The objective of this research was to investigate the optimum fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Thai tropical Holstein dairy cattle. First parity data consisting of 20 492 milk yields (MY) records for 24 891 cows for the period 2001 and 2011, were used in the analysis. The analysis used a random regression test-day animal model of third-order Legendre polynomials through the creation of a covariance function based on different FPRs. Variance components were estimated using the Bayesian method via the Gibbs sampling. The estimated heritability of MY in relation to FPR ranged from 0.19 to 0.27 with the pattern being similar to the genetic variances. Genetic correlations of MY at different FPRs were high at consecutive FPRs and then declined to negative in response to greater differences in FPR. Based on the results, it is concluded that the optimum FPR is in the range of 0.9 to 1.9, corresponding to the genetically controlled energy balance for MY in tropical Holsteins.
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