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Six new genera of Australian Phylinae are described on the basis of existing collections. The tribe Exaeretini—represented by the two new genera Eucalyptophylus (two new species) and Melaleucaphylus (18 new species)—is recognized for the first time as occurring in Australia. Nine new taxa of Semiini, subtribe Exocarpocorina, are proposed: Four new genera, Calytriphylus, Melaleucacoris, Teddus (each monotypic), and Leptospermia (two new species), and four new species placed in AncoraphylusWeirauch, 2007 (one species), XiphoidellusWeirauch and Schuh, 2011 (one species), and XiphoidesEyles and Schuh, 2003 (two species). Based on specimen data almost all the new taxa are associated with Myrtaceae plant hosts in the tribes Chamelaucieae, Eucalypteae, Leptospermeae, and Melaleuceae. A new species of RestiophylusLeon and Weirauch, 2016, taken in coastal New South Wales and perhaps associated with Leptocarpus tenax (Restionaceae), represents the first record for this genus beyond the southwest coast of Western Australia. Documentation is provided in the form of diagnoses and descriptions of all genera and species, color habitus images of males (and females when available) of all species, distributional maps, color images of male genitalic structures of all species, female genitalic structures in most species, and scanning electron micrographs of representative morphology of some taxa. Host-plant information is provided for most species, along with representative images of hosts and habitats. New distribution records for Xiphoidellus dumosusWeirauch and Schuh, 2011, and scanning micrographs of the pretarsus for Scholtzicoris linnavuoriiSchuh, 2016 are provided.