Gulls were force fed Clostridium botulinum type E toxin. Their susceptibility varied with the strain of C. botulinum type E toxin, and the LD50, for gulls to a toxic strain was calculated to be approximately 20,000 mouse MLD. Type E botulinal toxin was present in dead alewives taken from the beach and water of Lake Michigan, and thus a vehicle for waterbird intoxication is available.
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