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1 July 1968 The Relationship of Lake Michigan Waterbird Mortalities to Naturally Occurring Clostridium botulinum Type E Toxin
RICHARD H. MONHEIMER
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Abstract

Gulls were force fed Clostridium botulinum type E toxin. Their susceptibility varied with the strain of C. botulinum type E toxin, and the LD50, for gulls to a toxic strain was calculated to be approximately 20,000 mouse MLD. Type E botulinal toxin was present in dead alewives taken from the beach and water of Lake Michigan, and thus a vehicle for waterbird intoxication is available.

MONHEIMER: The Relationship of Lake Michigan Waterbird Mortalities to Naturally Occurring Clostridium botulinum Type E Toxin
RICHARD H. MONHEIMER "The Relationship of Lake Michigan Waterbird Mortalities to Naturally Occurring Clostridium botulinum Type E Toxin," Bulletin of the Wildlife Disease Association 4(3), 81-85, (1 July 1968). https://doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-4.3.81
Received: 6 February 1968; Published: 1 July 1968
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