkin Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Vaurie (1956b: 27–28) noted that Griscom inadvertently validated Sushkin's manuscript name written on the labels of two specimens collected by Sushkin and in the Rothschild Collection. Griscom also included a second adult male. While Griscom did not designate a type, Vaurie (1956b: 28) noted that because there is not a second male from the Crimea in the Rothschild Collection from Sushkin, the single male must be considered the type, thereby designating it the lectotype of taurica. Sushkin on his original labels had written the dates according to the Julian calendar, but had converted them to the Gregorian calendar dates on his collection labels. When discussing the two Sushkin specimens, Griscom reversed the dates of collection.

    The second specimen labeled taurica by Sushkin is the paralectotype, AMNH 713127, unsexed (but considered an immature female by Griscom), collected at Koreiz, Crimea, south coast, southern Russia, on 7 August 1910 (25 July 1910, Julian calendar), by P. Sushkin.

    Vaurie (1956b: 28; 1959: 649) synonymized taurica with nominate L. curvirostra. He (Vaurie, 1959: 649) thought that the type locality was possibly Mys Ay Todor.

  • [Crucirostra minor C.L. Brehm]

  • The following two specimens in AMNH are marked “Crucirostra minor” by Brehm and were thought to be possible syntypes of the name by “ARP[hillips].” The labels bear the following information:

    AMNH 457078: Brehm label: “Crucirostra minor Brm. ♀ hieme [Latin, “in winter”], 10 Jan. 1833. Nordamerika”; on the reverse: “Nr. 12. kleiner Körper, schlanker Schnabel.” (I much appreciate S. Frahnert's deciphering Brehm's annotation.). On the reverse of the Rothschild label: “minor  =  ‘sitkensis’; a cotype (?) ARP ’71.” On the reverse of the AMNH type label: “A fair match for U. Minn. Bell M.N.H. 16637 & 17651 ARP ’76.” This is also initialed “J.F[arrand].”

    AMNH 457079: Brehm label: “Crucirostra minor, Brm. ♀ alt. [abbreviation for “adultus” in Latin] Mai, 1842, Nordamerika. Marked “ =  ‘sitkensis’ ARP ’71.” The reverse of this label and of the type label is blank. On the Rothschild label: “[the tiny dark N.-mid-Continent race] ARP ’75.” “minor  =  ‘sitkensis’ cotype (?) ARP ’71.”

    These two specimens are the only two Brehm specimens labeled minor that came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection. They were not listed by Hartert (1918) in his list of Brehm types. The AMNH type labels were apparently added at the time of Phillips' studies, and investigation shows that they are not syntypes of minor.

    According to Hellmayr (1938: 302–303), Crucirostra minor was named by Brehm (1846: 532) based on a Lichtenstein manuscript name (so stated by Brehm, 1853: 193). Brehm (1846) reported on his trip to North America, and his description on page 532 is the following: “Im Januar [1846] schoss ich 2 männliche und 1 weiblichen Kreuzschnabel; die Männchen sind schön roth und scheinen von den deutschen nicht verschieden zu sein. Diese Kreuzschnäbel haben keine weissen Binden.” He added in a footnote: “So urtheilte unser Freund, welcher die deutschen nicht zur Vergleichung hatte, denn die amerikanischen sind viel kleiner als die deutschen und heissen deswegen Crucirostra minor.” I think that “unser Freund” refers to Brehm's host during his stay in North America who was not mentioned by name and that the statement that the North American form did not differ from the European one was the friend's opinion; the footnote then reflects Brehm's realization that it did differ. It is apparent that, according to the dates on AMNH 457078 and 457079, neither can be among the three specimens collected by Brehm in North America in 1846 and referred to when he named the form (Brehm, 1846: 532). Furthermore, there is nothing on Brehm's labels of the two specimens in AMNH to indicate that they came from Lichtenstein. Lacking that connection, they are not considered part of Brehm's type series. The three specimens collected by Brehm in North America in 1846 and any specimens that may have been considered ”minor” by Lichtenstein comprised Brehm's type series, but none of these is in AMNH.

    Stresemann (1922: 41–42), van Rossem (1934: 358–359), and Hellmayr (1938: 302–303) discussed Loxia pusilla Gloger and C. minor Brehm in relation to the whereabouts of the types and which populations the names represented. Stresemann (1922: 42) determined that the type of L. pusilla is No. 6984 in ZMB, and van Rossem (1934: 358–359) designated ZMB 6982 as the lectotype of C. minor Brehm. Van Rossem was convinced that at least two of the specimens that Lichtenstein had called “minor” were in ZMB, although he does not cite evidence that Lichtenstein had ever used the name on a specimen.

    Brehm (1853: 193) discussed minor and illustrated its head as figure 12 on the plate opposite page 182. AMNH 457078 is the specimen figured there, and the number 12 appears on the reverse of Brehm's label. Others of the Brehm specimens in AMNH also bear numbers that correspond to the numbers of the figures in Brehm (1853: pl. opp. p. 182). This is contra van Rossem (1934: 359, pl. 27), who thought that one might “infer” that Brehm had picked a very small male as a model for his illustration of the head of minor. He surmised that ZMB 6982 matched the specimen figured as no. 12 in Brehm (1853: plate opp. p. 182) and added further: “The illustration, which accompanies [Brehm's] revision of the crossbills in ‘Naumannia’ for 1853, so accurately depicts the bill of [ZMB] number 6982 that in all likelihood it was taken from that specimen. Since minor is a Lichtenstein manuscript name the basis must have been Berlin Museum specimens, and since Dr. Stresemann's action has eliminated the two larger birds from consideration, and since Brehm's figure matches exactly one of the smaller ones, it seems proper to designate adult male number 6982 as the type. It was collected in ‘Nord-America’ by Schumann, but further data are lacking.”

    ZMB 6982 has been dismounted and now has a label with information added to it later by Stresemann. It was collected on the “Black River 50 engl. Meilen oberhalb seiner Mündung in Michigan, Jan/Mar 1834. Franz Schumann & Albert Koch.” Schumann collected with Albert Koch and his brother roughly between 1832 and 1835 in North America. There is nothing to connect this specimen with Lichtenstein either on the label or in Lichtenstein's published catalogs of 1823 or 1854 (S. Frahnert, personal commun.).

    The result of the above investigation is that, while it is not the specimen illustrated by Brehm as minor, the Berlin lectotype of Crucirostra minor is old enough to have been seen by Lichtenstein, as is the second Berlin specimen mentioned by van Rossem (1934: 359).

    Dickinson (2003: 756) and Clement (2010: 601) recognize Loxia curvirostra minor (C.L. Brehm, 1846).

  • Crucirostra bifasciata C.L. Brehm

  • Crucirostra bifasciata C.L. Brehm, 1827a: 85 (Thüringer Wald).

    Now Loxia leucoptera bifasciata (C.L. Brehm, 1827). See Hartert, 1904a: 123–124; Hartert, 1918: 13; Vaurie, 1959: 652–653; Howell et al., 1986: 293; Dickinson, 2003: 756; and Clement, 2010: 604–605.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 457068, male, collected in Thüringer Forest ( =  Thüringer Wald, as on label), Germany, on 10 August 1826. From the C.L. Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Brehm described in great detail the adult male, immature male, female, and young, without saying exactly how many specimens he examined, except for two males molting into adult plumage, the description of one of these having been sent to him by Gourcy-Droitaumont. Four Brehm specimens were cataloged as bifasciata at AMNH. Hartert (1918: 13) listed the type as the single male specimen collected on 10 August 1826, thereby designating it the lectotype. Two of the three additional specimens are paralectotypes: AMNH 457069, male, and AMNH 457070, female, collected in the Thüringer Forest on 12 August 1826. The fourth specimen, AMNH 457071, also collected in 1826, was exchanged to ZFMK and may be a paralectotype if it was labeled bifasciata by Brehm.

    Brehm (1827b: cols. 714–716) discussed bifasciata and later, he (Brehm, 1853: 245–248, fig. no. 16 on unnumbered plate, opp. p. 182) provided a summary of his information on this form. The reverse of Brehm's label of the lectotype is numbered “No. 16” in Brehm's hand.

  • Crucirostra assimilis C.L. Brehm

  • Crucirostra assimilis C.L. Brehm, 1853: 253 (Rhoda).

    Now Loxia leucoptera bifasciata (C.L. Brehm, 1827). See Hartert, 1918: 13; Vaurie, 1959: 652–653; Howell et al., 1968: 293; Dickinson, 2003: 756; and Clement, 2010: 604.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 457076, juvenile female, captured in the Roda Valley, Germany, on 12 July 1846, by Dr. Richter, and died in captivity on 4 September 1846. From the Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Brehm had the single specimen when he described assimilis; the reverse of Brehm's label bears “Nr. 19,” the number of the figure in the unnumbered plate in Brehm (1853: opp. p. 182).

  • Crucirostra orientalis C.L. Brehm

  • Crucirostra orientalis C.L. Brehm, 1853: 251 (near Vienna).

    Now Loxia leucoptera bifasciata (Brehm, 1827). See Hartert, 1904a: 123; Hartert, 1918: 13; Vaurie, 1959: 632–633; Howell et al., 1968: 293; Dickinson, 2003: 756; and Clement, 2010: 604.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 457073, adult male, captured near Vienna, 48.13N, 16.22E (Times atlas), Austria, on 15 November 1826. From the Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Brehm apparently had two specimens when he described this form. The male was captured near Vienna and purchased in the Vienna bird market on 15 November 1826 by Count Gourcy-Droitaumont, who sent it to Brehm when it died. This specimen was listed as the type of orientalis by Hartert (1918: 13), thereby designating it the lectotype. Brehm mistakenly thought this form lived in the Himalayas, and it is so noted on the reverse of Brehm's label along with the number 18. This refers to figure 18 in Brehm (1853: 251 and unnumbered plate opp. p. 182), an illustration of this specimen.

    A second specimen, a female, was captured in the Thüringer Forest, Germany, in August [1826] and acquired by Förster Bonde, from whom Brehm obtained it. It was cataloged at AMNH as AMNH 457072 and exchanged to ZFMK. It is the paralectotype.

  • Pyrrhula waterstradti Hartert

  • Pyrrhula waterstradti Hartert, 1902h: 69 (Mount Tahan (5000–7000 feet) in North Pahang, Eastern Malay Peninsula).

    Now Pyrrhula nipalensis waterstradti Hartert, 1902. See Hartert, 1902e: 577; Hartert, 1919a: 161; Howell et al., 1968: 294; Dickinson, 2003: 756; Wells, 2007: 721–723; Clement, 2010: 607.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 714783, adult male, collected on Mount Tahan (Gunong Tahan, as on label), 5000–7000 ft, 04.34N, 102.17E (Times atlas), Pahang, Malaysia, in October 1901, by J. Waterstradt. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Only the adult male was described in the original description of waterstradti, although Hartert mentioned that a “pair in moult” had been obtained. The second specimen was a female, collected at the same time and is the paratype: AMNH 714784. Hartert (1902e: 577) included this form in his report on Waterstradt's entire collection, and there he described the female.

  • Pyrrhula erythaca taipaishanensis Rothschild

  • Pyrrhula erythaca taipaishanensis Rothschild, 1921: 63 (Tsin-ling Mts. (Mt. Tai-pai-shan)).

    Now Pyrrhula erythaca erythaca Blyth, 1862. See Hartert, 1921: 2057; Hartert, 1928: 197; Vaurie, 1959: 658–659; Howell et al., 1968: 295–296; LeCroy and Dickinson, 2001: 189; Dickinson, 2003: 756; and Clement, 2010: 608.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 714691, adult male, collected on Taibai Mountain ( =  Taipai Shan), Qinling Range ( =  Tsin-ling Mountains), Shaanxi, China (Chang, 1987: 997), on 17 June 1905, by collectors for Alan Owston. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Rothschild did not designate a type in the original description but said that he had 33 male, 8 female, and one juvenile male specimens. Hartert's (1928: 197) listing of a male collected on 17 June 1905 as the type did not serve to unambiguously designate a lectotype, as there are three males collected on that date. The male bearing Rothschild's type label, now AMNH 714691, was designated the lectotype of taipaishanensis by LeCroy and Dickinson (2001: 189). The 41 paralectotypes, all collected by Owston's collectors on Taipai Shan, Tsin-ling Mountains, in 1905, are: AMNH 714692–714717, 714719–714723, 714732, males, 4 June–23 July; AMNH 714724–714731, females, 7–23 July; AMNH 714718, juvenile male, 18 July. All of the specimens bear the number “79,” which probably indicates a species number.

    There are two specimens in AMNH from this series that are not paralectotypes: AMNH 295266, male, 12 July 1905, and AMNH 295267, female, 18 July 1905. Both of these specimens had been purchased from the dealer W.F.H. Rosenberg and presented to the Ornithology Department by Leonard C. Sanford in 1931. They had undoubtedly been among specimens turned over to Rosenberg for sale, as one of them still bears a Rothschild Museum label. However, because Rothschild listed his type series, all of which came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection, these two specimens must have been turned over to Rosenberg before the description was written.

    Coordinates for Tai-pai-Shan are 33.57N, 107.40E (USBGN, 1974).

  • Pyrrhula owstoni Rothschild and Hartert

  • Pyrrhula owstoni Rothschild and Hartert, 1907: 9 (Mt. Arizan).

    Now Pyrrhula erythaca owstoni Rothschild and Hartert, 1907. See Hartert, 1919a: 160; Howell et al., 1968: 296; Dickinson, 2003: 756; Clement, 2010: 608.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 714757, adult male, collected on A-li Shan ( =  Mount Arizan), 23.32N, 120.48E (USBGN, 1974), Taiwan ( =  Formosa, as on label), on 4 December “1907,” by collectors for Alan Owston. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    The type, designated in the original description, was the single male collected; an additional three females and one young male formed the type series. These four paratypes, all collected on Mount Arizan, are: AMNH 714758, male, 17 December “1907”; AMNH 714759, male (considered a female by Hartert), 4 December 1906; AMNH 714760 and 714761, two females, 4 December 1906. Because this description was published on 29 October 1907, the December 1907 date of collection on two of the specimens cannot be correct.

    These specimens all bear two Owston labels, one in Japanese and the other with the data translated into English. Hartert (1919a: 160) thought that the date error might have arisen in translation. He also was unwilling at that time to accept that there were two species of Pyrrhula on Taiwan and thought, instead, that owstoni should be considered a subspecies of nipalensis, with uchidai a synonym. Later workers have shown that there are, indeed, two species on Taiwan. Of Rothschild and Hartert's type series, paratype AMNH 714758 has proven to be a specimen of Pyrrhula nipalensis uchidai; the other three paratypes in female plumage appear to be P. e. owstoni, although there are no other specimens in AMNH of the two forms with which to compare them.

    The “O.C.” numbers on the English and Japanese Owston labels differ. The number on the Japanese labels for all of these specimens is “31,” which is crossed out. “F.38” appears on the reverse of the Japanese labels and on the English labels as the “O.C.” number. Both of these numbers may be species or collector's numbers; the “F” may indicate “Formosa.”

    Many authors give the describers of owstoni as Hartert and Rothschild, but Hartert never put his own name before that of Rothschild. In the description, the title says: which “the Hon. Walter Rothschild and he proposed to describe…,” and Hartert (1919a: 160) himself listed it as “Rothschild and Hartert.”

  • Pyrrhula minor C.L. Brehm

  • Pyrrhula minor C.L. Brehm, 1834: col. 253 (bei Greifswald erlegt).

    Now Pyrrhula pyrrhula europoea Vieillot, 1816. See Hartert, 1918: 11; Vaurie, 1956c: 5–15; Vaurie, 1959: 661; Howell et al., 1986: 297; Dickinson, 2003: 756–757; and Clement, 2010: 609–610.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 456757, adult male, Greifswald, 54.06N, 13.24E (Times atlas), Germany, on 16 February 1833, by E.F. von Homeyer. From the Brehm Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Brehm based his name on a specimen sent to him by von Homeyer, collected in February 1833. He described only the male and apparently had the single specimen.

  • Eophona melanura migratoria Hartert

  • Eophona melanura migratoria Hartert, 1903: 59 (Sidimi).

    Now Eophona migratoria migratoria Hartert, 1903. See Hartert, 1919a: 154, Vaurie, 1956c: 15–19, Howell et al., 1968: 301, Dickinson, 2003: 757, and Clement, 2010: 613.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 709253, adult male, collected in the Sedimi ( =  Sidimi) River valley, Ussuri, eastern Siberia, Russia, on 24 May 1884, by the Dörries brothers (no. 698). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Hartert designated the Dörries brothers specimen no. 698 as the type in the original description. He did not mention additional specimens. The Sedimi River is at 43.00N, 131.29E (USBGN, 1959).

    Howell et al. (1968: 301) included migratoria in the genus Cocothraustes, but most other authors have retained the genus Eophona.

  • Eophona personata magnirostris Hartert

  • Eophona personata magnirostris Hartert, 1896d: 38 (Amur-land).

    Now Eophona personata magnirostris Hartert, 1896. See Hartert, 1919a: 154; Vaurie, 1959: 665; Howell et al., 1968: 302; Dickinson, 2003: 757; and Clement, 2010: 613.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 709291, adult male, collected in Amur Bay, Siberia, on 10 April 1894, by the Dörries brothers. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Hartert designated as type the Dörries' specimen collected on 10 April 1894 and did not mention any other specimens.

  • Coccothraustes vespertinus mexicanus Chapman

  • Coccothraustes vespertinus mexicanus Chapman, 1897: 311 (Las Vigas, Vera Cruz, Mexico, alt., 8000 feet).

    Now Hesperiphona vespertina montana Ridgway, 1874. See Grinnell, 1917: 17–22; Hellmayr, 1938: 148–149; Howell et al., 1968: 304–305; Dickinson, 2003: 757; and Clement, 2010: 615–616.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 68480, adult male, collected at Las Vigas, 8000 ft, 19.39N, 97.08W (Times atlas), Vera Cruz, Mexico, on 24 April 1897, by Mateo Trujillo and Frank M. Chapman.

    Comments:

    Chapman gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and said that he had four males, four females, and a young male (taken on 21 April). Only two males, two female plumaged birds, and the immature male were found in AMNH; the remaining paratypes were probably among borrowed specimens. Paratypes in AMNH: City of Mexico, AMNH 41788, adult male, AMNH 41789, female, undated, from the G.N. Lawrence Collection, cataloged in 1889 and labeled mexicanus by Chapman; Las Vigas, AMNH 153359, immature male, 21 April 1897, AMNH 153360, adult male, 21 April 1897, AMNH 153361, [female plumage], 24 April 1897, all collected by Chapman. These last three paratypes and the holotype represent the four specimens that Chapman (1898: 42) later said that he collected at Las Vigas.

    Grinnell (1917: 17–22), in a study of Hesperiphona vespertina showed that USNM 35150 from Mirador, Vera Cruz, Mexico, should be considered the type of H. v. montana Ridgway and that, therefore, H. v. mexicanus became a synonym of montana (Grinnell, 1917: 18). Hellmayr (1938: 148) agreed with this conclusion as did Deignan (1961: 606–607); also see below.

  • [Coccothraustes vespertina montana Mearns, ex Ridg.]

  • The two specimens bearing AMNH type labels and marked as above, AMNH 52480 and AMNH 52490, have no standing as types. The type of Hesperiphona vespertina montana Ridgway, 1874, is in USNM (Grinnell, 1917: 17–22; Deignan, 1961: 606–607). AMNH 52480 is a female, collected at Fort Verde, Arizona, on 14 August 1885, by Mearns (no. 4163), long after Ridgway's description in 1874, and is his “type” of the adult female (Mearns, 1890: 247). AMNH 52490 is a male, collected at Oak Creek, near Fort Verde, Arizona, on 14 August 1885, by Mearns (no. 4165) and is discussed as a young male in first plumage (Mearns, 1890: 248). Because they have long been in the type collection at AMNH with type labels, they remain there with an additional label to explain that they have no nomenclatural standing.

    Deignan (1961: 606–607) discussed the Ridgway type of montana in USNM. Ridgway did not specifically designate a type when he named the form. Grinnell (1917: 18–19) explained in detail why he considered USNM 35150 from near Mirador, near Vera Cruz, Mexico, to be the type of montana and so indicated in the original description (also, see above). Zimmer (1953: 213) accepted Grinnell's explanation and added relevant details. Deignan accepted USNM 35150 as the type. But he adds: “Despite all this, the label of a skin from Cantonment Burgwyn, New Mexico (No. 11960), is the one that bears the words ‘Type of supposed ‘var. montana’–RR.” It is this specimen that Mearns (1890: 247) listed as the “type” of the adult male, USNM 11960, collected at Cantonment Burgwyn, New Mexico, on 3 June 1859, by W.W. Anderson, and noted that it was indistinguishable from nominate vespertina. I do not consider that Mearns, by listing this specimen as the “type” of the male of montana designated it the lectotype of the name montana because he also listed a “type” of the female, thus not treating a single specimen as the lectotype.

    ESTRILDIDAE

    Payne (2010: 235–248) has summarized the results of recent mitochondrial and nuclear DNA studies of Estrildidae.

  • Parmoptila ansorgei Hartert

  • Parmoptila ansorgei Hartert, 1904b: 72 (Golungo Alto, North Angola).

    Now Parmoptila woodhousei ansorgei Hartert, 1904. See Hartert, 1920: 432; Mayr et al., 1968: 308; Dean, 2000: 321; Woodcock, 2003: 274–277; Dickinson, 2003: 726; Fry and Keith, 2004: 261–263; and Payne, 2010: 305.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 727858, adult male, collected at Golungo Alto, 09.08S, 14.46E (Dean, 2000: 377), Angola, on 9 January 1904, by W.J. Ansorge (no. 13). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Hartert gave Ansorge's field number of the holotype in the original description and noted that a pair was shot. The paratype is AMNH 727859, female, collected at Golungo Alto, 9 January 1904, by Ansorge (no. 12).

  • Nigrita sparsimguttata Reichenow

  • Nigrita sparsimguttata Reichenow, 1891: 4 (Bukoba).

    Now Nigrita canicapillus schistaceus Sharpe, 1891. See Reichenow, 1892: 47; Hartert, 1919: 144; Mayr et al., 1968: 310; Dickinson, 2003: 726–727; Fry and Keith, 2004: 255–257; and Payne, 2010: 306–307.

    Syntype:

    AMNH 727929, adult unsexed, collected at Bukoba, 01.20S, 31.49E (Polhill, 1988), Lake Victoria, Tanzania, November 1890, by Emin Pasha. From the the Rothshild Collection.

    Comments:

    Reichenow's description of sparsimguttata was published 17 December 1891 in Sitzungsberichte der Allgemeinen Deutschen Ornithologischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin (9: 4) [reprinted in Journal fuer Ornithologie, 1892, 40: 132]. In the original description, Reichenow did not designate a type or say how many specimens he examined. Hartert (1919a: 144) listed this specimen as a “Co-type” ( =  syntype) of sparsimguttata and considered it a synonym of N. canicapillus schistaceus Sharpe, which had been published in January 1891 (Sharpe, 1891: 118). In his report on Emin's and Stuhlmann's collections Reichenow (1892: 47) gave details about the earlier publication of sparsimguttata and 1–25 November as the dates when Emin was in Bukoba. In addition to the original label, the specimen bears a Rothschild type label. Emin (1891) himself reported on this trip, and on page 346 listed this form as N. canicapilla.

    Mayr et al. (1968: 310) recognized both N. c. schistaceus and N. c. sparsimguttatus, using the incorrect publication date of 1892 for the latter. Most other authors have considered the two to be synonyms.

  • Nigrita dohertyi Hartert

  • Nigrita dohertyi Hartert, 1901d: 12 (“Mau Escarpment,” British East Africa, 8500 feet).

    Now Nigrita canicapillus diabolicus (Reichenow and Neumann, 1895). See Hartert, 1919a: 144; Mayr et al., 1968: 310; Dickinson, 2003: 726–727; Fry and Keith, 2004: 255–257; and Payne, 2010: 306–307.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 727970, adult male, collected at Escarpment, 8500 ft, Kenya ( =  British East Africa), in March 1901 (not 1891, as in Hartert, 1919a: 144), by William Doherty. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description Hartert did not designate a type, saying only that Doherty had collected “a series”; four specimens came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection. Hartert (1919a: 144), by noting that the type was a male collected in March at 8500 ft, designated as lectotype the only specimen with those data, now AMNH 727970. It bears a Rothschild type label. The paralectotypes are: Escarpment, AMNH 727971, adult male, March 1901, 8000 ft; AMNH 727972, adult male, January 1901, 8500 ft; AMNH 727973, female, February 1901, 8500 ft.

    In his moving memorial to Doherty, Hartert (1901c: 503–504) quoted from Doherty's letters concerning his whereabouts at the time his last collections were made and (Hartert, 1902g: 620) made further comments about the “Escarpment” locality. The “Escarpment” of Doherty's collecting was on the eastern side of the Rift Valley and was not the “Mau Escarpment,” as reported in the original description of this form, which is on the western side. Doherty was in the Kikuyu Mountains near the Escarpment station of the Uganda Railroad at 01.01S, 36.37E (Polhill, 1988), which was about “halfway between Ft. Smith (Nairobi) and Naivasha station” and was “in October 1900 the terminus of the railway.”

  • Pytelia ansorgei Hartert

  • Pytelia ansorgei Hartert, 1899d: xxvi (Wemo River, Toru, Uganda Protectorate).

    Now Nesocharis ansorgei (Hartert, 1899). See Hartert, 1900b: 25–53; Hartert, 1919a: 143; Mayr et al., 1968: 311; Dickinson, 2003: 727; Fry and Keith, 2004: 268–269; and Payne, 2010: 311.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 451898, adult male, collected on the Ruimi ( =  Wimi, Wemo, or Wemi, as on labels) River, 00.26N, 30.00E–00.20N, 30.17E (Polhill, 1988), Toro ( =  Toru), Uganda, on 21 April 1899, by W.J. Ansorge (no. 379). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    No type was designated in the original description, but Hartert (1900b: 42) noted that Ansorge collected “one male in a wretched condition—the head smashed.” This specimen was collected on Ansorge's third collecting trip, on which Hartert (1900b: 25–26) reported in detail, giving information on some of his collecting localities.

  • Pytelia phoenicoptera emini Hartert

  • Pytelia phoenicoptera emini Hartert, 1899a: 413 (Lado).

    Now Pytilia phoenicoptera emini Hartert, 1899. See Hartert, 1919a: 143; Mayr et al., 1968: 312; Dickinson, 2003: 727; Fry and Keith, 2004: 352–353; and Payne, 2010: 332.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 728593, adult male, collected at Lado, 05.10N, 31.32E (Times atlas), Sudan, on 14 June 1881, by Emin Pasha (no. 169). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    The single specimen in the Rothschild Collection with the above data was designated the holotype in the original description. A second specimen in BMNH “mentioned by Dr. Sharpe in Cat. B. Brit. Mus. v. XIII. p. 301, from Lado, agrees in every respect with the one in the [Rothschild Collection].” That specimen is a paratype of emini.

    Mayr et al. (1968: 312) synonymized emini with nominate P. phoenicoptera, but more recent authors have recognized it. Traylor (in Mayr et al., 1968: 312, fn.) chose the earlier spelling Pytilia for the generic name, and others have followed that spelling since.

  • Pytelia percivali van Someren

  • Pytelia percivali van Someren, 1919: 56 (Loita).

    Now Pytilia melba percivali van Someren, 1919. See Hartert, 1928: 196; Mayr et al., 1968: 314; Dickinson, 2003: 727; Fry and Keith, 2004: 354–358; and Payne, 2010: 331.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 728744, adult female, collected at Loita, Kenya, on 9 July 1918, by A. Blayney Percival. From the V.G.L. van Someren Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, van Someren said that the type of percivali was a specimen in the Rothschild Collection bearing the above data. Hartert (1928: 196) noted that the type was the only specimen from the Loita Plains (ca. 01.15S, 35.35E, Polhill, 1988), in the Rothschild Collection. Van Someren described both male and female, but did not say how many specimens he examined.

  • Pytelia melba mosambica van Someren

  • Pytelia melba mosambica van Someren, 1919: 55 (Lumbo).

    Now Pytilia melba grotei Reichenow, 1919. See Hartert, 1928: 196, Mayr et al., 1968: 314–315; Dickinson, 2003: 727; Fry and Keith, 2004: 354–358; and Payne, 2010: 331.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 728698, adult male, collected at Lumbo, 15.00S, 40.40E (Times atlas), Mozambique, on 6 August 1918. From the V.G.L. van Someren Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, van Someren said that the type, in the Rothschild Collection, was a male collected at Lumbo on 6 August 1918 but did not enumerate the specimens he examined. Only two specimens came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection, both males and both collected on the same date. Hartert (1928: 196) does not further distinguish between the two specimens. AMNH 728698 bears the Rothschild type label filled in perhaps by van Someren, and his original label is marked “Type” on the reverse. Because this is the intended type, I hereby designate AMNH 728698 the lectotype of mosambica in order to remove the ambiguity associated with the presence of identical data on the two specimens. There is one paralectotype in AMNH: AMNH 728699, adult male, Lumbo, 6 August 1918, from V.G.L. van Someren and marked “sp. nov.,” but no type status indicated.

  • Hypargos nitidulus virginiae Amadon

  • Hypargos nitidulus virginiae Amadon, 1953: 432 (Opu River, Fernando Po).

    Now Mandingoa nitidula virginiae (Amadon, 1953). See Mayr et al., 1968: 316; Dickinson, 2003: 727; Fry and Keith, 2004: 275–277; and Payne, 2010: 311–312.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 298108, adult male, collected on the Rio Opu, Bioko Island ( =  Fernando Po), Equatorial Guinea, on 8 September 1929, by J.G. Correia (no. 2361).

    Comments:

    Amadon gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and noted that Correia had collected a female also. The paratype is AMNH 298109, female, Rio Opu, 8 September 1929, by Correia.

    Payne (2010: 311–312) synonymized virginiae with M. n. schlegeli, whereas other authors have recognized it. The entirely red bill and the wash of golden yellow on the back of the male do not seem to be matched by specimens of schlegeli in AMNH, and I believe further study is warranted once more specimens from Bioko are available.

    Hartert (1919a: 146–147) introduced the name Mandingoa as a new generic name for Lagonosticta nitidula Hartlaub, 1886.

  • Pyrenestes ostrinus rothschildi Neumann

  • Pyrenestes ostrinus rothschildi Neumann, 1910: 528 (Warri).

    Now Pyrenestes ostrinus (Vieillot, 1805). See Hartert, 1919a: 144; Chapin, 1954b: 490–494; Mayr et al., 1968: 319–320; Smith, 1990: 381–414; Dickinson, 2003: 728; Fry and Keith, 2004: 317–321; and Payne, 2010: 322.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 728281, adult male, collected at Warri, 05.36N 05.50E (Chapin, 1954a), lower Niger River, southern Nigeria, on 11 May 1897, by Felix Roth. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Neumann designated as the type a male collected at Warri on 11 May 1897 and listed his type series: in the Rothschild Collection, three males, two females from Warri; two males, four females, one juvenile from Buguma and Degama, Niger Delta; one female from Abutshi. Also in his type series were a male and a female from Cameroon in the Berlin Museum. All three of the males from Warri were collected on the same date; one of them is not the type as it is molting into adult plumage, but the other two males cannot be differentiated on the basis of the type description nor from Hartert's (1919a: 144) listing of the type. AMNH 728281 was Neumann's intended type as the Rothschild Museum label is annotated by Neumann with the new name and “Typus,” and it bears a Rothschild type label. This specimen was cataloged as the type when the Rothschild Collection came to AMNH and has always been so considered; in order to remove the ambiguity, I hereby designate AMNH 728281 the lectotype of Pyrenestes ostrinus rothschildi.

    Paralectotypes in AMNH are difficult to list with certainty. The two additional males and two females collected by Roth at Warri are definitely paralectotypes: AMNH 728282, male; AMNH 728283, sexed as a male but in female plumage; AMNH 728284, sexed as a female but in male plumage with the only sign of immaturity a brown crown (these latter two specimens may have had the labels put on the wrong bird), collected on 11 May 1897; AMNH 728285, female, collected on 15 May 1897. Also a definite paralectotype: AMNH 728286, female, collected at Abutshi by Kemp in September 1901. The seven specimens listed by Neumann from Buguma and Degama collected by Ansorge, all in 1902, are more problematic. There are nine specimens in AMNH from those localities, some of which bear both the names coccineus and rothschildi. In some cases coccineus is marked out, in other cases not. I have included as paralectotypes only those specimens which bear the name rothschildi written by Neumann, whether or not the name coccineus appears: Buguma, AMNH 728287, male, 5 June; AMNH 728289, female, 16 July; AMNH 728290, female, 21 May; AMNH 728291, female, 21 May; AMNH 728292, female, 9 May. Degama, AMNH 728294, male, 15 March; AMNH 728295, female juvenile, 9 May. AMNH 728288, male, 16 July, from Buguma, and AMNH 728293, male, 3 August, from Degama have only the name coccineus written by Neumann, and are not considered paralectotypes.

    Species and subspecies recognition has varied greatly over time and the concensus of opinion most recently is that three species comprising a superspecies should be recognized: Pyrenestes minor, P. ostrinus, and P. sanguineus, with P. ostrinus monotypic (see Fry and Keith, 2004: 317–318, and Payne, 2010: 322–323).

  • Pyrenestes ostrinus gabunensis Neumann

  • Pyrenestes ostrinus gabunensis Neumann, 1910: 528 (Lambarene, Ogowe).

    Now Pyrenestes ostrinus (Vieillot, 1805). See Hartert, 1919a: 144; Chapin, 1954b: 490–494; Mayr et al., 1968: 319–320; Smith 1990: 381–414; Dickinson, 2003: 728; Fry and Keith, 2004: 317–321; and Payne, 2010: 322.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 728310, female, Lambaréné, 00.41S, 10.12E (Chapin, 1954a: 685), Ogowe ( =  Ogooué, as on label) River, Gabon, on 22 September 1907, by W.J. Ansorge (no. 756). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Neumann, who noted in the original description that the type was in the Rothschild Collection, had a single female collected at Lambarene on 22 September 1907; Hartert (1919a: 144) cited Ansorge's field number of the holotype. Neumann listed his type series; all of those that were in the Rothschild Collection are now in AMNH; there are six additional paratypes in ZMB. Paratypes in AMNH: Congo (Kinshasa), Manyanga, AMNH 728297, male, no date; Buta, Welle District, AMNH 728302, unsexed [male], 1906. Gabon, Abanga River, Ogowe River, AMNH 728304–728306, males (not females, as listed by Neumann); Lambarene, Ogowe River, AMNH 728307–728309, 728311, 728313, four males, one female (in addition to the type). AMNH 728312, female from Lambarene is not labeled gabunensis and is not considered a paratype.

  • Pyrenestes ostrinus maximus Chapin

  • Pyrenestes ostrinus maximus Chapin, 1923: 8 (Faradje, Upper Uelle distr., Belgian Congo).

    Now Pyrenestes ostrinus (Vieillot, 1805). See Chapin, 1954b: 490–498; Mayr et al., 1968: 319–320; Smith, 1990: 381–414; Dickinson, 2003: 728; Fry and Keith, 2004: 317–321; and Payne, 2010: 322.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 162176, adult male, collected at Faradje, 03.45N, 29.43E (Times atlas), Upper Uelle district, Congo (Kinshasa) ( =  Belgian Congo), on 14 April 1911, by James P. Chapin on the Lang-Chapin Congo Expedition.

    Comments:

    Chapin gave the AMNH number and measurements of the holotype in the original description, mentioning no other specimens.

  • Spermospiza haematina leonina Neumann

  • Spermospiza haematina leonina Neumann, 1910: 523 (Bo, Sierra Leone).

    Now Spermophaga haematina haematina (Vieillot, 1805). See Hartert, 1919a: 137; Mayr et al., 1968: 321–322; Dickinson, 2003: 728; Fry and Keith, 2004: 314–315; and Payne, 2010: 323.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 728100, adult male, collected at Bo, 07.58N, 11.45W (Times atlas), Sierra Leone, in August 1904, by R. Kemp (no. 147). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Neumann designated his only male specimen from Bo as the holotype; it was listed as the type by Hartert (1919a: 137) with the addition of Kemp's field number. Neumann also listed the other specimens he examined: six from Leiden, two from Berlin, and six from the Rothschild Collection. Three of the six paratypes from the Rothschild Collection in AMNH are: Sierra Leone, Bo, AMNH 728101, female, by Kemp; Liberia, Hill Town, Du Queah River, AMNH 728108, male, 30 March 1887, by Büttikofer (no. 189); Schieffelinsville, Junk River, AMNH 728109, female (not male), 30 January 1887, by Büttikofer (no. 73). Three additional females were marked leonina by Neumann and are considered the three additional Rothschild specimens that he examined: paratypes AMNH 728111, [female plumage], Gold Coast, undated, Swanzy coll., probably purchased from Gerrard (no. 6676j); AMNH 728114, female, West Africa, from Gerrard (no. 6676i); AMNH 728120, [female plumage], no further information.

  • Hypargus (sic) monteiri ugandensis van Someren

  • Hypargus (sic) monteiri ugandensis van Someren, 1921a: 115 (Masindi).

    Now Clytospiza monteiri (Hartlaub, 1860). See Hartert, 1928: 195; Mayr, 1968: 322; Dickinson, 2003: 728; Fry and Keith, 2004: 348–349; and Payne, 2010: 334.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 728085, adult male, collected at Masindi, 01.41N, 31.43E (Polhill, 1988), Bunyoro, Uganda, on 15 December 1918. From the V.G.L. van Someren Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, van Someren designated as the type, in the Rothschild Collection, the only male specimen from Masindi collected on 15 December 1918. He listed a number of localities from which he examined specimens of ugandensis, without giving numbers or locations where the specimens were housed. The following are considered paratypes of ugandensis: Masindi, AMNH 728086, female, 15 December, 1918; Buzileranjovu, AMNH 728088, female, 24 February 1912; Kyetume, AMNH 728090, male, 30 April 1912, AMNH 728091, female, 27 December 1911, all from the van Someren Collection; Entebbe, AMNH 728093, female, AMNH 728094, male, no date but marked montieri by van Someren, both collected by R. Grauer; Langomeri, AMNH 728096, male, 15 August 1887, collected by Emin.

  • Hypargos niveoguttatus centralis Clancey

  • Hypargos niveoguttatus centralis Clancey, 1961: 102 (near Baraka, north-western shore of Lake Tanganyika, eastern Belgian Congo).

    Now Hypargos niveoguttatus macrospilotus Mearns, 1913. See Mayr, et al., 1968: 323; Dickinson, 2003: 728; Fry and Keith, 2004: 342–344; and Payne, 2010: 333–334.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 728562, adult male, collected near Baraka, 04.09S, 29.05E (Times atlas), northwestern shore of Lake Tanganyika, Congo (Kinshasa) ( =  Belgian Congo), on 2 September (not October) 1908, by Rudolf Grauer (no. 3334). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Clancey cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and noted that he had borrowed four Grauer specimens from AMNH, The paratypes, which he labeled, were all collected near Baraka in 1908: AMNH 728559 (Grauer no. 3473), male, 3 October; AMNH 728561 (3374), male, 11 September; AMNH 728565 (3306), female, 28 August.

  • Lagonosticta graueri Rothschild

  • Estrilda cinereovinacea rudolfi Hartert

  • Lagonosticta graueri Rothschild, 1909: 102 (Forest near Baraka, north-west of Lake Tanganyika, 1900 metres).

    Estrilda cinereovinacea rudolfi Hartert, 1919a: 141.

    Now Euschistospiza cinereovinacea graueri (Rothschild, 1909). See Chapin, 1954b: 479; Mayr et al., 1968: 324; Dickinson, 2003: 728; Fry and Keith, 2004: 340–341; and Payne, 2010: 333.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 451288, adult male, collected in deep forest near Baraka, 1900 m, 04.09S, 29.05E (Times atlas), northwest of Lake Tanganika, Congo (Kinshasa) ( =  Congo Free State, as on label), on 11 November 1908, by Rudolf Grauer (no. 3767). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Rothschild did not designate a type in the original description, describing only the male but saying that Grauer had collected a small series. Hartert (1919a: 141) listed Grauer specimen no. 3767 as the type, thereby designating it the lectotype of graueri, but at the same time, because he included both Lagonosticta graueri Rothschild, 1909, and Estrilda atricapilla graueri Neumann, 1908, in the genus Estrilda, where they are homonyms, he provided the new name Estrilda cinereovinacea rudolfi for Lagonosticta graueri. Because the two former names are not now included in the genus Estrilda, Rothschild's name can be used for Euschistospiza cinereovinacea graueri, of which Hartert's rudolfi now becomes an objective synonym; they share the same type.

    Rothschild's paralectotypes are: Near Baraka, 1900 m., AMNH 451289–451300, five males, seven females, 26 October–30 November 1908; west of Lake Tanganika, AMNH 451301, 451302, males, 7 and 30 July 1908, all collected by Rudolf Grauer. I did not find AMNH 451291 and 451299 in the collection and they were perhaps exchanged without the catalog having been marked.

  • [Hypargus harterti Shelley]

  • Shelley (1903: 30) proposed Hypargus harterti as a replacement name for Lagonosticta ( =  Hypargus) nitidula Hartlaub, 1886, not Estrelda ( =  Hypargus) nitidula Hartlaub, 1885, when the two nominal taxa are placed in the same genus. Hypargus harterti thus has the same type as Lagonosticta nitidula Hartlaub, 1886, which is not in AMNH. Hartert (1919a: 145–146) was in error when he attempted to typify Shelley's name, harterti, with a specimen from Sagua, Quanza River, Angola, which Shelley (1903: 30) said had convinced him that a new name was needed. That specimen is now AMNH 451305, male, collected at Sagua, Quanza River, on 21 May 1901, by C. Hubert Pemberton. For a discussion, see Chapin (1954b: 531–533). Because it bears a Rothschild type label, it remains in the AMNH type collection with a label added to explain its status. Because the two forms named nitidula are no longer in the same genus, both of Hartlaub's names may be used.

  • Lagonosticta senegala erythreae Neumann

  • Lagonosticta senegala erythreae Neumann, 1905: 349 (Adarte).

    Now Lagonosticta senegala rhodopsis (Heuglin, 1863). See Hartert, 1919a: 147–148; Wolters, 1958: 204–207; Mayr et al., 1968: 327; Dickinson 2003: 729; Fry and Keith, 2004: 360–364; Ash and Atkins, 2009: 348; and Payne, 2010: 337–338.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 451148, adult male, collected at Adarte, Bogosland, Eritrea, on 16 November (not February) 1899, by G. Schrader. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Neumann designated as the type the single specimen of this form in the Rothschild Collection and also included specimens in ZMB from “Nubien,” collected by Hemprich and Ehrenberg. Hartert (1919a: 147) called attention to the incorrect citation of the month of collection in the original description.

    Ash and Atkins (2009: 399) gave two alternative spellings of Adarte. The correct one in this case must be Aderde, 15.40N, 38.08E, as the coordinates for the Bogos Mountains are 15.46N, 38.30E (Ash and Atkins, 2009: 405).

  • Lagonosticta senegala abayensis Neumann

  • Lagonosticta senegala abayensis Neumann, 1905: 349 (Giditscho im Abaya-See).

    Now Lagonosticta senegala brunneiceps Sharpe, 1890. See Hartert, 1919a: 147; Wolters, 1958: 204–207; Mayr et al., 1968: 327; Dickinson, 2003: 729; Fry and Keith, 2004: 360–364; Ash and Atkins, 2009: 348; and Payne, 2010: 337–338.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 451152, adult male, collected on Gidicho ( =  Giditscho) Island, 06.25N, 37.54E (Ash and Atkins, 2009: 411), Lake Abay ( =  Abaya), Ethiopia, on 27 December 1900, by Oscar Neumann (no. 502). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Neumann cited his unique field number for the holotype in the original description and did not mention other specimens. He included his specimens from Gelo in brunneiceps, of which his abayensis is now considered a synonym.

  • Lagonosticta senegalla (sic) kikuyuensis van Someren

  • Lagonosticta senegalla (sic) kikuyuensis van Someren, 1919: 55 (Nairobi).

    Now Lagonosticta senegala ruberrima, Reichenow, 1903. See van Someren, 1922: 164; Hartert, 1928: 196; Mayr et al., 1968: 327; Dickinson, 2003: 729; Fry and Keith, 2004: 360–364; and Payne, 2010: 337–338.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 451168, adult female, collected at Nairobi, 01.17S, 36.50E (Times atlas), Kenya, on 17 February 1917. From the V.G.L. van Someren Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, van Someren noted that his female type from Nairobi, collected on 17 February 1917, was in the Rothschild Collection; he did not say how many specimens he examined, but noted that males of kikuyuensis did not differ from ruberrima. The above holotype is the only female van Someren specimen of this form that came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection.

  • Lagonosticta senegala rendalli Hartert

  • Lagonosticta senegala rendalli Hartert, 1898a: 72 (Upper Shiré River).

    Now Lagonosticta senegala rendalli Hartert, 1898. See Hartert, 1919a: 147; Mayr et al., 1968: 328; Dickinson, 2003: 729; Fry and Keith, 2004: 360–364; and Payne, 2010: 337–338.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 451195, adult male, collected on the upper Shiré River, south of Lake Nyasa, Malawi, on 9 May 1895, by Percy Rendall (no. 13). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Hartert designated a male and a female specimen as syntypes of rendalli. Hartert (1919a: 147) listed the male bearing Rendall's no. 13 as the type, thereby designating it the lectotype of rendalli. The female, AMNH 451196, collected at the same locality on 4 March 1896 by Rendall (no. 183), is the paralectotype.

  • Lagonosticta senegala pallidicrissa Zedlitz

  • Lagonosticta senegala pallidicrissa Zedlitz, 1910: 173 (Humpata (Angola)).

    Now Lagonosticta senegala rendalli Hartert, 1898. See Hartert, 1919a: 147–148; Mayr et al., 1968: 328; Dean, 2000: 325–326; Dickinson, 2003: 729; Fry and Keith, 2004: 360–364; and Payne, 2010: 337–338.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 451204, adult male, collected at Humpata, 14.57S, 13.16E (Dean, 2000: 378), Huíla, Angola, on 16 February 1906, by W.J. Ansorge (no. 276). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Zedlitz gave Ansorge's original number of the holotype and said that it was in the Rothschild Collection. He described both male and female but did not list specimens he examined.

    L. s. pallidicrissa is usually synonymized with rendalli, but it was recognized by Dean (2000: 325–326).

  • Lagonosticta rhodopareia umbriventer van Someren

  • Lagonosticta rhodopareia umbriventer van Someren, 1919: 54 (Embu, Kenia).

    Now Lagonosticta rubricata congica Sharpe, 1890. See van Someren, 1922: 163; Hartert, 1928: 196; Mayr et al., 1968: 329; Dickinson, 2003: 729; Fry and Keith, 2004: 371–373; Payne, 2010: 341.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 728829, adult male, collected at Embu, 00.32S, 37.28E (Times atlas), Kenya ( =  Kenia), on 9 June 1913. From the V.G.L. van Someren Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, van Someren said that the type with the above data was in the Rothschild Collection. I did not find other van Someren specimens in AMNH that could be considered paratypes.

    Mayr et al. (1968: 329) and Dickinson (2003: 729) synonymized umbriventer with ugandae; Fry and Keith (2004: 371–373) and Payne (2010: 341) further synonymized ugandae with congica.

  • Lagonosticta jamesoni taruensis van Someren

  • Lagonosticta jamesoni taruensis van Someren, 1919: 54 (Tsavo).

    Now Lagonosticta rhodopareia jamesoni Shelley, 1882. See van Someren, 1922: 164; Hartert, 1928: 196; Mayr et al., 1968: 330; Dickinson, 2003: 729; Fry and Keith, 2004: 373–375; and Payne, 2010: 342–343.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 728893, adult male, collected at Tsavo, 02.59S, 38.28E (Times atlas), Kenya, on 14 March 1918. From the V.G.L. van Someren Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, van Someren cited as the type the single male in the Rothschild Collection bearing the above data. He noted that six males and two females were collected. The following two specimens are from the van Someren Collection and are considered paratypes: AMNH 728894, female, Tsavo, 18 May 1918; AMNH 728895, male, Mombasa, 30 March 1916, collected by Turner for van Someren. Other paratypes are in RMCA (Louette et al., 2002: 80).

  • Lagonosticta rhodopareia ansorgei Neumann

  • Estrilda jamesoni benguellensis Delacour

  • Estrilda jamesoni kabisombo Traylor

  • Lagonosticta rhodopareia ansorgei Neumann, 1908c: 58 (Kabisombo River near Quillengues, Benguella).

    Now Lagonosticta rhodopareia ansorgei Neumann, 1908. See Hartert, 1919a: 148; Mayr et al., 1968: 330–331; Dean, 2000: 326; Dickinson, 2003: 729; Fry and Keith, 2004: 373–375; and Payne, 2010: 342–343.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 728878, male, collected on the Cabissombo ( =  Kabisombo) River, 13.51S, 14.09E, near Quilengues ( =  Quillengues), 14.13S, 14.11E (Dean, 2000: 370, 384), Huíla, Angola, on 1 February 1905, by W.J. Ansorge (no. 364). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Neumann noted in the original description that the type with the above data was in the Rothschild Collection. However, there were two such specimens; Hartert (1919a: 148) cited Ansorge's unique specimen number 364 for the type, thereby designating it the lectotype. Neumann gave the range of his new form as extending from Pungo Andongo to South Benguella. This would include all of the Ansorge specimens of this form that came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection. Paralectotypes in AMNH, all collected by Ansorge, are: Cabissombo River, AMNH 728879, male, 1 February 1905; Fort Quilengues, AMNH 728880, male, 11 January 1905; Kimaholo River, AMNH 728881, female, 29 January 1905; Cabeca de Landroes, AMNH 728882, male, 29 July 1904; Elandswater, AMNH 728883–728889, five males, two females, 24–27 July 1904; Bongo River, AMNH 728890, female, 5 August 1904; Pungo Andongo, AMNH 728891, unsexed, 19 June 1903. Of these, I did not find AMNH 728886 in the collection.

    Delacour (1943: 84) provided the replacement name Estrilda jamesoni benguellensis for Lagonosticta rhodopareia ansorgei Neumann, 1908, preoccupied by Pytelia ansorgei Hartert, 1899, if Lagonosticta is merged with Estrilda. Traylor (1961: 164) then provided the replacement name Estrilda jamesoni kabisombo for Estrilda jamesoni benguellensis Delacour, 1943, preoccupied by Estrilda paludicola benguellensis Neumann, 1908. Both replacement names share the same type as L. r. ansorgei Neumann, 1908.

  • Uraeginthus bengalus schoanus Neumann

  • Uraeginthus bengalus schoanus Neumann, 1905: 350 (Ejere, Provinz Meta, Schoa).

    Now Uraeginthus bengalus bengalus (Linnaeus, 1766). See Hartert, 1919a: 140; Chapin, 1954b: 560–562; Mayr et al., 1968: 333; Dickinson, 2003: 729; Fry and Keith, 2004: 327–329; Ash and Atkins, 2009: 349; and Payne, 2010: 327.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 451940, adult male, collected at Ejere, Meta, Shewa ( =  Shoa), Ethiopia, on 16 September 1900, by Oscar Neumann (no. 14). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Neumann designated as syntypes the above male and a female (no. 15) with the same data. Hartert (1919a: 140) cited the male (no. 14) as the type, thereby designating it the lectotype. The paralectotype is AMNH 451941, female, collected at Ejere, on 16 September 1900, by Neumann (no. 15). Because Neumann designated syntypes, his other specimens are excluded from the type series (ICZN, 1999: 77, Art. 72.4.6).

    Neumann (1904: 321) listed his localities and noted that Ejere was now known as Adis Halem, listed by Ash and Akins (2009: 399) as Adis Alem, 09.03N, 38.23E.

  • Uraeginthus bengalus perpallidus Neumann

  • Uraeginthus bengalus perpallidus Neumann, 1905: 351 (Goz abu Guma oder Kaka am Weissen Nil).

    Now Uraeginthus bengalus bengalus (Linnaeus, 1766). See Hartert, 1919a: 140; Mayr et al., 1968: 333; Dickinson, 2003: 729; Fry and Keith, 2004: 327–329; and Payne, 2010: 327.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 451935, adult male, collected at Goz abu Guma or Kaka, 10.41N, 32.13E (Times atlas), on the White Nile, Sudan, on 15 or 16 June 1901 (as on label, not 14 or 15 June as in description), by Oscar Neumann.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Neumann designated his two specimens, a male and a female with the same data, as syntypes of perpallidus. By so doing, he excluded other specimens from the type series (ICZN, 1999: 77, Art. 72.4.6).

    Hartert (1919a: 140–141) listed the male as the type, thereby designating it the lectotype. The paralectotype is AMNH 451936, female, collected at Goz abu Guma or Kaka on the White Nile, on 15 or 16 June 1901, by Neumann.

  • Uraeginthus bengalus ugandae Zedlitz

  • Uraeginthus bengalus ugandae Zedlitz, 1911: 606 (Entebbe, Uganda).

    Now Uraeginthus bengalus bengalus (Linnaeus, 1766). See Hartert, 1919a: 141; Mayr et al., 1968: 333; Dickinson, 2003: 729; Fry and Keith, 2004: 327–329; and Payne, 2010: 327.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 452036, adult male, collected at Entebbe, 00.05N, 32.29E (Times atlas), Uganda, on 28 April 1907, by Rudolf Grauer (no. 76). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Zedlitz gave Grauer's unique number of the holotype, noting that it was in the Rothschild Collection. He did not specifically mention other specimens.

  • Uraeginthus bengalus littoralis van Someren

  • Uraeginthus bengalus littloralis van Someren, 1922: 160 (Mombassa).

    Now Uraeginthus bengalus brunneigularis Mearns, 1911. See Hartert, 1928: 195; Mayr et al., 1968: 334; Dickinson, 2003: 729; Fry and Keith, 2004: 327–329; and Payne, 2010: 327.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 452018, female, collected at Mombasa, 04.04S, 39.40E (Times atlas), Kenya, on 10 May 1918. From the V.G.L. van Someren Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, van Someren did not designate a type specimen, only indicating that the type was from Mombasa. Hartert (1928: 195) listed the type as a van Someren specimen collected at Mombasa on 10 May 1918, thereby designating it the lectotype. It is labeled littoralis by van Someren on the reverse of his label. Only this specimen from Mombasa is in AMNH, and no specimens from Lamu or M'koi, the other two localities mentioned in the original description, came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection.

    Hartert (1928: 195) called attention to the earlier mention of this form in van Someren (1918a: 258), where there is a description but no name is applied. There van Someren said that he had five male and three female specimens collected at Manda, Mombassa, and Lamu. This earlier report was based on specimens collected by Allen Turner in “April” 1916 and the entire collection “with the exception of the European migrants and a few examples of African species” had been placed in the museum of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society.

    Mayr et al. (1968: 334) and Dickinson (2003: 729) recognized littoralis, Fry and Keith (2004: 327–329) and Payne (2010: 327) synonymized it with brunneigularis.

  • Granatina ianthogaster (sic) ugandae van Someren

  • Estrilda ianthinogaster somereni Delacour

  • Granatina ianthogaster (sic) ugandae van Someren, 1919: 53 (Moroto, Uganda).

    Now Granatina ianthinogaster (Reichenow, 1879). See van Someren, 1922: 160; Hartert, 1928: 196; Delacour, 1943: 84; White, 1963: 198; Mayr et al., 1968: 336; Dickinson, 2003: 730; Fry and Keith, 2004: 334–335; and Payne, 2010: 328.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 452214, adult male, collected on Mount Moroto, 02.32N, 34.46E (Polhill, 1988), Uganda, on 30 November 1917. From the V.G.L. van Someren Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, van Someren cited the above specimen in the Rothschild Collection as the type of ugandae, noting that 10 specimens had been collected; van Someren (1922: 159) listed his localities. One paratype is in AMNH: Kerio, AMNH 452215, male, 4 June 1917.

    G. ianthinogaster has been variously placed in the genera Uraeginthus, Estrilda, and Granatina. Fry and Keith (2004: 334) and Payne (2010: 328) place it in Granatina. Delacour (1943: 84) provided the replacement name Estrilda ianthinogaster somereni for ugandae, preoccupied in Estrilda by Uraeginthus [ =  Estrilda] bengalus ugandae Zedlitz, 1911. The two names share the same type.

  • Granatina ianthogaster (sic) montana van Someren

  • Granatina ianthogaster (sic) montana van Someren, 1919: 53 (Naivasha).

    Now Granatina ianthinogaster (Reichenow, 1879). See van Someren, 1922: 159; Hartert, 1928: 195; White, 1963: 198; Mayr et al., 1968: 336; Dickinson, 2003: 730; Fry and Keith, 2004: 334–335; and Payne, 2010: 328.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 452222, adult male, collected at Naivasha, 00.44S, 36.26E (Times atlas), Kenya, on 20 February 1919. From the V.G.L. van Someren Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, van Someren designated as type the single male specimen in the Rothschild collection collected at Naivasha on 20 February 1919 and noted that 27 specimens were collected. The original label of AMNH 452222 is marked “Type montana” by van Someren. Paratypes in AMNH: Naivasha, AMNH 452223–452228, 452230, six males, one female, collected between February 1917 and February 1919, all from the V.G.L. van Someren Collection.

  • Granatina ianthogaster (sic) rothschildi van Someren

  • Granatina ianthogaster (sic) rothschildi van Someren, 1919: 53 (Kisumu).

    Now Granatina ianthinogaster (Reichenow, 1879). See van Someren, 1922: 159–160; Hartert. 1928: 195; White, 1963: 198; Mayr et al., 1968: 336; Dickinson, 2003: 730; Fry and Keith, 2004: 334–335; and Payne, 2010: 328.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 452233, male, collected at Kisumu, 00.03S, 34.47E (Times atlas), Kenya, on 22 May 1916, and AMNH 452247, female, collected at Kisumu, Kenya, on 23 May 1916. From the V.G.L. van Someren Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, van Someren listed the above two specimens as types and said that over 30 specimens were collected. Because he designated syntypes, the other specimens collected have no nomenclatural standing (ICZN, 1999: 81, Art. 72.4.6).

  • Estrilda cinderella Neumann

  • Estrilda cinderella Neumann, 1908a: 44 (Deep Sloot, Benguella).

    Now Estrilda thomensis Sousa, 1888. See Hartert, 1919a: 141; Amadon, 1953: 432–433; Chapin, 1954b: 527; Mayr et al., 1968: 338; Naurois, 1994: 24–25; Dickinson, 2003: 730; Fry and Keith, 2004: 290–292; Payne, 2010: 315.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 451794, adult male, collected at Deep Sloot, Benguela, Angola, on 25 November 1905, by W.J. Ansorge (no. 609). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Neumann had the single specimen. The type of the earlier name introduced by Sousa was supposed to have come from São Tomé Island in the Gulf of Guinea, but the species has not been seen there since and the locality may have been incorrect or the type may have been a captive individual or from an introduced population that has since died out; it is known only from Angola.

    Dean (2000) was not able to place this type locality.

  • Estrilda paludicola benguellensis Neumann

  • Estrilda paludicola benguellensis Neumann, 1908: 96 (Que River, Benguella).

    Now Estrilda paludicola benguellensis Neumann, 1908. See Hartert, 1919a: 148; Mayr et al., 1968: 340; Dickinson, 2003: 730; Fry and Keith, 2004: 292–293; and Payne, 2010: 315–316.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 451748, adult male, collected on the road to the Que River, 14.28S, 14.47E (Dean, 2000: 384), Huíla (formerly part of Benguela), Angola, on 14 January 1906, by W.J. Ansorge (no. 78). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    The type, said to be in the Rothschild Collection, was the single specimen collected by Ansorge on 14 January 1906. It is marked “Typus benguellensis” by Neumann and bears a Rothschild type label. Neumann noted that there were 12 examples in the Rothschild Collection in addition to the type, collected by Ansorge and C.H. Pemberton. The following 12 specimens are paratypes: N'gungo, AMNH 451749, male, 9 August 1901, Pemberton; Mucuio, AMNH 451751–451754, two males, two females, 9 August 1904, Ansorge; Bingondo, AMNH 451755–451760, two males, four females, 23–24 October 1904, Ansorge; Cambo Caquenge, AMNH 451761, female, 27 October 1904. It is possible that Neumann meant that paratypes included 12 Ansorge specimens and one by Pemberton, but a 13th specimen (AMNH 451762, female, Luxillo, 31 October 1903, Ansorge) was not considered a paratype as it bore the name “harterti,” a name to which I could find no other reference, with “benguellensis” added, perhaps later.

  • Estrilda paludicola ruthae Chapin

  • Estrilda paludicola ruthae Chapin, 1950: 23 (Mompoto, above Lukolela, Congo River).

    Now Estrilda paludicola ruthae Chapin, 1950. See Chapin, 1954b: 541; Mayr et al., 1968: 340; Dickinson, 2003: 730; Fry and Keith, 2004: 292–293; and Payne, 2010: 315–316 .

    Holotype:

    AMNH 297187, immature male, collected at Mompoto, 01.07S, 17.13E (Chapin, 1954), above Lukolela, Congo River, Congo (Kinshasa), on 26 March 1931, by James P. Chapin (no. 587).

    Comments:

    Chapin had the single specimen, the AMNH number of which he cited in the original description, but also included 10 specimens in RMCA from Kunungu and neighboring villages east of Bulobo (see Louette et al., 2002: 79–80).

  • Estrilda nigriloris Chapin

  • Estrilda nigriloris Chapin, 1928: 1 (Kiabo, Lualaba River, Belgian Congo).

    Now Estrilda nigriloris Chapin, 1928. See Chapin, 1954b: 550–552; Mayr et al., 1968: 345; Dickinson, 2003: 731; Fry and Keith, 2004: 304–305; and Payne, 2010: 317–318.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 264515, adult male, collected at Kiabo, 08.44S, 26.02E (Chapin, 1954), Lualaba River, southeastern Congo (Kinshasa) ( =  Belgian Congo), on 10 August 1927, by James P. Chapin (no. 2623).

    Comments:

    Chapin cited his field number of the holotype in the original description and noted that he collected two adult males and a female. The paratypes are: AMNH 264516, male, and AMNH 264517, female, collected at the type locality on the same day by Chapin (nos. 2624 and 2625, respectively).

    Most authors have considered nigriloris a separate species; Payne (2010: 317–318) included it as a subspecies of E. astrild, noting that “Taxonomic status of nigriloris disputed and requires study.”

  • Astrilda (sic) nonnula Hartlaub

  • Astrilda (sic) nonnula Hartlaub, 1883: 425 (Kudurma).

    Now Estrilda nonnula nonnula Hartlaub, 1883. See Hartert, 1919a: 142; Mayr et al., 1968: 346; Dickinson, 2003: 731; Fry and Keith, 2004: 305–307; Payne, 2010: 321–322.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 451799, immature female, collected at Kudurma, 04.45N, 29.35E (Chapin, 1954a), southern Bahr el-Ghazal, Sudan, on 12 November 1882, by Emin Pasha ( =  Emin Bey) (no. 269). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Hartlaub described a single individual and said that it was an adult male, but the description applies to an immature bird. AMNH 451799 is an immature individual and matches the bird shown in Hartlaub (1887: 321, pl. 13). Emin's female symbol, as usual, is an upside-down male symbol, probably misinterpreted by Hartlaub. Emin's label has the name “Habropyga nonnula Hartl.” written on it in a hand I do not recognize. It is the only Emin specimen of this form that came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection, and I measure the wing as 46 mm (47 mm given by Hartlaub). Hartert (1919a: 142) considered it the type, adding Emin's field number, which was not cited by Hartlaub. Types of all the other forms described at that time by Hartlaub (1883: 425–426) came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection, so there seems to be no reason to doubt that this specimen is the holotype.

  • Estrilda atricapilla avakubi Traylor

  • Estrilda atricapilla avakubi Traylor, 1964: 64 (Avakubi, Ituri district, Congo).

    Now Estrilda atricapilla avakubi Traylor, 1964. See Mayr et al., 1968: 346; Dickinson, 2003: 731; Fry and Keith, 2004: 307–308; and Payne, 2010: 321.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 162543, adult male, collected at Avakubi, 01.24N, 27.40E (Chapin, 1954a), Ituri district, Congo (Kinshasa), on 8 December 1909, by James P. Chapin (no. 511) on the Lang-Chapin Congo Expedition.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Traylor gave the AMNH number of the holotype and measurements for four male and two female specimens of avakubi. There were more than six specimens cataloged from this Chapin expedition and it is not clear which specimens in AMNH Traylor had examined.

  • Estrilda atricapilla graueri Neumann

  • Estrilda atricapilla graueri Neumann, 1908b: 55 (Mt. Sabjingo (2700 m.)).

    Now Estrilda kandti kandti Reichenow, 1902. See Hartert, 1919a: 141; Chapin, 1954b: 555–556; Mayr et al., 1968: 346; Priggogine, 1980: 370–372; Dickinson, 2003: 731; Fry and Keith, 2004: 308–309; Payne, 2010: 321.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 451855, adult male, collected on Mount Sabinyo ( =  Sabjingo), 2700m, 01.22S, 29.36E (Times atlas), on the border of Uganda/Congo (Kinshasa)/Rwanda, on 1 September 1907, by Rudolf Grauer (no. 1136). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Neumann designated as type the only specimen in the Rothschild Collection collected by Grauer on Mount “Sabjingo.” He gave the range as the western Kivu Volcanoes, and three additional specimens may be considered paratypes: AMNH 451856–451858, two males and one unsexed, collected west of Vulcane, on 2 October 1907, by Grauer. I did not find AMNH 451858 in the collection.

    Since Prigogine's (1980: 370–372) study, graueri has been considered a synonym of kandti, with kandti either a subspecies of E. atricapilla (Dickinson, 2003: 731) or a separate species E. kandti (Fry and Keith, 2004, 308–309; Payne, 2010: 321).

  • Estrilda charmosyna kiwanukae van Someren

  • Estrilda charmosyna kiwanukae van Someren, 1919: 55 (M'byuni).

    Now Estrilda erythronotos kiwanukae van Someren, 1919. See Mayr et al., 1968: 347–348; Dickinson, 2003: 731; Fry and Keith, 2004: 311–312; and Payne, 2010: 313.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 451888, adult male, collected at Mbuyuni ( =  M'byuni), 03.14S, 38.30E (Polhill, 1988), Teita district, Kenya, on 26 July 1918. From the V.G.L. van Someren Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    The type, said to be in the Rothschild Collection, was described as a male, collected on 26 July 1918 at M'byuni. It was not listed by Hartert in his lists of Rothschild types, but it bears a Rothschild type label, has “Type” written by van Someren on his own label, and was cataloged at AMNH as the type of kiwanukae. The date, 26 July 1918, is the date on the front of van Someren's label and the date published; however, the date written by the collector on the reverse of this label is 27 June 1918. Of 14 specimens in the original type series, only three came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection. The two paratypes in AMNH: AMNH 451889, male, M'byuni, 23 June 1918 (also the date on the reverse of the label); AMNH 451890, unsexed, Simba, 15 October 1917. Although no locality other than M'byuni was mentioned in the original description, van Someren (1922: 165) later listed other localities for kiwanukae.

    E. charmosyna is often considered a species separate from E. erythronotos, but see Fry and Keith (2004: 311–312) and Payne (2010: 313) for a discussion.

  • Ortygospiza atricollis minuscula C.N.M. White

  • Ortygospiza atricollis minuscula C.M.N. White, 1946: 218 (Balovale).

    Now Ortygospiza atricollis muelleri Zedlitz, 1911. See White, 1963: 209; Mayr et al., 1968: 350–351; Dickinson, 2003: 731; Fry and Keith, 2004: 383–386; and Payne, 2010: 300–301.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 348055, adult male, collected at Balovale, 13.30S, 23.06E (Times atlas), Zambia, on 19 September 1943, by C.M.N. White.

    Comments:

    In the original description, White said that the type was in his collection, a male collected on 19 September 1943 at Balovale, and that he examined 9 specimens. AMNH 348055, bearing White's type label, was donated to AMNH with four additional specimens from the type series. Paratypes in AMNH are: AMNH 348056, male, Balovale, 11 July [1943]; AMNH 348057, female, north of Boma, Balovale, 29 July 1943; AMNH 348058, male, Ndungu, Balovale, 28 July 1943; AMNH 348059, male, Ndungu, Balovale, 1 August 1943.

    Fry and Keith (2004: 383–386) considered muelleri a subspecies of the separate species O. fuscocrissa, but Payne (2010: 300–301) gave reasons for combining fuscocrissa with O. atricollis, pending further study. He considered minuscula intermediate between muelleri and fuscata but synonymized it with muelleri.

  • Ortygospiza atricollis dorsostriata van Someren

  • Ortygospiza atricollis dorsostriata van Someren, 1921a: 115 (South Ankole).

    Now Ortygospiza atricollis dorsostriata van Someren, 1921. See Hartert, 1928: 195; Mayr et al., 1968: 352; Dickinson, 2003: 731; Fry and Keith, 2004: 386–388; and Payne, 2010: 300–301.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 728461, adult male, collected in South Ankole, western Uganda, on 8 October 1919. From the V.G.L. van Someren Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, van Someren said that the type, in the Rothschild Collection, bore the above data. He did not say how many specimens he examined, but listed his localities as Butiti, Toro and South Ankole. There is one paratype in AMNH: AMNH 728463, female, collected at Butiti, on 2 October 1910.

    The subspecies dorsostriata was included in a separate species O. gabonensis by Dickinson (2003: 731) and by Fry and Keith (2004: 386–388), but Payne (2010: 300–301) gave reasons for combining gabonensis with atricollis, pending further study.

    Polhill (1988) gave the coordinates of the Ankole District as ca. 00.30S, 30.30E.

  • Paludipasser uelensis Chapin

  • Paludipasser uelensis Chapin, 1916: 24 (Faradje, Upper Uele District).

    Now Paludipasser locustella uelensis (Chapin, 1916). See Chapin, 1954b: 504–505; Mayr et al., 1968: 352; Dickinson, 2003: 732; Fry and Keith, 2004: 390–392; and Payne, 2010: 300.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 162460, adult male, collected at Faradje, 03.45N, 29.42E (Chapin, 1954a), Upper Uele District, Congo (Kinshasa), on 18 January 1913, by James P. Chapin (no. 4482) on the Lang-Chapin Congo Expedition.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Chapin cited his unique field number of the holotype and gave measurements of nine males and three females. The 11 paratypes are: Faradje, AMNH 162453–162456, four males, 12 March 1912; Garamba, AMNH 162457, 162458, two males, 15–20 June 1912; Faradje, AMNH 162459, male, 18 January 1913; Niangara, AMNH 162461, male, 8 June 1913; Faradje, AMNH 162462, 162463, two females, 12 March 1912; AMNH 162464, female, 18 January 1913. Two of these were exchanged to RMCA: AMNH 162454 (RMCA 18495) and AMNH 162464 (RMCA 19621) (M. Louette, personal commun.). AMNH 162456 was exchanged to FMNH, now FMNH 269384 (D. Willard, personal commun.). I did not find AMNH 162459 in the collection; it was perhaps exchanged without the catalog having been marked.

  • Aegintha temporalis loftyi Mathews

  • Aegintha temporalis loftyi Mathews, 1912a: 431 (Mt. Lofty, South Australia).

    Now Neochmia temporalis temporalis (Latham, 1801). See Mayr et al., 1968: 353; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 748–749; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 353–354.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 721795, adult female, collected in the Mount Lofty Range, 35.00S, 138.50E (USBGN, 1957), east of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, on 22 September 1911, by S.A. White (no. 185). From the Mathews Collection (no. 9825) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Mathews gave his catalog number of the holotype and the range of the form as South Australia. The holotype bears, in addition to the original label, Mathews and Rothschild type labels. He had two additional specimens collected by White on the same day, paratypes: AMNH 721793 (Mathews no. 9824), AMNH 721794 (9823), males, Mount Lofty Range, 22 September 1911. A third specimen was in Mathews' hand before the publication of his “Reference-list” in January 1912, and I have considered it also to be a paratype: AMNH 721796 (9944), female, Mount Lofty Range, on 19 October 1911, by White. It was cataloged by Mathews on 12 December 1911 as “Aegintha lofti.

    For publication date of 1801 for Latham, see Schodde et al. (2010).

  • Aegintha temporalis tregellasi Mathews

  • Aegintha temporalis tregellasi Mathews, 1912a: 431 (Victoria).

    Now Neochmia temporalis temporalis (Latham, 1801). See Mayr et al., 1968: 353; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 748–749; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 353–354.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 721819, adult male, collected at Selby, 37.55S, 145.23E (USBGN, 1957), Victoria, Australia, on 5 June 1911, by Thomas H. Tregellas. From the Mathews Collection (no. 9075) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Mathews cited his catalog number of the holotype in the original description and gave the range as “Victoria.” The following specimens are considered paratypes as they were cataloged by Mathews before 1 January 1912; his “Reference-list” was published on 31 January 1912. Paratypes: Olinda, AMNH 721801 (Mathews no. 4952), male, 9 May 1908; AMNH 721807 (3531), female, 9 May 1908; AMNH 721808 (2819), female, 9 May 1908; AMNH 721809 (8657), female, 28 March 1911; AMNH 721810 (8656), female, 25 March 1911; AMNH 721812 (9076), female, 13 May 1911; AMNH 721816 (5100), male, 15 August 1908. Ringwood, AMNH 721813 (3530), sex?, 10 August 1908; AMNH 721814 (3532), female, 15 October 1908; AMNH 721815 (3533), female, October 1908. Selby, AMNH 721820 (9078), male; AMNH 721825 (9074), AMNH 721826 (9077), females, all collected 5 June 1911. All were collected by Tregellas or L.G. Chandler. The following specimens are possible paratypes, but I did not find them in Mathews' catalog and do not know when they came into his possession: AMNH 721802–721806, three males, 2 females, Olinda, 9 May 1908, collected by Chandler or Tregellas.

    The number “838” that appears on Tregellas' field label of the holotype refers to the number of this species in Mathews (1908).

  • Aegintha temporalis macgillivrayi Mathews

  • Aegintha temporalis macgillivrayi Mathews, 1914b: 13 (Claudie River, North Queensland).

    Now Neochmia temporalis minor (A.J. Campbell, 1901). See Mayr et al., 1968: 353; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 748–749; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 353–354.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 721864, adult male, collected on the Claudie River, 12.50S, 143.21E (USBGN, 1957), northern Queensland, Australia, on 17 January 1914, by W. Macgillivray. From the Mathews Collection (no. 18473) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Apparently, Mathews had the single specimen as it is the only one that appears in his catalog. The specimen bears Macgillivray's field label, Mathews and Rothschild type labels, and a “Figured” label, indicating that this is the specimen illustrated in Mathews (1925, vol. 12, pt. 5, pl. 570, opp. p. 219). The type labels both bear Mathew's catalog number, although it was not mentioned in the original description.

    Macgillivray (1917–1918) reported on this trip to the Claudie River.

  • Aegintha temporalis ashbyi Mathews

  • Aegintha temporalis ashbyi Mathews, 1923: 40 (Blackall Ranges, South Queensland).

    Now Neochmia temporalis temporalis (Latham, 1801). See Mayr et al., 1968: 353; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 748–749; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 353–354.

    Syntype?:

    AMNH 155712, sex?, Blackall Range, Queensland, 28 September 1903, by Edwin Ashby.

    Comments:

    Mathews (1923: 40) described Aegintha temporalis ashbyi, the type being from the Blackall Range, 26.42S, 152.53E (USBGN, 1957), South Queensland, Australia. No specimen of Aegintha temporalis from the Blackall Range came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection. Ashby specimen AMNH 155712 from the Blackall Range, collected on 28 September 1903, came directly to AMNH on exchange from Ashby in 1920 and would not have been available to Mathews in 1923. There are no Ashby specimens of this species from the Blackall Range in SAMA (P. Horton, personal commun.) or ANSP (N. Rice, personal commun.). If there were other specimens, they probably perished in the 1935 fire that destroyed a large part of Ashby's collection (Whittell, 1954: 19).

    This is another of the names Mathews rushed into print in 1923 so that it would be available for Mathews (1925). Many of these have scant information concerning a type. In his original description he gave the following characters: “Differs from A. t. temporalis (Latham) in being smaller and of a brighter colour.” Mathews (1925: 221) quoted Ashby: “This species was very numerous in the Blackall Ranges, Queensland, but the birds were smaller and more brightly coloured than South Australian specimens.” It seems likely that he based his description on what Ashby had told him, which would make AMNH 155712 a syntype of ashbyi, and perhaps the only surviving specimen.

    The number “838b” that appears on Ashby's label refers to the number of this species in Mathews (1908).

  • Emblema picta coongani Mathews

  • Emblema picta coongani Mathews, 1912a: 428 (Western Australia (Coongan River)).

    Now Emblema pictum Gould, 1852. See Mayr et al., 1968: 354; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 743; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2020: 351.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 720266, adult male, collected on the Coongan River, 20.53S, 119.47E (USBGN, 1957), Western Australia, Australia, on 9 July 1908, by F.L[awson] W[hitlock]. From the Mathews Collection (no. 3484) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Mathews cited his catalog number of the holotype in the original description. Three additional specimens from the Coongan River are paratypes: AMNH 720267–720269 (Mathews nos. 3481–3483), males, collected 9–13 July 1908, by Whitlock. AMNH 720263 (3479), male, and AMNH 720264 (3480), female, from the Strelley River, collected in August 1907, are possible paratypes, but Mathews did not mention that locality.

  • Emblema picta territorii Mathews

  • Emblema picta territorii Mathews, 1912a: 428 (Alexandra, Northern Territory).

    Now Emblema pictum Gould, 1852. See Mayr et al., 1968: 354; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 743; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 351.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 720303, adult male, collected at Alexandria ( =  Alexandra), 19.02S, 136.42E (USBGN, 1957), Northern Territory, Australia, in July 1905, by Wilfred Stalker (no. 59). From the Mathews Collection (no. 3478) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Mathews cited his catalog number of the holotype in the original description and gave the range as Northern Territory. He had an additional specimen from Northern Territory, paratype AMNH 720304 (Mathews no. 3477), female, collected at Alexandria in July 1905 by Stalker.

    Stalker's collection was made for Sir William Ingram and these two specimens were originally reported on by Collingwood Ingram (1907: 415).

  • Emblema picta clelandi Mathews

  • Emblema picta clelandi Mathews, 1914a: 102 (Roebuck Bay, North-west Australia).

    Now Emblema pictum Gould, 1852. See Mayr et al., 1968: 354; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 743; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 351.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 720287, adult male, collected at “Roebuck Bay,” Western Australia, Australia, on 12 December 1895, by Knut Dahl (no. 1492). From the Mathews Collection (11043) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Mathews wrote his catalog number on his type label but did not cite it in the original description. He apparently had the single specimen.

    Dahl collected in Australia in 1894–1896 and in 1912 Mathews acquired a large number of his specimens from R. Collett, ZMO, where they had been deposited. This holotype bears Dahl's original label, Mathews and Rothschild type labels, and a “Figured” label, indicating that it had been illustrated in Mathews (1925: 183, pl. 563, opp. p. 182), where it is confirmed as the type of clelandi.

    Dahl (1927: 272–306) recounted his adventures at Hill Station, 17.46 S, 122.13 E (USBGN, 1957), the locality at which the holotype of clelandi was collected. Hill Station was situated some miles north of Broome, along the shore.

  • Emblema picta ethelae Mathews

  • Emblema picta ethelae Mathews, 1914a: 103 (Hermansburg [sic], MacDonnell Ranges).

    Now Emblema pictum, Gould, 1852. See Mayr et al., 1968: 354; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 743; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 351.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 720305 (S.A. White no. 1339), adult male, AMNH 720306 (1340), adult male, AMNH 720307 (1341), male [immature], AMNH 720308 (1335), female, AMNH 720309 (1378), immature female, AMNH 720310 (1336), female?, all collected at Hermannsburg, 23.58S, 132.37E (Times atlas), MacDonnell Ranges, Northern Territory, Australia, on 30 August 1913, by S.A. White. From the Mathews Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Mathews said only that the type was from Hermannsburg in the MacDonnell Ranges, and gave the range of the form as Central Australia. I found no further information in Mathews (1925: 182–187). White (1914: 437) reported finding the species common near Hermannsburg and near the Glen of Palms but shy and hard to collect. There are six specimens of Emblema pictum in AMNH from the MacDonnell Ranges that were originally in the Mathews Collection. Mathews cataloged few specimens after 1912 and these do not appear in his catalog. AMNH 720305 is marked “Type of E.p. ethelae, A.A.R. Vol. II” This refers to the description in volume 2 of the Austral Avian Record and indicates that this is Mathews' chosen type of ethelae, but apparently never published as such. It also bears a Rothschild type label, but Hartert did not publish a list of Mathews' types of Estrildidae.

    White put his entire collection at Mathews' disposal and after Mathews had finished descriptions based on White's specimens, part of the collection was returned to White. White's collection is now in SAMA and there is one syntype of ethelae there: No. B54891, collected at Hermannsburg on 30 August 1913 (P. Horton, personal commun.).

  • Zonaeginthus bellus samueli Mathews

  • Zonaeginthus bellus samueli Mathews, 1912a: 102 (Kangaroo Island).

    Now Stagonopleura bella samueli Mathews, 1912. See Mayr et al., 1968: 354–355; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 744–745; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 353.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 720062, adult male, collected in the center of Kangaroo Island, South Australia, Australia, on 13 April 1912, by S.A. White (no. 706). From the Mathews Collection (no. 12354) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Mathews cited his catalog number of the holotype in the original description, and gave the range as Kangaroo Island. The following specimens from Kangaroo Island are paratypes: Tin Hut, AMNH 720063–720065 (Mathews nos. 12355–12357), two females, one sex?, 13 April 1912, S.A. White (nos. 707, 708, 729); Mount Taylor, AMNH 720066 (12358), female, 15 April 1912, S.A. White (no. 705); near Hog Bay, AMNH 720067 (3468), female, 30 December 1897, no original label.

    Schodde and Mason (1999: 744–745) gave reasons for recognizing samueli and they were followed by Dickinson (2003: 732); Payne (2010: 353) considered S. bella monotypic.

  • [Zonaeginthus bellus rosinae Mathews]

  • Zonaeginthus bellus rosinae Mathews, 1923: 40 (South Australia).

    Z. b. rosinae was one of the forms Mathews rushed to name prior to the publication of volume 12 of “Birds of Australia.” He gave supposed characters (“Differs from Z. b. tasmanicus Mathews in its light coloration and in having the vermiculations on the upper-surface finer.”) but no information that would aid in identifying a type. No further information concerning a type is provided by Mathews (1925: 164–168), but he there quotes Mellor (p. 167) concerning South Australian birds he had seen: “the birds were somewhat different in appearance than the Tasmanian birds, being finer in the freckled appearance of the feathers and not so dark in coloration.” It is possible he based his description on Mellor's observations.

    The species is now included in the genus Stagonopleura (Schodde and Mason, 1999: 741–742, 744–745). There are no mainland South Australian specimens from the Mathews Collection of S. bella in AMNH.

  • [Zonaeginthus bellus flindersi Mathews]

  • [Zonaeginthus bellus tasmanicus Mathews]

  • Zonaeginthus bellus flindersi Mathews, 1923: 40 (Flinders Island, Bass Straits).

    Zonaeginthus bellus tasmanicus Mathews, 1923: 40 (Tasmania).

    As in the preceding case, these names were rushed to publication in 1923, but no further information is provided in Mathews (1925: 164–168). There is a Mathews specimen in AMNH, AMNH 720069, from Flinders Island and two, AMNH 720070 and 720071, from Mount Arthur, Tasmania, collected in November and December 1912 by S.A. White and bearing Mathews' catalog numbers 15709–15711, but there is no indication on them or in his catalog that they were considered type material, and no Mathews catalog number was given in the descriptions.

    Both names are now considered synonyms of Stagonopleura bella bella. See Mayr et al. (1968: 354) and Schodde and Mason (1999: 741–745).

  • [Zonaeginthus oculatus gaimardi Mathews]

  • In the original description, Mathews (1923: 40) said only that the Perth bird “Differs from Z. o. oculatus (Q. and G.) in its paler coloration [sic] and smaller size. Type, Perth, West Australia.” There are no Perth specimens from the Mathews Collection in AMNH. Mathews (1923: 33) indicated that although he had named many new subspecies in the completed manuscript for his “Birds of Australia” [volume 12] he was publishing many of these names earlier, apparently to prevent his being “scooped.” Later, Mathews (1925, 12 (4): 171) indicated that he was naming gaimardi in the “Birds of Australia,” apparently forgetting that he had already published it earlier. No further information is given on a possible type. This appears to be a case of Mathews deciding that the type locality of Z. oculatus (Quoy and Gaimard, 1830) was not Perth, as the authors had indicated, but was instead King George's Sound, Western Australia. This left Perth birds without a name, which was supplied by Mathews! Now considered a synonym of Stagonopleura oculata (Quoy and Gaimard, 1830); see Mayr et al. (1968: 355) and Schodde and Mason (1999: 746).

  • Zonaeginthus guttatus philordi Mathews

  • Zonaeginthus guttatus philordi Mathews, 1912a: 427 (Victoria).

    Now Stagonopleura guttata Shaw, 1796. See Mayr et al., 1968: 355; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 747; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 352.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 720009, adult [male], collected at Frankston, 38.08S, 145.07E (USBGN, 1957), Victoria, Australia, on 17 April 1908, by T. Tregellas (no. 401). From the Mathews Collection (no. 5098) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Mathews cited his catalog number of the holotype in the original description and gave the range as “Victoria, South Australia.” There are two definite paratypes in AMNH: Bayswater, Victoria, AMNH 720013 (Mathews no. 8149), male, AMNH 720014 (8150), female, both collected 1 January 1911 by T. Tregellas. I also consider a third specimen a paratype: AMNH 720010, male, Frankston, 17 April 1908, by Tregellas. This last specimen was collected on the same day as the holotype, but apparently not cataloged. Mathews frequently only made one entry in his catalog when he had more than one specimen bearing the same data. There is another possible paratype, although I did not find it in Mathews' catalog and do not know when he acquired it: AMNH 720008, male immature, Stansbury, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia, 16 April 1911, collected by S.A. and E.R. White (no. 1493).

    Mathews (1925, 12 (4): 158–162) discussed this species in the genus Tavistocka.

  • Oreostruthus fuliginosus hagenensis Mayr and Gilliard

  • Oreostruthus fuliginosus hagenensis Mayr and Gilliard, 1954: 372 (Mount Hagen, Central Highlands, Mandated Territory of New Guinea).

    Now Oreostruthus fuliginosus hagenensis Mayr and Gilliard, 1954. See Mayr et al., 1968: 356, Coates, 1990: 336, Dickinson, 2003: 732, and Payne, 2010: 351–352.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 704650, immature male, collected on the summit trail, south slope of Mount Hagen, 05.45S, 144.05E (Times atlas), Western Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea ( =  Central Highlands, Mandated Territory of New Guinea), ca. 10,000 ft, on 28 July 1950, by William Lamont on the 1950 Gilliard Expedition to New Guinea.

    Comments:

    Mayr and Gilliard cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and noted that a second specimen was collected. The paratype is AMNH 706019, female?, Mount Hagen, base camp, 8600 ft, 30 June 1950, by E.T. Gilliard.

  • Oreostruthus fuliginosus pallidus Rand

  • Oreostruthus fuliginosus pallidus Rand, 1940: 14 (Lake Habbema, 3225 m, Snow Mts., Netherland [sic] New Guinea).

    Now Oreostruthus fuliginosus pallidus Rand, 1940. See Mayr et al., 1968: 356; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 351–352.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 305647, sex? [ =  adult male], collected at Danau ( =  Lake) Habbema, 3225 m., 04.08S, 138.40E (USBGN, 1982), Pegunungan Maoke ( =  Snow Mountains), Papua Province ( =  Netherlands New Guinea), Indonesia, on 17 August 1938, by R. Archbold, A.L. Rand, and W.B. Richardson on the 1938–1939 Archbold Expedition (no. 3693).

    Comments:

    The AMNH number of the holotype was given in the original description and eight specimens in addition to the type were listed. I found only seven of these cataloged and in the collection. Paratypes, all collected in 1938 and all females: Lake Habbema, 3225 m, AMNH 343492, 5 August; 9 km northeast of Lake Habbema, 2700 m, AMNH 343493, 19 October; 7 km northeast of Wilhelmina summit, 3600 m, AMNH 343494, 343495, 16–19 September; Ibele ( =  Bele) River, 18 km north of Lake Habbema, 2200 m, AMNH 343496343498, 24 November–2 December. Of these, AMNH 343498 was sent to MZB on 7 May 1957. The specimen that was not found, also a female and a paratype, was collected 9 km northeast of Lake Habbema on 25 October 1938.

    This, the third Archbold Expedition to New Guinea, was made jointly with Netherlands Indies personnel and was also known as the Indisch-Amerikaansche Expeditie. Archbold et al. (1942) published a summary of the expedition, with itinerary and maps.

  • Neochmia phaeton albiventer Mathews

  • Neochmia phaeton albiventer Mathews, 1914b: 13 (Claudie River, North Queensland).

    Now Neochmia phaeton evangelinae d'Albertis and Salvadori, 1879. See Mayr et al., 1968: 356–357; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 750–751; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 353.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 721927, adult male, collected on the Claudie River, 12.50S, 143.21E (USBGN, 1957), Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia, on 19 January 1914, by W.D.K. Macgillivray (1917–1918: 208) or others in his group. From the Mathews Collection (no. 18472) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Mathews had the single specimen, which bears the original field label, Mathews and Rothschild type labels, and a “Figured” label, indicating that it was the model for Mathews (1926, 12 (6): 262–263, pl. 577, lower fig., opp. p. 262). It was also confirmed there as the type of albiventer, which Mathews at that time considered a monotypic species. Mathews included his catalog number on the Rothschild type label, although he did not mention it in the description. Other specimens of this form that had been in Mathews' collection were either collected after the date of publication of the name or were undated.

    Schodde and Mason (1999: 750–751) discussed their reasons for considering albiventer a synonym of evangelinae and this has been followed by later authors.

  • Neochmia phaeton iredalei Mathews

  • Neochmia phaeton iredalei Mathews, 1912a: 434 (Queensland (Rockhampton)).

    Now Neochmia phaeton phaeton (Hombron and Jacquinot, 1841). See Mayr et al., 1968: 357; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 750–751; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 353.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 721882, adult male, collected at Rockhampton, 23.23S, 150.30E (USBGN, 1957), Queensland, Australia, in July 1895, obtained from T. Thorpe. From the Mathews Collection (no. 7304) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Mathews cited his catalog number of the holotype in the original description and gave the range as north Queensland. The holotype bears an original label and Mathews and Rothschild type labels. The following specimens are paratypes of iredalei: Mackay, AMNH 721884 (Mathews catalog no. 6506), [female plumage]; Bowen, AMNH 721885 (7303), male, AMNH 721886 (7306), male, August 1898, obtained from Thorpe. AMNH 721883 (14602), male, Mackay, June 1882, was not cataloged by Mathews until December 1912, after the publication of iredalei. Other specimens from the Mathews collection have imprecise localities or no date and are not considered paratypes.

  • Neochmia phaeton fitzroyi Mathews

  • Neochmia phaeton fitzroyi Mathews, 1912c: 120 (Fitzroy River, North-west Australia).

    Now Neochmia phaeton phaeton (Hombron and Jacquinot, 1841). See Mayr et al., 1968: 357; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 750–751; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 353.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 721914, adult male, collected on the Fitzroy River, 14 mi west of Mount Anderson, 18.01S, 123.55E (USBGN, 1957), West Kimberley, Western Australia, Australia, on 18 July 1911, by J.P. Rogers (no. 1885). From the Mathews Collection (9234) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Mathews gave his catalog number of the holotype and the range of fitzroyi as northwest Australia. The holotype bears Rogers' original label, Mathews and Rothschild type labels, and a “Figured” label, indicating that it was the model for Mathews (1926: 258, pl. 576, lower figure, opp. p. 257); it is there confirmed as the type of fitzroyi. Paratypes are: Napier Broome Bay, AMNH 721901 (Mathews no. 13030), AMNH 721902 (13031), males, 1 November 1911, AMNH 721903–721907 (5722–5726), three males, two females, 22 November 1909–30 April 1910; Parry Creek, AMNH 721912 (3569), male, AMNH 721913 (3568), female, 15 December 1908; Fitzroy River, AMNH 721915–721917 (9232, 9233, 9235), one male, two females, 18 July 1911, AMNH 921918 (5307), immature female, no date; King River, AMNH 721919 (9856), male, 3 July 1911; Camp 20, AMNH 721920 (13029), male; Camp 17, AMNH 721921 (13028), female (these specimens collected by L.M. Burns and received from C.P. Conigrave. See Whittell [1954: 166] for information on the Burns-Conigrave collection made out from Wyndham). Other specimens from northwest Australia were either never in the Mathews Collection or were cataloged after the 24 December 1912 publication date of fitzroyi.

  • Aegintha ruficauda connectens Mathews

  • Aegintha ruficauda connectens Mathews, 1912a: 431 (Queensland (Rockhampton)).

    Now Neochmia ruficauda ruficauda (Gould, 1837). See Mayr et al., 1968: 357; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 752–753; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 354.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 721935, adult male, collected at “Rockhampton,” 23.23S, 150.30E (USBGN, 1957), Queensland, Australia, in 1861, by John Jardine. From the Mathews Collection (9346) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Mathews cited his catalog number of the type. When he introduced connectens, he added the locality “Rockhampton,” which does not appear on the original label. Presumably, this was because John Jardine was, at the time this specimen was collected, the Police Magistrate in Rockhampton (Whittell, 1954: 376). In Mathews' catalog, the holotype was noted as having been obtained from the Rothschild Collection; it bears, in addition to the Jardine label, a Rothschild label (not printed “Collection G.M. Mathews”), Rothschild and Mathews type labels, and a “Figured” label, indicating that it served as the model for Mathews (1926: 227, pl. 571, opp. p. 226, lower fig., under Bathilda ruficauda); it was there confirmed as the type of connectens. Mathews had a second specimen from Rockhampton, paratype AMNH 721936 (Mathews no. 7307), female, 1897; this specimen was obtained from T. Thorpe and cataloged in February 1911. Another Jardine specimen collected in 1861 was never in the Mathews Collection.

  • Bathilda ruficauda clarescens Hartert

  • Bathilda ruficauda clarescens Hartert, 1899b: 427 (Cape York).

    Now Neochmia ruficauda clarescens (Hartert, 1899). See Hartert, 1919a: 142; Mayr et al., 1968: 357; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 752–753; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 354.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 721934, adult male, collected on Cape York Peninsula, north Queensland, Australia, on 14 June 1898, by collectors for Albert S. Meek (no. 1794). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Hartert apparently had the single specimen; he noted on the Rothschild type label that the specimen was collected by “Eichhorn,” one of the Eichhorn brothers who collected with Meek for many years. Parker (1966: 121–122) investigated Meek's collecting locality on Cape York and found it to be the Chester River, 13.42S, 143.33E.

  • Aegintha ruficauda subclarescens Mathews

  • Aegintha ruficauda subclarescens Mathews, 1912a: 431 (North-West Australia (Parry's Creek)).

    Now Neochmia ruficauda subclarescens (Mathews, 1912). See Mayr et al., 1968: 357; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 752–753; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 354.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 721950, adult male, collected on Parry Creek, 15.32S, 128.09E (USBGN, 1957), 5 mi west of Trig. Station H.J.9, East Kimberley, Western Australia, Australia, on 2 February 1909, by J.P. Rogers (no. 617). From the Mathews Collection (no. 3541) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Mathews cited his catalog number of the holotype in the original description and gave the range of subclarescens as “North-West Australia.” The holotype bears, in addition to the original Rogers label, Mathews and Rothschild type labels and a “Figured” label, indicating that it is illustrated in Mathews (1926: 227, pl. 571, opp. p. 226, upper fig., as Bathilda ruficauda). The figured male is said to be the type of subclarescens, but the date of collection is misread from the specimen: the “F” in Feb. is misread as “7” and the “eb” as “6,” so the date is given as “27 June.” The catalog number was correctly given. A single paratype is AMNH 721951 (Mathews no. 3542), female, Parry Creek, 2 February 1909, by J.P. Rogers (no. 616). Other specimens were either never in Mathews' collection or were cataloged after the publication of subclarescens on 31 January 1912.

    Schodde and Mason (1999: 752–753) discussed this species, noting that two names, published at the same time, were available for the northwestern subspecies. As first revisors, they recognized subclarescens, choosing that name over thorpei (see below). Dickinson (2003: 732) followed this. Payne (2010: 354) recognized only two subspecies, clarescens (including subclarescens) and ruficauda.

  • Aegintha ruficauda thorpei Mathews

  • Aegintha ruficauda thorpei Mathews, 1912a: 431 (West Australia (Coongan River)).

    Now Neochmia ruficauda subclarescens (Mathews, 1912). See Mayr et al., 1968: 357; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 752–753; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 354.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 721958, adult male, collected on the Coongan River, 20.53S, 119.47E (USBGN, 1957), Western Australia, Australia, on 18 August 1908, by F.L.W[hitlock]. From the Mathews Collection (no. 3538) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Mathews cited his catalog number of the holotype in the original description and gave the range of thorpei as “West Australia.” Paratypes are: Coongan River, AMNH 721959–7219961 (Mathews nos 3543, 3539, 3540), three females, 18–25 August 1908, collected by Whitlock; Strelley River, AMNH 721962 (3536), immature male, August 1907, AMNH 721963 (3537), female, 25 August 1908.

    As noted above, two names were available for the western subspecies; Schodde and Mason (1999: 753), as first revisors, chose the name subclarescens over thorpei, both having been published at the same time. Dickinson (2003: 732) followed this; Payne (2010: 354) synonymized subclarescens with clarescens.

  • Zonaeginthus castanotis mouki Mathews

  • Zonaeginthus castanotis mouki Mathews, 1912a: 427 (Queensland (Rockhampton)).

    Now Taeniopygia castanotis (Gould, 1837). See Mayr et al., 1968: 358; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 761–762; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 357.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 720125, adult male, collected at Rockhampton, 23.23S, 150.30E (USBGN, 1957), Queensland, Australia, in April 1891, received from T. Thorpe. From the Mathews Collection (no. 7334) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Mathews cited his catalog number of the holotype in the original description and gave the range as “Queensland.” The following specimens are paratypes: Rockhampton, AMNH 720126 (Mathews no. 7336), AMNH 720127 (7335), males, May 1893; Queensland, AMNH 720129 (7332), male, 1892, AMNH 720130 (7333), male, 1894, AMNH 720131 (7331), female, 1894, all received from Thorpe. AMNH 720128 (14604), collected at Peak Downs, 25 January 1881, was not cataloged by Mathews until November 1912, after the publication of mouki on 31 January 1912 and is not considered a paratype.

    T. castanotis has usually been considered a subspecies of T. guttata, but see Payne (2010: 357) for reasons to consider castanotis a separate species.

  • Zonaeginthus castanotis wayensis Mathews

  • Zonaeginthus castanotis wayensis Mathews, 1912a: 428 (West Australia (East Murchison)).

    Now Taeniopygia castanotis (Gould, 1837). See Mayr et al., 1968: 358; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 761–762; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 357.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 720163, adult male, collected at Lake Way, 26.48S, 120.18E (USBGN, 1957), East Murchison, Western Australia, Australia, on 18 July 1909, by F.L.W[hitlock]. From the Mathews Collection (no. 3491) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Mathews cited his catalog number in the original description and gave the range as “Mid Westralia.” The holotype bears, in addition to Whitlock's original label, Mathews and Rothschild type labels and a “Figured” label, indicating that it served as the model for Mathews (1925: 174, pl. 562, upper fig., opp. p. 169); it is there confirmed as the type of wayensis. The following specimens are paratypes: Lake Way, East Murchison, AMNH 720164 (Mathews no. 3492), male, AMNH 720165 (3489), 720166 (3490), two females, July 1909; East Murchison, AMNH 720167 (3982), 720168 (3983), two males, AMNH 720169 (3891), 720170 (3985), 720171 (3984), two females, September-October 1909, all collected by Whitlock; Laverton, AMNH 720172 (3854), male, 25 October 1908, collector?; Crooker Mine Lake, Southern Cross, AMNH 720173 (3853), female, 30 July 1905, collected by G.C. Shortridge.

    Whitlock (1910: 183) was at Nannine, 26.53S, 118.20E (Times atlas), on 18 July, when the holotype was collected and noted that T. castanotis was abundant and breeding.

  • Zonaeginthus castanotis mungi Mathews

  • Zonaeginthus castanotis mungi Mathews, 1912a: 428 (North-West Australia (Mungi)).

    Now Taeniopygia castanotis (Gould, 1837). See Mayr et al., 1968: 358; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 761–762; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 357.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 720143, adult male, collected on “Marngle Creek,” West Kimberley, Western Australia, Australia, on 2 June 1911, by J.P. Rogers (no. 1726). From the Mathews Collection (no. 9231) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Mathews gave his catalog number of the holotype and the range of the form as “Interior North-West Australia.” The type locality, given by Mathews as “Mungi,” was a locality he often used for specimens collected by Rogers in the area of the Fitzroy River. In fact, all of Rogers' specimens collected at this time list only “Fitzroy River” as the locality in Mathews' catalog. The locality on the label is “Marngle Creek,” which is apparently Mangle Creek  =  Manguel Creek, 17.49S, 123.39E (USBGN, 1957). With regard to this species, Rogers is quoted by Mathews (1925: 178): “In Derby this is a resident species…. Many hundreds of these birds watered at a mud spring near my camp at Marngle Creek. At Mungi they were also very common….” Paratypes are: Manguel Creek, AMNH 720144, male, 720145, female, 27 May 1911, by J.P. Rogers (nos. 1676, 1677). The female paratype is figured in Mathews (1925: 174, pl. 562, center fig., opp. p. 169).

  • Zonaeginthus castanotis alexandrae Mathews

  • Zonaeginthus castanotis alexandrae Mathews, 1912a: 428 (Alexandra, Northern Territory).

    Now Taeniopygia castanotis (Gould, 1837). See Mayr et al., 1968: 358; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 761–762; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 357.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 720136, [adult male], collected at Alexandria ( =  Alexandra), 19.02S, 136.42E (USBGN, 1957), Northern Territory, Australia, in 1906, by Wilfred Stalker. From the Mathews Collection (no. 3487) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Mathews cited his catalog number of the holotype and gave the range as “Northern Territory.” Paratypes are: Alexandria, AMNH 720137 (Mathews no. 3485), female, April 1905, by Stalker, AMNH 720138 (3486), female, by Stalker (original label undated, Mathews' label marked April 1905). Mathews had also marked his label on the holotype as having been collected in April 1905, but Stalker was also collecting at Alexandria in 1906, and his label is so annotated. The number “831” on the reverse of Stalker's label refers to the number of this species in Mathews (1908). The label on AMNH 720137 differs from the other Stalker bird labels, and it also bears a small label printed “Mus. Brit.” and “Seebohm Coll.,” but is otherwise blank. Stalker was also collecting mammals and this may be a label intended for mammals (which went to BMNH) that Stalker had at hand when he collected the specimen. There is no reason to doubt that the specimen was part of the Stalker collection.

    Stalker's bird collection was originally made for Sir William Ingram and reported on by Collingwood Ingram (1907, 1909). This species was only mentioned once by Ingram (1907: 415), where he noted that Stalker had collected one male and two females.

  • Zonaeginthus castanotis roebucki Mathews

  • Zonaeginthus castanotis roebucki Mathews, 1913a: 193 (Roebuck Bay, North-west Australia (coast)).

    Now Taeniopygia castanotis (Gould, 1837). See Mayr et al., 1968: 358; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 761–762; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 357.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 720146, adult male, collected at Roebuck Bay, 18.04S, 122.17E (USBGN, 1957), northwestern Western Australia, Australia, on 12 December 1895, by Knut Dahl. From the Mathews Collection (no. 11044) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Mathews cited his catalog number of the holotype in the original description and said that the range of the form was coastal northwestern Australia. Paratype: Roebuck Bay, AMNH 720147 (Mathews no. 11045), female, 12 December 1895, by Dahl.

    Dahl had collected in Australia in 1894–1896 and in his book (Dahl, 1927: 272–306) described his stay at Hill Station, 17.46S, 122.13E (USBGN, 1957), during which he collected these specimens. In 1912, Mathews obtained specimens collected by Dahl from R. Collett at ZMO (Mathews, 1912b: 25)

  • [Taeniopygia castanotis hartogi Mathews]

  • Mathews (1920: 76) described this form from Dirk Hartog Island, Western Australia, and gave the collecting date as 7 October 1916. There are no specimens of Taeniopygia castanotis in AMNH from Dirk Hartog Island. The holotype of this form is in NMV (W. Longmore, personal commun.).

  • Munia bichenovii pallescens Mathews

  • Munia bichenovii pallescens Mathews, 1912a: 429 (New South Wales).

    Now Taeniopygia bichenovii bichenovii (Vigors and Horsfield, 1827). See Mayr et al., 1968: 359; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 763–764; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 357–358.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 720312, adult female, collected at Bourke, 30.06S, 145.56E (USBGN, 1957), New South Wales, Australia, in April 1893, from T. Thorpe. From the Mathews Collection (no. 7322) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Mathews gave the type locality and the range of pallescens as New South Wales but did not give his catalog number. AMNH 720312 bears, in addition to the original label, Mathews and Rothschild type labels and a “Figured” label, indicating that it served as the model for Mathews (1925: 191, pl. 564 (middle fig.), opp. p. 189), where the figured female from Bourke and collected in April 1893 is said to be the type of pallescens. The above specimen, the only Bourke specimen collected in April 1893, is thereby designated the lectotype. Paralectotypes are: Bourke, AMNH 720311 (Mathews no. 7323), male, May 1893, AMNH 720313 (7321), female, May 1895, both received from T. Thorpe; New South Wales, AMNH 720314 (3505), undated, but cataloged prior to the publication of the description.

  • Munia bichenovii bandi Mathews

  • Munia bichenovii bandi Mathews, 1912a: 429 (Northern Territory (Alexandra)).

    Now from a zone of intergradation between Taeniopygia b. bichenovii and T. b. annulosa. See Mayr et al., 1968: 359; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 763–764; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 357–358.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 720329, adult male, collected at Alexandria ( =  Alexandra), 19.02S, 136.42E (USBGN, 1957), Northern Territory, Australia, in June 1905, by Wilfred Stalker. From the Mathews Collection (no. 3495) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Mathews said only that his type was from “Northern Territory (Alexandra)” and gave the range as “Northern Territory.” The Alexandria collection was made by Stalker for William Ingram and reported on by Collingwood Ingram (1907, 1909). It was later purchased by Mathews. C. Ingram (1907: 415) recorded an adult specimen, without sex and date of collection, as Stictoptera bichenovii and an adult male and female (no. 54, that shared a label), collected in June 1905, as Stictoptera annulosa. On his label, however, Mathews had identified the female specimen collected in June 1905 as S. annulosa, and the unsexed, undated bird and the male collected in June 1905 as M. bichenovii, labeling the last as his type of M. bichenovii bandi. It is clear from the ranges given in his listing of the subspecies of M. bichenovii (Mathews, 1912a: 429) that he assigned all his Northern Territory specimens to his new subspecies bandi, which he regarded as intermediate between M. b. annulosa and M. b. bichenovii, and that he considered M. b. annulosa to be confined to “North-West Australia.” He had marked the Stalker label of the unsexed, undated bird (AMNH 720332) as “Type,” but apparently changed his mind, as AMNH 720329 bears his green type label as well as a Rothschild type label. It is this specimen that was evidently Mathews' intended type, was so cataloged when the Rothschild Collection came to AMNH, and has since then been considered the type without question. I hereby designate AMNH 720329 the lectotype of Munia bichenovii bandi in order to settle the issue. Paralectotypes are: Alexandria, AMNH 720331 (Mathews no. 3494), female, June 1905; AMNH 720332 (3503), sex?, undated, both collected by Stalker.

    AMNH 720333, collected at Glencoe, Northern Territory, by Knut Dahl in January 1895 was not cataloged by Mathews (no. 11046) until 8 February 1912, after the 31 January 1912 publication date of bandi and is not considered a paratype.

  • Poephila personata belcheri Mathews

  • Poephila personata belcheri Mathews, 1911: 68 (Parry's Creek, North-west Australia).

    Now Poephila personata personata Gould, 1842. See Mayr et al., 1968: 359–360; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 755–756; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 358.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 721675, adult male, collected on Parry Creek, 15.32S, 128.09E (USBGN, 1957), 5 mi west of Trig. Station H.J.9, East Kimberley, northern Western Australia, Australia, on 29 December 1908, by J.P. Rogers (no. 471). From the Mathews Collection (no. 3553) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Mathews gave his catalog number of the type and Parry Creek as the range. Later he (Mathews, 1912a: 434) added no new information but placed it in the genus Neochmia; still later, he (Mathews, 1926: 251–255) placed it in the genus Neopoephila. Paratypes are: Parry Creek, AMNH 721676 (Mathews no. 3554), male, 5 January 1909; AMNH 721677 (3555), female, 30 September 1908; AMNH 721678 (3556), sex?, 30 September 1908, all collected by J.P. Rogers.

  • Neochmia personata harterti Mathews

  • Neochmia personata harterti Mathews, 1912a: 434 (North-West Australia (Napier Broome Bay)).

    Now Poephila personata personata Gould, 1842. See Mayr et al., 1968: 359–360; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 755–756; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 358.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 721671, adult male, collected at Napier Broome Bay, 14.02S, 126.37E (USBGN, 1957) northwestern Western Australia, Australia, on 16 December 1909, by G.F. Hill (no. 150). From the Mathews Collection (no. 5733) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Mathews gave his catalog number of the type and the range as “North-West Australia.” The holotype bears, in addition to the original label, Mathews and Rothschild type labels a “Figured” label, indicating that it was the model for Mathews (1926: 252, pl. 575, bottom fig., opp. p. 251), where it is confirmed as the type of harterti. Paratypes are: Napier Broome Bay, AMNH 721672 (Mathews no. 5732), male, 16 December 1909; AMNH 721673 (6223), sex?, 30 June 1910, both collected by Hill.

  • [Neopoephila personata hilli Mathews]

  • Mathews (1923: 41), in his original description of hilli, said that the type locality was Borroloola, Gulf of Carpentaria, and that hilli differed from watsoni “in being darker coloured. It is also slightly larger,” but gave no further particulars. There are two specimens from the Gulf of Carpentaria in AMNH, AMNH 721679 (Mathews no. 7309), male, and AMNH 721680 (7310), female, both received from T. Thorpe. Neither has further locality data or collector's name and there is no additional data in Mathews' catalog. I do not consider that they have type standing. This is another of the names that Mathews rushed to publish prior to volume 12 of his “Birds of Australia.” In that volume (Mathews, 1926: 255), hilli is listed as a new subspecies, but it had already been published earlier. Mathews (1926: 253) quoted both Hill and Barnard as having observed these birds at Borroloola, but they did not mention a darker coloration. Now considered a synonym of Poephila personata personata.

  • Neopoephila personata watsoni Mathews

  • Neopoephila personata watsoni Mathews, 1917: 71 (Watson River, North Queensland).

    Now Poephila personata leucotis Gould, 1847. See Mayr et al., 1968: 360; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 755–756; Dickinson, 2003: 732; and Payne, 2010: 358.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 721663, adult male, collected on the Watson River, 13.20S, 141.47E (USBGN, 1957), Cape York Peninsula, northern Queensland, Australia, on 22 July 1914. From the Mathews Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Mathews gave only the place and date of collection of the type. The above specimen is the only Watson River specimen from the Mathews Collection bearing the date of 22 July 1914. It bears, in addition to a field label, Mathews and Rothschild type labels and a “Figured” label, indicating that it was the model for Mathews (1926: 252, pl. 575, upper fig., opp. p. 251), where it is confirmed as the type of watsoni. This specimen, judging by the handwriting on the field label, was almost certainly collected by William R. Maclennan, who was collecting on the Watson River in July 1914 (see Macgillivray, 1917–1918: 77–78).

    There is a second specimen, also almost certainly collected by Maclennan, from the Watson River on 18 July 1914, but because Mathews mentioned only the holotype and gave no indication that he had more than one specimen, I have not considered the second specimen a paratype. Neither specimen was cataloged by Mathews.

  • Poephila acuticauda nea Mathews

  • Poephila acuticauda nea Mathews, 1915: 132 (Glencoe, Northern Territory).

    Now Poephila acuticauda hecki Heinroth, 1902. See Mayr et al., 1968: 360; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 757–758; Dickinson, 2003: 732; Payne, 2010: 358–359.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 721586, adult male, collected at Glencoe Station, Northern Territory, Australia, on 2 January 1895, by Knut Dahl (no. 1012). From the Mathews Collection (no. 11055) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Mathews gave only the type locality for the type of nea. Although he cataloged a male and a female specimen from Glencoe Station, he did not include a catalog number in the original description. AMNH 721586 bears, in addition to Dahl's label, Mathews and Rothschild type labels, indicating that this was Mathews' chosen type. Although Hartert, in his lists of Rothschild types, had not reached the Estrildidae with regard to Mathews types, the fact that it bears a Rothschild type label with Mathews' catalog number added by Hartert, indicates that he accepted it as the type, and it was so cataloged and housed at AMNH, when the Rothschild Collection came to AMNH. In order to remove the ambivalence with regard to the two Glencoe specimens, I hereby designate AMNH 721586, male, the lectotype of Poephila acuticauda nea. The paralectotype is AMNH 721587, female, Glencoe Station, 2 January 1895, by Knut Dahl (no. 1002).

    Too late to be included in Mathews' (1912a: 171–446) “Reference-list of Australian Birds,” specimens collected by Dahl in Northern Territory had been received on loan from Robert Collett, ZMO (Mathews, 1912b: 25). These specimens later became part of the Mathews Collection and were cataloged by him on 28 February 1912. Dahl wrote an account of his travel in Australia, and described his stay at Glencoe Station during the wet season from late December 1894 to 1 March 1895 (Dahl, 1927: 162–170, map p. xii). This cattle station was located near Fountainhead, 13.28S, 131.29E (USBGN, 1957).

    P. acuticauda nea was published in vol. 2 of Austral Avian Record, not vol. 3, as cited by Mayr et al. (1968: 360). Mathews (1926: 236) later considered it a synonym of hecki.

  • Poëphila nigrotecta Hartert

  • Poëphila nigrotecta Hartert, 1899c: 59 (Cape York, Queensland).

    Now Poephila cincta atropygialis Diggles, 1876. See Hartert, 1919a: 142, Mayr et al., 1968: 360–361; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 759–760; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 359.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 721657, adult male, collected on Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia, on 18 June 1898, by Albert S. Meek (no. 1821). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Hartert did not designate a type in the original description but gave measurements for at least two specimens. Later, Hartert (1919a: 142) listed the male specimen bearing Meek's no. 1821 as the type, thereby designating it the lectotype. There is one paralectotype, AMNH 721658, female, Cape York, 18 June 1898, A.S. Meek (no. 1824). Parker (1966: 121–122) investigated Meek's collecting locality and found it to be the Chester River, 13.42S, 143.33E.

  • Alisteranus cinctus maclennani Mathews

  • Alisteranus cinctus maclennani Mathews, 1918: 159 (Watson River, North Queensland).

    Now Poephila cincta atropygialis Diggles, 1876. See Mayr et al., 1968: 360–361; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 759–760; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 359.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 721654, adult male, collected on the Watson River, 13.20S, 141.47E (USBGN, 1957), on 18 June 1914, by William R. Maclennan. From the Mathews Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Mathews said that the type of maclennani was a male from the Watson River, collected on 18 June 1914 by Maclennan. This did not serve to differentiate between two male specimens collected there on the same day. In addition to Maclennan's field label, AMNH 721654 bears Mathews and Rothschild type labels and a “Figured” label, indicating that it served as the model for Mathews (1926: 247, pl. 574, lower fig., opp. p. 246), where it is stated that the figured male is the type of maclennani, thereby designating it the lectotype. A second male with a description (Mathews, 1926: 247) is said to be the type of nigrotecta (see above), but is not figured. Mathews (1926: 249) noted that the upper figured bird in plate 574 is nominate cinctus from New South Wales. Paralectotypes of maclennani are: AMNH 721655, 18 June 1914, and AMNH 721656, 7 June 1914, males, Watson River, collected by Maclennan. The lecotype and two paralectotype of maclennani were apparently never cataloged by Mathews. An account of Maclennan's stay on the Watson River is included in Macgillivray (1917–1918: 77–78).

  • Alisteranus cinctus vinotinctus Mathews

  • Alisteranus cinctus vinotinctus Mathews, 1912a: 433 (Queensland (Inkerman)).

    Now Poephila cincta cincta (Gould, 1837). See Mayr et al., 1968: 361; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 759–760; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 359.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 721597, immature male, collected in grasslands at Inkerman, 19.45S, 147.29E (USBGN, 1957), Queensland, Australia, on 2 April 1907, by Wilfred Stalker (no. 324). From the Mathews Collection (no. 3549) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Mathews only said that the type was from Inkerman, also giving that as the range of the form. In addition to the male, an immature female was also collected by Stalker at Inkerman on the same day. AMNH 721597 bears, in addition to Stalker's label, Mathews and Rothschild type labels, indicating that this was Mathews selected type of vinotincta, and it was so cataloged at AMNH when the Rothschild Collection came to AMNH in 1932. In order to remove all ambiguity, I hereby designate AMNH 721597 the lectotype of A. cinctus vinotinctus. Mathews did not give his catalog number in the original description, but it was incorrectly written on the Mathews and Rothschild type labels as “3547.” The number “843” that appears on Stalker's label refers to this species in Mathews (1908). The paralectotype is AMNH 721598 (Mathews no. 3550), immature female, Inkerman, 2 April 1907.

    Stalker's collection was made for Sir William Ingram and originally reported on by Collingwood Ingram (1908: 458–481). The collection was acquired by Mathews prior to 1912.

  • Chlorura borneensis Sharpe

  • Chlorura borneensis Sharpe, 1889a: 424 (Kina Balu).

    Now Erythrura hyperythra borneensis (Sharpe, 1889). See Smythies, 2000: 610–611; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 346.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 721989, adult male, collected on Kinabalu, 06.03N, 116.32E (Times atlas), Sabah, Malaysia, on 5 April 1887, by John Whitehead (no. 1312). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    When R. Bowdler Sharpe (1887: 453) reported on the specimens collected by John Whitehead on his first expedition to Kinabalu, he identified the two specimens collected, a male and a female, as Chlorura hyperythra. Later, Whitehead (in Sharpe, 1889b: 435) confirmed that he collected only two specimens of this form on his first expedition. Sharpe (1889a: 424) referred back to the earlier paper and named them Chlorura borneensis, making them syntypes in the absence of any type designation. The labels of both of these specimens are marked “descr. R.B.S[harpe],” and they both bear Rothschild type labels, the male marked “Type ♂ of Borneensis” and the female marked “Type ♀ of Borneensis.” Hartert (1919a: 142) listed as the type of C. borneensis the male specimen bearing Whitehead's field no. 1312, thereby designating it the lectotype. The female, AMNH 721990, collected on Kinabalu on 5 April 1887 by Whitehead (no. 1313) thus becomes the paralectotype. Both specimens remain in the type collection in AMNH because they bear Rothschild type labels, but an additional label has been added to the female specimen to indicate that it is the paralectotype.

    Sharpe reported on Whitehead's expeditions to Kinabalu, but not all of the specimens went to BMNH; Rothschild bought many of his specimens from Whitehead and from his family, shortly after Whitehead's death. (Records of these purchases were kindly supplied by Archives, Rothschild Correspondence, BMNH, but there are no lists of specimens purchased.)

  • Chlorura intermedia Hartert

  • Chlorura intermedia Hartert, 1896a: 558 (Lombok).

    Now Erythrura hyperythra intermedia (Hartert, 1896). See Mayr et al., 1968: 362; White and Bruce, 1986: 420–421; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 346.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 722006, adult male, collected on Lombok Island, 4000 ft, 08.45S, 116.30E (White and Bruce, 1986: 490), Lesser Sundas, Indonesia, in June 1896, by William Doherty. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    No type was designated in the original description. Adult and young males were described, and Hartert said that he had nine specimens collected by Doherty and nine collected by Everett on Lombok. Hartert (1919a: 142) listed the type as a male collected on Lombok at 4000 ft, in June 1896, by Doherty, thereby designating it the lectotype. AMNH 722006 is the only male Doherty specimen collected at 4000 ft and it bears a Rothschild type label. Paralectotypes from Lombok in AMNH are: collected by Doherty in June 1896, AMNH 216416, sex?, AMNH 722007–722013, four males, three females, from between 1000 and 4000 ft; collected by Everett in June and July 1896, AMNH 722005, 722014–722016, two males, two females. The remaining five Everett paralectotypes were probably exchanged by Rothschild before the collection came to AMNH. AMNH 216416 was exchanged to AMNH in August 1927, prior to the Rothschild Collection coming to AMNH in 1932. Hartert reported separately on the Doherty (1896a: 555–565) and the Everett (1896c: 591–599) collections from Lombok.

  • Chlorura hyperythra microrhyncha Stresemann

  • Chlorura hyperythra microrhyncha Stresemann, 1931: 12 (Latimodjong-Gegbirge 1800 m).

    Now Erythrura hyperythra microrhyncha (Stresemann, 1931). See Stresemann, 1940: 41; Mayr et al., 1968: 362; White and Bruce, 1986: 420–421; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 346.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 293396, adult male, collected on the western slope of the Latimojong ( =  Latimodjong) Mountains, 1800 m, Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, on 23 March 1930, on the Heinrich Expedition 1930 (no. 1131).

    Comments:

    In the original description, Stresemann designated as type the specimen bearing Gerd Heinrich's no. 1131. He did not enumerate his paratypes, giving wing measurements for an unknown number of males and females. The Heinrich Expedition was jointly sponsored by ZMB and Leonard C. Sanford for AMNH (Stresemann, 1931: 7); types were to come to AMNH and the remainder of the collection was divided between the two institutions. Stresemann (1940: 41) mentioned 16 specimens in ZMB, but this is apparently the number of specimens of microrhyncha that remained in ZMB, as there are 25 specimens from the type locality in AMNH bearing an “S” within a circle, indicating that they were Sanford's share. It is not clear whether Stresemann studied the entire collection or only the part that remained in Berlin.

    Stresemann (1939: 308–310) summarized Heinrich's 1930–1932 expeditions to Sulawesi.

  • [Erythrura hyperythra ernstmayri Stresemann]

  • Shortly before the outbreak of World War II, Stresemann (1938: 45) described this subspecies, based on a single adult male, collected on Wawa Karaeng, 2000m, Sulawesi, on 18 September 1931, by Gerd Heinrich (no. 5579). Under the funding agreement for this expedition (see above), all types were to come to AMNH. Probably because of the outbreak of World War II, this type never reached AMNH. It is now ZMB 34.1991 (S. Frahnert, personal commun.).

  • Erythrura trichroa sanfordi Stresemann

  • Erythrura trichroa sanfordi Stresemann, 1931: 12 (Latimodjong-Gebirges 1600 m).

    Now Erythrura trichroa sanfordi Stresemann, 1931. See Mayr et al., 1968: 364; White and Bruce, 1986: 421–422; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 348–349.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 293415, adult female, collected on the western face of the Latimojong ( =  Latimodjong) Mountains, 1600 m, 03.30S, 120.05E (USBGN, 1982), Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, on 5 August 1930, on the Heinrich Expedition 1930 (no. 1368).

    Comments:

    Heinrich's field number of the holotype was given in the original description, but Stresemann did not enumerate his paratypes. Stresemann (1940: 40) mentioned seven specimens of sanfordi, but it is unclear whether these were part of his type series and whether the three specimens of sanfordi in AMNH are included.

    Stresemann (1939: 308–310) summarized Heinrich's 1930–1932 expeditions to Sulawesi.

  • Erythrura trichroa pinaiae Stresemann

  • Erythrura trichroa pinaiae Stresemann, 1914: 147 (Manusela, 2000 ft.).

    Now Erythrura trichroa pinaiae Stresemann, 1914. See Mayr et al., 1968: 364; White and Bruce, 1986: 421; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 348–349.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 722101, adult male, collected at Manusela, 2000 ft, ca. 03.12S, 129.36E, Mount ( =  Gunung) Pinaia, Seram Island, Indonesia, on 18 August 1911, by Erwin Stresemann (no. 876) on the II Freiburger Molukken-Expedition. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Stresemann gave his field number of the holotype in the original description and listed a second specimen from Manusela. The paratype is AMNH 722102, male, 1 June 1911, by E. Stresemann (no. 794).

  • Erythrura trichroa macgillivrayi Mathews

  • Erythrura trichroa macgillivrayi Mathews, 1914a: 103 (Claudie River, North Queensland).

    Now Erythrura trichroa macgillivrayi Mathews, 1914. See Mayr et al., 1968: 364, Schodde and Mason, 1999: 765–766, Dickinson, 2003: 733, and Payne, 2010: 348–349.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 722120, adult male, collected on Lloyd Island (not Claudie River), northeast Queensland, Australia, on 11 January (not February) 1914, by William R. Maclennan (not William D.K. Macgillivray). From the Mathews Collection (no. 18443) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, the type was said to be from the Claudie River and collected by William Macgillivray in February 1914. Mathews got almost every detail concerning this specimen wrong. Macgillivray (1917–1918: 73, 208) reported on the trip his group made to northern Queensland, specifically noting that the the new Erythrura trichroa was collected on 11 January on Lloyd Island, 12.46S, 143.24E (USBGN, 1957), and that it was secured by William Maclennan. The holotype bears, in addition to a tag that was partly filled in by Mathews with the incorrect data, Mathews and Rothschild type labels and a “Figured” label, indicating that it was the model for Mathews (1925: 208, pl. 567, lower fig., opp. p. 208), where it is said to be the type of Erythrura trichroa macgillivrayi. Mathews (1925: 204–207) erected the genus Chloromunia for the species and it is listed under that name. It bears a Mathews catalog number, “18443,” although this was nowhere mentioned.

    After his entry of Kemp's collection made in 1913 and cataloged in January 1914, Mathews wrote in his catalog “End of collection.” Many of the specimens cataloged later on the last four pages of his catalog were specimens he acquired from Macgillivray, probably on a trip Mathews made to Australia around that time, and most of them are types of Mathews' names, although not so marked in the catalog.

    In Mathews' publication (1925: 208, and pl. 567 on opp. page), the upper figure in pl. 567 is labeled a female, but both figured birds listed in the text are males. This was apparently a typographical error in the text, as Mathews had a second specimen of macgillivaryi that he did not otherwise mention. It is AMNH 722121, female, from Kuranda, collected 3 April 1913, collector not noted (but it may have come from the Dodds, who lived at Kuranda and sent Mathews specimens from time to time). It also bears a “Figured” label. I did not find it entered in Mathews' catalog, so he probably acquired it sometime between its collection in 1913 and its depiction in 1925.

    Most authors have considered macgillivrayi to be a synonym of E. t. sigillifera, but Schodde and Mason (1999: 765–766) suggested that because the Australian form is so poorly known and geographically isolated, it seemed best to recognize macgillivrayi until further specimens permit a thorough analysis. The two specimens mentioned by Schodde and Mason are in the CSIRO collection and did not include this type (R. Schodde, personal commun.), which was the first confirmed occurrence of the species in Australia.

  • Erythrura trichroa eichhorni Hartert

  • Erythrura trichroa eichhorni Hartert, 1924b: 274 (St. Matthias Island).

    Now Erythrura trichroa eichhorni Hartert, 1924. See Mayr et al., 1968: 364; Mayr and Diamond, 2001: 399; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 348–349.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 722157, adult male, collected on Mussau ( =  St. Matthias) Island, 01.30S, 149.40E (PNG General Reference Map, 1984), St. Matthias Islands, New Ireland Province, Papua New Guinea, on 5 July 1923, by Albert F. Eichhorn (no. 8635). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Hartert designated as type of eichhorni Eichhorn's specimen no. 8635 and listed his type series as six adults and two immatures from Mussau and two specimens from Squally (or Storm) Island. The nine paratypes, all collected by Eichhorn in 1923, are: Mussau Island, AMNH 722158–722164, three adult males, two adult females, two immature females, 25 June–18 July; Squally Island, AMNH 722165, male, AMNH 722166, immature male, 19 August.

    Hartert (1924b: 261–275) reported on Eichhorn's collection on Mussau, and in a separate paper, he (Hartert, 1924c: 276–278) reported on the collection from Squally Island, which he described as a raised coral reef between Mussau and New Hanover, but closer to Mussau, where Eichhorn was marooned for some time in 1923. The birds from the two localities did not differ.

  • Erythrura trichroa woodfordi Rothschild and Hartert

  • Erythrura trichroa woodfordi Rothschild and Hartert in Hartert, 1900a: 7 (Aola, on Guadalcanar).

    Now Erythrura trichroa woodfordi Hartert, 1900. See Hartert, 1919a: 142; Mayr et al., 1968: 365; Mayr and Diamond, 2001: 399; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 348–349.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 722168, female, collected at Aola, 09.31S, 160.30E (Times atlas), Guadalcanal ( =  Guadalcanar) Island, Solomon Islands, on 30 June 1887, by C.M. Woodford. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    No type was designated in the original description, but reference was made to two females in the Rothschild Collection collected at Aola. Hartert (1919a: 142) listed as the type the female collected there by Woodford on 30 June 1887, thereby designating it the lectotype. The paralectotype is AMNH 722169, female, collected at Aola on 5 June 1887 by Woodford. This name, like E. t. papuana (below), is usually attributed to Hartert alone. But Hartert (1900a: 6) clearly stated that both Rothschild and he separated the species into geographical forms, and later, Hartert (1919a: 142) he attributed the name to both.

  • Erythrura trichroa papuana Rothschild and Hartert

  • Erythrura trichroa papuana Rothschild and Hartert in Hartert, 1900a: 7 (Arfak Mts.).

    Now Erythrura papuana Rothschild and Hartert, 1900. See Hartert, 1919a: 142; Mayr et al., 1968: 365; Dickinson, 2003: 733; and Payne, 2010: 348.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 722080, [adult male], collected in the “Arfak Mts.,” purchased from Gerrard & Sons in February 1894. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    No type was designated in the original description, but a wing measurement of 67 mm was given for a male from the Arfak Mountains, apparently the only specimen that Hartert had. This form is usually attributed to Hartert as the sole author of the name, but Hartert (1900a: 6) noted that “the remarkable distribution attributed to Erythrura trichroa…led Mr. Rothschild and me to study this species more closely, and we found that it is separable into a number of geographical forms.” In addition to a Rothschild type label, AMNH 722080 also bears a small label noted on the front, “Erythrura trichroa, Kittl.,” and on the reverse, “Arfak Mts., New Guinea, Recvd. Febr. 1894.” To this has been added in Hartert's hand “Type of: papuana R. & Hart., purchased from Gerrard.” Later, Hartert (1919a: 142) confirmed as the type of papuana a male specimen from the Arfak Mountains, Papua Province, Indonesia ( =  Dutch New Guinea), purchased in February 1894 from Gerrard & Sons and gave Rothschild and Hartert as the authors of the name. The wing of AMNH 722080 measures 67 mm.

  • Erythrura cyanovirens (sic) efatensis Mayr

  • Erythrura cyanovirens (sic) efatensis Mayr, 1931: 8 (Efate Island, New Hebrides).

    Now Erythrura cyaneovirens serena (P.L. Sclater, 1881). See Mayr et al., 1968: 366; Ziswiler et al., 1972: 65–67; Bregulla, 1992: 264–266; Dickinson, 2003: 733–734; and Payne, 2010: 347–348.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 213017, adult male, collected on Efate Island, Vanuatu ( =  New Hebrides), on 30 June 1926, by Rollo H. Beck on the Whitney South Sea Expedition (no. 21255).

    Comments:

    Mayr gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed 26 specimens, including the holotype: 16 adult males, two juvenile males, seven adult females, and one juvenile female. Only 25 specimens were cataloged at AMNH and I consider the following 24 specimens to be paratypes of E.c. efatensis: AMNH 213014–213016, 213018–213029, 15 males, AMNH 213030, sex?, AMNH 213031–213037, seven females, AMNH 213038, female?, all collected on Efate Island between 28 June and 21 July 1926 by members of the Whitney South Sea Expedition. Nine of these specimens were exchanged to other institutions: AMNH 213019 and 213036 to USNM in January 1932; AMNH 213020 to ZMB in January 1932, AMNH 213026 and 213028 to ZMB in July 1936; AMNH 213022 to the Swedish Museum in December 1931; AMNH 213024 to the Cleveland Museum in January 1932; and AMNH 213027 and 213033 to BBM in January 1932. During the period when these specimens were collected, the Whitney Expedition ship France was anchored in Undine Bay, ca. 17.32S, 168.22E, and collecting was done inland from there (Archives, Department of Ornithology).

    In the most recent study of this species, Payne (2010: 347–348) recommended synonymizing efatensis with serena. Ziswiler et al., 1972: 65–67, and Bregulla (1992: 264–266) recommended synonymizing both with regia. The correct spelling of this species name is cyaneovirens.

  • Poephila gouldiae kempi Mathews

  • Poephila gouldiae kempi Mathews, 1915: 132 (Normanton, Queensland).

    Now Erythrura gouldiae (Gould, 1844). See Mayr, et al., 1968: 367; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 767; Dickinson, 2003: 734; and Payne, 2010: 345.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 721704, adult male, collected at Normanton, 17.40S, 141.05E (USBGN, 1957), Queensland, Australia, on 12 April 1914, by Robin Kemp (no. 4337). From the Mathews Collection (no. 18503) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Mathews, in the original description, said only that kempi differed from nominate gouldiae “in having a richer coloured under-surface” and that the type was from Normanton, Queensland. Mathews had four specimens from Normanton, two of which were immature specimens. The other two are both adult males, one with a red face (AMNH 721705) and one with a black face (AMNH 721704). Neither adult specimen is figured in Mathews (1926, pl. 573, opp. p. 238). AMNH 721704 bears a Kemp field label and both a Mathews and a Rothschild type label, with Mathews' catalog number written on both. It is apparently the only one of the four specimens that he cataloged, although he did not mention the number in the description. Many of the specimens that Mathews entered at the end of his catalog were type specimens, but that was not indicated in the catalog. Because the presence of Mathews' type label indicates that AMNH 721704 is his chosen type and because it was cataloged as such when it came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection and has subsequently been regarded as the type, I hereby designate it the lectotype of Poephila gouldiae kempi to remove any ambiguity. The other three specimens, all collected by Robin Kemp, are considered paralectotypes: Normanton, AMNH 721705 (Kemp no. 4516), adult male, 10 May 1914; AMNH 721706 (3291), immature male, 9 October 1913; AMNH 721707 (3301), immature female, 11 October 1913. This last specimen was the one described as “Immature,” but not illustrated, in Mathews (1926: 240). The Kemp label is marked “C. gouldiae” and the Rothschild label is marked “descri” by Mathews.

  • Gouldaeornis gouldiae westra Mathews

  • Gouldaeornis gouldiae westra Mathews 1923: 41 (Napier Broome Bay, North-west Australia).

    Now Erythrura gouldiae (Gould, 1844). See Mayr et al., 1968: 367; Schodde and Mason, 1999: 767; Dickinson, 2003: 734; and Payne, 2010: 345.

    Syntypes:

    Males: AMNH 721727 (Mathews no. 5714), 25 April, AMNH 721728 (5708), 29 April, AMNH 721729 (5711), 25 April, AMNH 721730 (5712), 3 May, AMNH 721731 (5716), 3 May, AMNH 721732 (5707), 9 May, AMNH 721733 (5710), 10 June, AMNH 721734 (5715), 10 June, AMNH 721735 (5709), 10 June, AMNH 721736 (5713), 15 June, AMNH 721737 (5718), 16 June, AMNH 721738 (5717), 16 June, AMNH 721739 (6220), 22 June; females, AMNH 721740 (6222), 22 June, AMNH 721741 (6221), 22 June, AMNH 721742 (5719), 10 June, AMNH 721743 (5720), 10 June, AMNH 721744 (5721), 10 December 1909, all collected in Napier Broome Bay, 14.02S, 126.37E (USBGN, 1957), Western Australia, Australia, by G.F. Hill in 1910 (except the last, dated 1909). From the Mathews Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    This name was another published in 1923, in the rush to have new taxa in print prior to publication of volume 12 of “Birds of Australia” (Mathews 1925–1927). In the original description, the type was said to be from Napier Broome Bay, with the head coloration (either red or black) more pronounced and the back a deeper shade of green than the nominate. The above 18 specimens had not previously been included with the types, but they must be considered syntypes of westra as none of them bears any indication that it was the intended type. Two of them, AMNH 721727 (a red-headed male) and AMNH 721744 (a black-headed female) bear Mathews “Figured” labels and they are figured in Mathews (1926: 238–244, pl. 573, opp. p. 238), but while both of them are referred to in the text as figured, neither is said to be the type. AMNH 721742 was described as “Young” (p. 240), and its label is marked “descr.” by Mathews.

  • Aidemosyne modesta nogoa Mathews

  • Aidemosyne modesta nogoa Mathews, 1915: 132 (Queensland).

    Now Neochmia modesta (Gould, 1837). See Mayr et al., 1968: 368, Schodde and Mason, 1999: 754, Dickinson, 2003: 732, and Payne, 2010: 354–355.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 721976, adult male, collected on the Nogoa River, 23.33S, 148.32E (USBGN, 1957), Queensland, Australia, on 4 August 1881, received from Robert Collett. From the Mathews Collection (no. 14606) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Mathews said that the type of nogoa from Queensland “Differs from A. m. modesta in its lighter coloration.” The above specimen is the only Queensland specimen in AMNH that had been in the Mathews Collection. It bears a Mathews Collection label marked “Type nogoa” in his hand and his catalog number 14606, although this was not cited in the original description. It also bears an original label with “♂, Nogoa River, 4/8/81, Central Q.” and a Rothschild Museum label printed “Ex. coll. G.M. Mathews.” Mathews had received the specimen from Prof. Robert Collett, ZMO, along with many other specimens collected in Australia by Knut Dahl and Carl Lumholtz. This specimen was collected by Lumholtz and had not previously been recognized as a type.

    According to Whittell (1954: 457), Lumholtz collected around Gracemere, 23.27S, 150.27E (Storr, 1984: 183) from November 1880 to August 1881 and then began an 800 mile trip into western Queensland. Lumholtz (1889) wrote about his stay in Australia, and specifically mentioned the Nogoa River on page 34.

    The adult male illustrated in Mathews (1925: 216 and pl. 569, opp. p. 216) is AMNH 721975 from the Darling Downs, Queensland. Although the specimen bears a Mathews “Figured” label, it had been in the Rothschild Collection, not the Mathews collection and was apparently borrowed by Mathews for the illustration. I do not consider it a part of Mathews' type series.

  • Aidemosyne cantans tavetensis van Someren

  • Aidemosyne cantans tavetensis van Someren, 1921b: 121 (Simba).

    Now Euodice cantans orientalis (Lorenz and Hellmayr, 1901). See Mayr et al., 1968: 368–369; Dickinson, 2003: 734; Fry and Keith, 2004: 412–415; and Payne, 2010: 359–360.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 727808, adult female, collected at Simba, 02.09S, 37.36E (Polhill, 1988), Kenya, on 17 October 1917. From the V.G.L. van Someren Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, van Someren said that the type was a female from Simba collected on 17 October 1917 and was in the Rothschild Collection. He also noted that he had examined nine males and five females, collected in January, October, and December in Simba, Tsavo, N'buyumi, and Taveta. Paralectotypes in AMNH are: Simba, AMNH 727804–727807, four males, AMNH 727809–727811, three females, collected 17–20 October 1917 and 24 January 1919.

    In designating the type, van Someren did not distinguish between two female specimens from Simba collected on the same date. The second female is apparently not fully adult and Hartert (1928: 195), by listing the adult female as the type of tavetensis, designated it the lectotype, the remaining specimens becoming paralectotypes. It is marked “Type of Aidemosyne cantans tavetensis van Someren” by Hartert and bears a Rothschild type label.

    The species cantans is often included in the genus Lonchura (e.g., Dickinson, 2003: 734), but most recent authors place it in Euodice (Fry and Keith, 2004: 412–415; Payne, 2010: 359–360).

  • Munia molucca vagans Meise

  • Munia molucca vagans Meise, 1929: 440 (Binongka (Tukang besi-Inseln)).

    Now Lonchura molucca (Linnaeus, 1766). See Mayr, et al., 1968: 375; White and Bruce, 1986: 422; Dickinson, 2003: 734; and Payne, 2010: 367.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 721121, female, collected on Binongka ( =  Binungku, as on label) Island, 05.57S, 124.02E (White and Bruce, 1986: 490), Tukangbesi Islands, Indonesia, on 12 December 1901, by Heinrich Kühn (no. 4243). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Meise gave Kühn's unique field number of the holotype and noted that he had studied about 10 additional specimens from the Tukangbesi Islands in the Rothschild Collection. The following eight paratypes came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection: Tomia Island, AMNH 721117, male; Wantjee Island, AMNH 721118, female; Binongka Island, AMNH 721119, 721120, 721122–721124, two males, three females; Kalidupa Island, AMNH 721125, female, all collected in December 1901 and January 1902 by Kühn.

    Most recent authors have considered L. molucca monotypic, but Payne recognized two subspecies, with vagans a synonym of the nominate subspecies.

  • Lonchura punctulata yunnanensis Parkes

  • Lonchura punctulata yunnanensis Parkes, 1958: 285 (“hills around Tengyueh” [ =  Tengchung], western Yunnan, alt. 6,000 feet).

    Now Lonchura punctulata yunnanensis Parkes, 1958. See Mayr et al., 1968: 375–376; Dickinson, 2003: 735; and Payne, 2010: 366.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 720698, adult female, collected in the hills around T'eng-ch'ung ( =  Tengyueh, as on label), 6000 ft, 25.02N, 98.28E (Times atlas), western Yunnan, China, in June 1924, by George Forrest (no. 5027). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Parkes cited the AMNH number of the holotype and on page 287 listed the 35 specimens in his type series. One of the 34 paratypes, from 6 mi north of Myitkina, is in USNM, the remaining 33 are in AMNH: China, vicinity of T'eng-ch'ung, AMNH 720685–720697, 720699–720708, seven males, 11 females, one female?, four sex?; Nantien, AMNH 720677, male; Shweli-Salaween Divide, AMNH 720678–720683, four males, two females. Myanmar ( =  Burmah), Myitkina, AMNH 347218, male; Singhaling Hkamti, AMNH 409827, male; Washaung, AMNH 307466, female; Sinlumkaba, east of Bhamo, AMNH 720672, male.

  • Lonchura punctulata sumbae Mayr

  • Lonchura punctulata sumbae Mayr, 1944: 169 (Sumba).

    Now Lonchura punctulata sumbae Mayr, 1944. See Mayr et al., 1968: 376; White and Bruce, 1986: 422–423; Dickinson, 2003: 735; and Payne, 2010: 366.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 720819, adult [male], collected on Sumba Island, 10.00S, 120.00E (White and Bruce, 1986: 491), Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia, in February 1896, by William Doherty.

    Comments:

    Mayr gave the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and the range as Sumba Island. The following Sumba specimens are paratypes: Mao Marru, AMNH 347081, male, AMNH 347083, female; Melolo, AMNH 347082, male, AMNH 347084, sex?, all collected by Georg and Clara Stein in June 1932; Sumba, AMNH 720816–720818, male, two females, collected by William Doherty in February 1896; Waingapo, AMNH 720820, male, AMNH 720821, female, collected by Alfred Everett in September 1896. The specimens collected by Doherty and Everett in Sumba are also paratypes of blasii (see below). The Stein Collection was jointly sponsored by AMNH and ZMB, and AMNH 347082 was sent to ZMB in 1956, the collection having not been divided until after WWII.

    Hartert (1896b: 576–590) reported on Doherty's collection from Sumba, and (Hartert, 1898b: 466–476) on Everett's collection from Sumba. Mayr's (1944) publication dealt with the specimens collected by the Steins, but he did not have Stein's field notes. Unfortunately these were destroyed along with his home in WWII (Stresemann, 1967: 186–187).

  • Munia punctulata blasii Stresemann

  • Munia punctulata blasii Stresemann, 1912: 317 (Timor-Deli).

    Now Lonchura punctulata blasii (Stresemann, 1912). See Mayr et al., 1968: 377; White and Bruce, 1986: 422–423; Dickinson, 2003: 735; and Payne, 2010: 366.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 720826, adult male, collected at Dili ( =  Deli or Dilly, as on label), 08.35S, 125.35E (Times atlas), Timor Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia, on 12 March 1885, by Carl C. Platen. From the Nehrkorn Collection (no. 3027) via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Stresemann commented that the type of blasii was a specimen in the Rothschild Collection the label of which had been filled in with an unpublished manuscript name by Wilhelm Blasius and that he was naming this form in Blasius' memory. There was a close connection between Wilhelm Blasius at the Staatliches Naturhistorisches Museum in Braunschweig, Germany, and Adolf Nehrkorn although Nehrkorn's collection remained separate from that of the Museum until after his death (Hevers, 2005: 456–457). The collecting done by Carl C. and Margarete Platen in the Philippines was supported jointly by the Braunschweig Museum and Nehrkorn (see Dickinson et al., 1991: 78), and the same was probably also true for this earlier collection in the Lesser Sundas. Apparently, exchanges were made between Nehrkorn and Rothschild and in this way the above holotype bearing Blasius' label came to Rothschild via Nehrkorn.

    Stresemann, in the original description, said that he examined 41 adult examples of blasii in the Rothschild Collection from Flores, Sumba, Sawu ( =  Savu), Lomblen, Timor, Kisar ( =  Kisser), Leti ( =  Letti), Moa, Romang ( =  Roma), Babar ( =  Babber), and Tanimbar ( =  Tenimber). The following 35 fully adult paratypes, mostly collected by Doherty, Everett, and Kühn, are in AMNH: Sumba Island, AMNH 720816–720821, two males, one [male], three females, collected in 1896; these specimens are also the holotype and paratypes of L. p. sumbae (see above). Sawu Island, AMNH 720824, 720825, two females, collected in 1896. Lomblen Island, AMNH 720828, female, collected in 1897. Flores Island, AMNH 720829, 720830, female, sex?, collected in 1896; AMNH 720831, sex?, 1862, collected for A.R. Wallace; AMNH 720832, sex?, no date, also possibly collected for Wallace. Romang Island, AMNH 720837, female, collected in 1902. Leti Island, AMNH 720840–720845, 720847, four males, three females, collected in 1902. Moa Island, AMNH 720848–720850, two males, female, collected in 1902. Kisar Island, AMNH 720852–720856, two males, three females, collected in 1901. Babar Island, AMNH 720859, 720865, two males, collected in 1905. Tanimbar Island, AMNH 720861–720864, four males, collected in 1901. An additional four specimens, molting into adult plumage, are probable paratypes: Sawu, AMNH 720822, 720823, males, collected in 1896; Leti, AMNH 720846, female, collected in 1902; Babar, AMNH 720866, sex?, collected in 1905. One additional specimen did not come to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection and may have been exchanged by Rothschild. Eight immature specimens are not considered paratypes, as Stresemann mentioned only adults. Three specimens from Wetar ( =  Wetter) Island are not considered paratypes as Stresemann did not list material from Wetar.

  • Lonchura punctulata holmesi Restall

  • Lonchura punctulata holmesi Restall, 1992: 115 (country east of Pontianak and Banjamarsin [Borneo]).

    Now Lonchura punctulata nisoria (Temminck, 1830). See Restall, 1995: 141; Restall, 1997: 34, 103–104; LeCroy, 1999: 214–215; Smythies, 2000: 616–617; Dickinson, 2003: 735; Mann, 2008: 356; Myers, 2009: 197; Payne, 2010: 366.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 831281, sex?, said to have come from Semitau, 00.30N, 111.59E, Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia, cage bird prepared by R. Restall.

    Comments:

    As noted by LeCroy (1999: 214–215) there are a number of problems associated with this name. Although claimed by Restall (1997: 103–104) to have been described in 1995 (Restall, 1995: 141), it had been described prior to that date by Restall (1992: 115). That description was based on nine individuals said to have been captured east of Pontianak, 00.05S, 109.16E (Times atlas), and shipped from that city and on 20 individuals shipped from Banjarmasin ( =  Banjamarsin), 03.22S, 114.33E (Times atlas); all 29 of these individuals are syntypes of holmesi. Restall (1995: 141) listed only three specimens as syntypes, with their AMNH numbers given. They are said to have come from Semitau, 00.30N, 111.59E, and are apparently from among the nine syntypes said to have come from “east of Pontianak.” Because the supposed collecting locality of the two groups of syntypes were widely separated (with a mountain range between them) and because apparently only the three listed syntypes were preserved, I (LeCroy, 1999: 214) designated AMNH 831281 as the lectotype, citing the 1985 Code, then in use. The other two syntypes, AMNH 831282 and AMNH 831283, became paralectotypes.

    Because none of these specimens was sexed by dissection Restall must have used tail measurements as his means of sexing them. His statement that the male had a longer tail appears to be a circular argument. Restall's method of measuring the tail, shown in one of his diagrams (Restall 1992: 116), was made from the tip of the wing to the tip of the tail, which makes comparison with published measurements of other populations impossible.

    There has been much discussion of this subspecies in the literature. Smythies (2000: 616) noted the similarity to nisoria from Java and suggested that they might have been introduced into Kalimantan from that Island and then escaped. Payne (2010: 366) synonymized holmesi with nisoria.

  • Lonchura pallidiventer Restall

  • Lonchura pallidiventer Restall, 1996: 137 (Jakarta, apparently from south-east Kalimantan, Indonesia).

    Now considered a hybrid Lonchura punctulata x L. leucogastra. See van Balen, 1998: 118–119; LeCroy, 1999: 219; Smythies, 2000: 617; and Dickinson, 2003: 735; fn. 8.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 831287, unsexed, purchased in Jakarta, Indonesia (but said to be from southeast Kalimantan, Indonesia), by R. Restall.

    Comments:

    The AMNH number of the holotype was given in the original description. The second specimen, listed as the “syntype” is a paratype, AMNH 831288 (not 8311288); it is a mummy and also unsexed. Two other birds are illustrated and said to be from among five observed in a dealer's possession. The colors in Restall (1997: 32, pl. 5) are quite different from the color of the two specimens.

  • Lonchura leucogastra castanonota Mayr

  • Lonchura leucogastra castanonota Mayr, 1938: 45 (Riam (Kotawaringin), South Borneo).

    Now Lonchura leucogastra castanonota Mayr, 1938. See Mayr et al., 1968: 378; Smythies, 2000: 613–614; Dickinson, 2003: 735; and Payne, 2010: 368.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 446825, adult male, collected at Riam, 01.51S, 111.50E (Times atlas), Kota Waringin River, Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia, on 14 November 1935, by J.J. Menden.

    Comments:

    Mayr cited the AMNH number of the holotype in the original description and listed his type series. Paratypes are: Parit, AMNH 447933–447935, male juvenile, male adult, female adult, June and July 1935; Riam, AMNH 447936, 447937, male adult, female adult, November and December 1935, all collected by J.J. Menden. Menden was a commercial collector from Cheribon, Java, who made the collection for AMNH (Mayr, 1938: 5).

  • Lonchura tristissima hypomelaena Stresemann and Paludan

  • Lonchura tristissima hypomelaena Stresemann and Paludan (in Stresemann et al.), 1934: 43 (Kunupi, 1200 m).

    Now Lonchura tristissima hypomelaena Stresemann and Paludan, 1934. See Mayr, 1941: 220; Rand and Gilliard, 1967: 596; Mayr et al., 1968: 378; Dickinson, 2003: 735; and Payne, 2010: 365–366.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 302661, adult male, collected at Kunupi, Pegunungan Kobowre ( =  Weyland Mountains), Papua Province, Indonesia, on 21 September 1931, by Georg Stein (no. 2178).

    Comments:

    Stresemann and Paludan gave Stein's unique field number of the type in the original description and noted that they had six specimens. Paratypes in AMNH are: AMNH 302662–302664, two males, one female, collected at Kunupi, on 22–23 September 1931, by the Steins. The other two paratypes are probably in ZMB. See Hartert et al. (1936: 165–240) for a report on the entire collection.

    Clara and Georg Stein collected in New Guinea under the auspices of W. Rothschild, E. Stresemann for ZMB, and L.C. Sanford for AMNH, and the collection was to be divided among the sponsors, with types to come to AMNH. The Rothschild Collection came to AMNH in 1932, while the report on the Stein Collection was being written, so three-fourths of it came directly to AMNH (Hartert, et al., 1936: 166). A single specimen, AMNH 303042, collected by Fred Shaw Mayer in the Weyland Mountains in 1930 and reported on by Rothschild (1931: 257) was treated as subsp.? and not named. It was not part of the type series of hypomelaena.

    Stein (1933, 1936) reported on their stay in the Weyland Mountains; and he (Stein, 1933: 289–306) described the period at Kunupi, which is shown on the map in Hartert et al. (1936: 168) as on the middle Menoo River (03.50S, 135.25E, USBGN, 1943).

  • Munia atricapilla novana Mathews

  • Munia atricapilla novana Mathews, 1929: 91 (Utingu, Cape York, North Queensland).

    Now considered an escaped cage bird. See Mayr et al, 1968: 380, fn.; Slater, 1975: 71, 265.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 720588, adult sex?, collected at Utingu, Cape York, Queensland, Australia, on 8 August 1912, by Robin Kemp (no. 1389). From the Mathews Collection via the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    Mathews named this form after his collection had become the property of Rothschild; therefore, the type is said to be in the Rothschild Collection. I did not find it in Mathews' catalog. However, he did receive four specimens of Lonchura castaneothorax collected at Utingu on 8 August 1912 by Kemp, and I see no reason to doubt the locality on Kemp's label (contra Mayr, Mayr et al., 1968: 380, fn., although the specimen is referrable to L. a. atricapilla). It is, however, probable that it was an escaped cage bird. Its feet are in fine condition and it shows no sign of having been recently in a cage, but the species is known to have been introduced in the Sydney area (Hindwood and McGill, 1958: 107; Slater, 1975: 265) and cage birds might have been purchased in many places and carried widely.

    According to Jack (1921: 739), Utingu was a coconut plantation on the mainland opposite Possession Island, 10.43S, 142.24E (USBGN, 1957).

  • Lonchura atricapilla selimbaue Restall

  • Lonchura atricapilla selimbaue Restall, 1995: 155 (Selimbau, Kalimantan Barut, 0°37′N, 112°08′E).

    Now Lonchura atricapilla jagori (Martens, 1866). See Snow, 1997: 4; Restall, 1997: 129; LeCroy, 1999: 219; Smythies, 2000: 614–616; Dickinson, 2003: 735; and Payne, 2010: 369–370.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 831285, unsexed, said to be from Selimbau, 00.37N, 112.08E, Kalimantan Barat (not Barut), Borneo, Indonesia, no date of collection given, collected by C. Choa.

    Comments:

    The AMNH number of the holotype was given in the original description. A second specimen from the same locality (also unsexed) was given to AMNH at the same time and is presumably a paratype: AMNH 831284. The number of specimens seen by Restall is not given, nor are we told how they were sexed, but inclusive measurements were given for males and females (LeCroy, 1999: 219), although Restall's method of taking measurements does not allow them to be compared to standard avian measurements.

    Dickinson (2003: 735) included atricapilla in the broad species L. malacca; Payne (2010: 369–370) considered atricapilla a separate species based on recent mitochondrial DNA studies.

    Snow (1997: 4) suggested that the spelling of selimbaue should be amended to selimbauensis, and this was followed by Restall (1997: 129), Smythies (2000: 615, under L. malacca), and Payne (2010: 369), but it is my understanding now that selimbaue is not necessarily an incorrect original spelling, rather that the original spelling, selimbaue, is a non-Latin or -latinized word and that it should be treated as indeclinable. In such a case the original spelling is to be retained with the termination unchanged (ICZN, 1985: 63, Art. 31 (b); ICZN, 1999: 38, Art. 31.2.3).

  • Lonchura atricapilla obscura Restall

  • Lonchura atricapilla obscura Restall, 1995: 154 (Sampit, 2°32′S, 112°54′E, Parit, 3°10′S, 113°43′E, Kalimantan Tengah).

    Now Lonchura atricapilla jagori (Martens, 1866). See Snow, 1997: 4; Restall, 1997: 129–130; LeCroy, 1999: 218–219; Dickinson, 2003: 735; Smythies, 2000: 615–616; Payne, 2010: 369–370.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 447931, adult male, collected at Parit, 02.09S, 112.58E (BirdLife International, 2001: 2608), Tjempaga (Chamaga) River, about 20 mi above its junction with the Sampit River (Mayr, 1938: 5), Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia, on 16 June 1935, by J.J. Menden.

    Comments:

    No type was designated in the original description. Restall discussed “35 or 40 Chestnut Munias” he found in a Jakarta bird market that were said to have come from Sampit “although not necessarily precisely where the birds were trapped.” He selected two of those birds from Sampit “for which I propose the name Lonchura atricapilla obscura.” He also discussed two specimens in AMNH collected at Parit in 1935 by Menden and listed by Mayr (1938: 45) as Lonchura atricapilla minuta. Restall gave incorrect coordinates for Parit.

    As Restall said, Mayr noted that the two Parit specimens were darker than birds from northern Borneo and the Natuna Islands, and Mayr probably refrained from naming them, expecting that they would “fox” with time. Restall compared these two specimens with his painting of two of the Sampit birds and decided they were the same, although Mayr's birds were now only “marginally darker” than birds from northern Borneo. No Sampit specimens ever came to AMNH.

    A note from the editor ( =  David Snow) in the original description said that details of the “Holotype” would appear in a later issue. The same editor ( =  Snow, 1997: 4) later reported: “The two specimens that were at hand when the taxon was named were AMNH specimens 447931 and 447932, both males, collected at Parit, Tjempaga, Sampit, S. Borneo, 3 July 1935. The first of these (447931) should have been designated as the holotype.”

    Although Restall proposed the name obscura for the two Sampit birds but also included the two Parit specimens, the type series should be interpreted as including all four specimens. Snow, by nominating the “holotype” in a publication subsequent to the original description, actually designated AMNH 447931 as the lectotype of obscura (ICZN, 2000: 82–83, Art. 74.5). The one paralectotype in AMNH is AMNH 447932, adult male, Parit, 3 July 1935, collected by Menden. The Sampit specimens may exist only as Restall's paintings.

    The details of the nomenclatural history of Lonchura atricapilla in Borneo were given by LeCroy (1999: 218–219), and summarized here. Mayr called Menden's specimens L. a. minuta (Meyen, 1834), following Stresemann (1922: 88) who found Meyen's name to be older than Munia jagori Martens, 1866. Salomonsen (1953: 267) found that Fringilla minuta Meyen, 1834, is preoccupied by both Fringilla minuta Temminck, 1807, and Fringilla minuta Wied, 1830, leaving jagori as the oldest available name. But Salomonsen included Borneo birds in L. malacca gregalis, a subspecies he had just described. Mayr et al. (1968: 381) synonymized gregalis with jagori. L. malacca and L. atricapilla are generally now considered to be separate species, based on mitochondrial DNA studies (Payne, 2010: 369–370).

  • [Lonchura maja vietnamensis Restall]

  • Restall (1995: 151) introduced this name based on three specimens “adult male, female and juvenile collected by Charuvarn Vanasin and Dr. Atichart Suntharos near Da Lat, 11°56′N by 108°25′E, in January 1995. Other similar birds were collected near the Cambodian border by Tay Ninh, 11°18′N, 106°05′E, in November 1994. These specimens are in my possession at the time of writing; they will be deposited in the AMNH collection in due course.” Presumably the first three specimens were to be considered syntypes. As of this writing no specimens have been deposited in AMNH. Dickinson (2003: 736) noted that Restall (personal commun.) had told him that the types had been destroyed, but no information regarding this has been provided to AMNH by Restall.

  • Munia subcastanea Hartert

  • Munia subcastanea Hartert, 1897: 161 (Dongala and Tawaya).

    Now Lonchura pallida subcastanea (Hartert, 1897). See Hartert, 1919a: 143; Mayr et al., 1968: 382; Watling, 1983: 260; White and Bruce, 1986: 423–424; Dickinson, 2003: 736; Payne, 2010: 373.

    Lectotype:

    AMNH 721260, adult male, collected at Donggala ( =  Dongala), 00.38S, 119.45E (Times atlas), Sulawesi, Indonesia, in August 1896, by William Doherty. From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    The description was based on three specimens, two males and a female, said to be from Donggala and Tawaya; however, the three specimens are all labeled as from Donggala. No type was designated in the original description, but Hartert (1919a: 143) listed the male from Donggala as the type. Because there are two males bearing the same collecting data, Hartert's listing did not distinguish between the two. AMNH 721260 bears a Rothschild type label and Doherty's original label that is marked “Type. Munia subcastanea sp. n. Hart.” by Hartert; it was his intended type and, having been so cataloged when the Rothschild Collection came to AMNH, has been considered the type without question. In order to confirm his intent and remove the ambiguity, I hereby designate AMNH 721260 the lectotype of Munia subcastanea. The two paralectotypes are: Donggala, AMNH 721261, male, AMNH 721262, female, August 1896, collected by Doherty; The label of the latter specimen is marked “Type of ♀” in a hand other than Hartert's.

    Most recent authors consider Lonchura pallida monotypic, but Watling (1983: 260), based on his work in Lore Lendu Reserve, considered subcastanea a “distinctive subspecies.” These three specimens appear to confirm this as they are much darker on the underparts than any other specimens of pallida.

  • Munia grandis destructa Hartert

  • Munia grandis destructa Hartert, 1930b: 42 (Ifaar).

    Now Lonchura grandis destructa (Hartert, 1930). See Mayr et al., 1968: 382; Dickinson, 2003: 736; and Payne, 2010: 377.

    Syntypes:

    AMNH 294407, adult female, AMNH 721305, male, collected at Ifaar, 02.34S, 140.31E (USBGN, 1982), Sentani Lake, Papua Province, Indonesia, on 22 September 1928, by Ernst Mayr (nos. 2509 and 2508, respectively). The male from the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    A male and a female specimen were collected. In the original description, Hartert designated the female as the type, but gave Mayr's field number of the male. This expedition by Mayr was sponsored jointly by Rothschild and by L.C. Sanford for AMNH. The specimens were divided between the two collections, with half of the types to go to each institution, and a representative set was sent to MZB (see Hartert, 1930a: 18–19). The specimen that first came to AMNH, AMNH 294407, was stamped with an S within a circle, representing Sanford's share. It bears an AMNH type label and Mayr's field label is marked “Type of M.g. destructa” in what appears to be Mayr's hand. The second specimen, AMNH 721305, was in Rothschild's share, which came to AMNH in 1932 with the purchase of that collection. It bears a Rothschild type label filled in by Hartert and with Mayr's label marked “Munia grandis destructa Hart.” and “TYPE!!” by Hartert. In light of the above, it seems best to consider the two specimens syntypes of M. g. destructa.

    Mayr (1930: 20–26) wrote an account of his 1928 expedition.

  • Munia vana Hartert

  • Munia vana Hartert, 1930b: 42 (Kofo (Anggi gidji)).

    Now Lonchura vana (Hartert, 1930). See Mayr et al., 1968: 382; Dickinson, 2003: 736; and Payne, 2010: 373.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 294415, adult female, collected at Kofo, Anggi Gita ( =  Anggi Gidji), 01.23S, 133.58E (USBGN, 1982), Arfak Mountains, Papua Province, Indonesia, on 11 June 1928, by Ernst Mayr (no. 1083).

    Comments:

    As explained above, Mayr's 1928 expedition was jointly sponsored. This holotype was part of Sanford's share of the collection and came directly to AMNH. It bears an AMNH type label and was individually designated in the original description. In the type series there were also three male specimens and one juvenile, which are paratypes: Kofo, Anggi Gita, AMNH 294413, juvenile male, AMNH 294414, 721263, 721264, adult males, all collected on 11 June 1928 by E. Mayr. The first two were part of Sanford's share; the last two came to AMNH with the Rothschild Collection.

    See Hartert (1930a: 18–19) and Mayr (1930: 20–26) for further information on Mayr's expedition.

  • Munia caniceps kumusii Hartert

  • Munia caniceps kumusii Hartert, 1911: 47 (Kumusi River, north coast of British New Guinea).

    Now Lonchura caniceps kumusii (Hartert, 1911). See Hartert, 1919a: 143; Mayr et al., 1968: 383; Coates, 1990: 339–340; Dickinson, 2003: 736; and Payne, 2010: 376.

    Holotype:

    AMNH 721282, adult male, collected on the Kumusi River, 08.30S, 148.10E (PNG General Reference Map, 1984), Oro Province, Papua New Guinea, on 5 August 1907, by Albert S. Meek (no. 3372). From the Rothschild Collection.

    Comments:

    In the original description, Hartert cited Meek's field number of the holotype and said that he examined 10 specimens (apparently in addition to the holotype). The 10 paratypes are: Kumusi River, AMNH 721283–721292, six males, four females, 1 and 5 June and 24 July 1907, by Albert S. Meek.

    This species was not included when Rothschild and Hartert (1912) reported on Meek's Kumusi River expedition.

  • Lonchura spectabilis wahgiensis Mayr and Gilliard

  • Lonchura spectabilis wahgiensis Mayr and Gilliard, 1952</