Jayasundara, S. and Wagner-Riddle, C. 2014. Greenhouse gas emissions intensity of Ontario milk production in 2011 compared with 1991. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 94: 155-173. For identifying opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from milk production in Ontario, this study analyzed GHG intensity of milk [kg CO2 equivalents kg-1 fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM)] in 2011 compared with 1991 considering cow and crop productivity improvements and management changes over this period. It also assessed within-province variability in GHG intensity of milk in 2011 using county-level data related to milk production. After allocating whole-farm GHG emissions between milk and meat using an allocation factor calculated according to the International Dairy Federation equation, GHG intensity of Ontario milk was 1.03 kgCO2eq kg-1 FPCM in 2011, 22% lower than that in 1991 (1.32 kg CO2eq kg-1 FPCM). Greenhouse gas sources directly associated with dairy cattle decreased less (21 and 14% for enteric fermentation and manure management, respectively) than sources associated with feed crop production (30 to 34% for emissions related to N inputs and farm-field work). Proportions of GHG contributed from different life cycle activities did not change, with enteric fermentation contributing 46%, feed crop production 34%, manure management 18% and milking and related activities 2%. Within province, GHG intensity varied from 0.89 to 1.36 kg CO2eq kg-1 FPCM, a variation inversely correlated with milk productivity per cow (kg FPCM sold cow-1 year-1). The existence of a wide variation is strong indication for potential further reductions in GHG intensity of Ontario milk through the identification of practices associated with high efficiency.
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