Michalek, K., Dratwa-Chalupnik, A., Ciechanowicz, A. K. and Malinowski, E. 2014. Aquaporin 2: Identification and analysis of expression in calves' urine during their first month of life. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 94: 653-659. Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) is a vasopressin-regulated water channel of the renal collecting duct and is excreted into urine. Renal excretion of AQP2 has been studied in humans, dogs, rats and mice. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze expression of AQP2 in calves' urine. Short and controlled diarrhea was induced in the calves in order to determine any change in renal excretion of AQP2 and to evaluate a possible role of this channel in water balance during the neonatal period. For this purpose, an additional portion of lactose was administered to the calves with a milk replacer. The present work shows that after transient diarrhea associated with excessive supply of lactose in the diet, a significant increase in renal AQP2 excretion was reported in the first 3 wk of the calves' lives. Renal excretion of this protein in the urine increased significantly despite the absence of changes in the concentration of vasopressin or the osmotic pressure of the blood plasma. The increase observed in the expression of the protein might be associated with the reduction of the total Ca2 concentration in the blood plasma of calves. The results clearly indicate a different mechanism regulating urinary excretion of AQP2 in newborn calves, hitherto unknown. Although elevated renal excretion of AQP2 was observed, there was no increase in the osmolality of the urine in the calves tested.