We present a phylogenetic analysis of the Dactyloa clade of Anolis lizards, based on morphological (66 characters of external morphology and osteology) and molecular (∼4,700 bases of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) data. Our set of morphological characters includes some that exhibit continuous variation and others that exhibit polymorphism within species; we explored different coding methods for these classes of characters. We performed parsimony and Bayesian analyses on morphology-only and combined data sets. Additionally, we explicitly tested hypotheses of monophyly of: 1) Dactyloa including Phenacosaurus, 2) Dactyloa excluding Phenacosaurus (as traditionally circumscribed), 3) taxa previously ranked as series or species groups described based on morphological characters, and 4) clades inferred from molecular data. The morphological data alone did not yield Dactyloa or any of the previously recognized series described based on morphological characters; only the Phenacosaurus clade (as delimited based on molecular data) was inferred with the morphological data, and only in the parsimony analysis. In contrast, Dactyloa was inferred as monophyletic with the combined data set, although topology tests failed to reject the hypothesis of non-monophyly. Additionally, five clades inferred based on molecular data (eastern, latifrons, Phenacosaurus, roquet, and western) were inferred with the combined data sets with variable support and including additional species for which molecular data were not available and which have geographic distributions that conform to those of the clades in which they were included. Of the previously recognized taxa based on morphological characters, only the roquet series, which corresponds in species composition to the roquet clade, was inferred with the combined data. Topology tests with the combined data set rejected the monophyly of the aequatorialis, latifrons (as traditionally circumscribed), and punctatus series but not that of the tigrinus series and Phenacosaurus (as traditionally circumscribed). Our phylogenetic analyses and topology tests indicate that a new taxonomy for Dactyloa is warranted; we therefore present a revised taxonomy based on the results our phylogenetic analyses and employing phylogenetic definitions of taxon names.
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