Molecular phylogenetic studies of Garcinia have identified a large clade whose component species can be identified by flowers that have nectariferous antesepalous appendages or intrastaminal rings and disks. One current hypothesis is that within Clusiaceae these structures represent an outer whorl of stamens, but the position of these structures in some mature flowers of Garcinia does not support this. To better understand the nature of these structures in Garcinia, the floral anatomy of mature staminate and pistillate flowers was studied in G. nervosa and G. xanthochymus. These detailed anatomical studies do not support the hypothesis that the nectariferous appendages or the rings and disks are of staminal origin, because they do not share any unique features with the stamens of staminate flowers or the staminodes of pistillate flowers. Disks in staminate flowers are supplied by several traces that arise directly from the floral stele, while the stamen bundles are supplied by a single trace arising from a petal-stamen bundle. The antesepalous appendages in pistillate flowers receive traces from the floral stele and from the antepetalous staminodes, while the antepetalous staminodes receive their vascularization directly from the stele.
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