AAC Kongsore is a white-hulled spring oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivar selected and developed under organic management. AAC Kongsore had high yields under organic and conventional production systems, compared to check cultivars (AAC Oravena, Leggett, AC Morgan and CDC Dancer). AAC Kongsore has good physical and milling quality traits.
AAC Kongsore is a white-hulled oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivar developed under organic management by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), Cereal Research Centre (AAFC-CRC), Winnipeg, MB and Brandon Research and Development Centre, in collaboration with the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB. AAC Kongsore was supported for registration at the Prairie Grain Development Committee Meeting in February 2017. It was registered (Reg. No. 8443) by the Variety Registration Office, Canada Food Inspection Agency, on 2 March 2018. AAC Kongsore exhibits good yield potential and agronomic performance under organic management systems in the oat producing areas of western Canada. AAC Kongsore was named to honour Christian Frederik Kongsore, Sr. (1927–2017), co-founder of Grain Millers, Inc., a staunch developer and supporter for milling of organically produced oat.
Pedigree and breeding method
Stainless/OT3013 where OT3013 = SA02468 = AC Morgan/OT299 and OT299 = W96382 = 97RAT23 = AC Rebel/Dumont 48.
AAC Kongsore was developed from a cross made in the spring of 2008 at the AAFC-CRC in Winnipeg, MB. The parents for this cross were selected in an attempt to combine the oat stem rust (OSR) (Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. avenae Eriks. and E. Henn.) and oat crown rust (OCR) (Puccinia coronata Cda f. sp. avenae Eriks.) resistance genes from Stainless (Mitchell Fetch et al. 2011) with the genetics of a breeding line (OT3013) from the Crop Development Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK. The parentage of OT3013 was AC Morgan (Kibite and Menzies 2001) and OT299, a breeding line developed from the cross between AC Rebel (Duguid et al. 2001) and Dumont 48. Dumont 48 resulted from crossing Dumont (McKenzie et al. 1984) with the single gene differential line Pc48 and backcrossing the progeny to Dumont six times. The population produced from the cross of Stainless/OT3013 was labelled 08P14A.
Six F1 seeds from 08P14A were increased in one multiseed hill in New Zealand during the winter of 2008–2009 near Palmerston North under conventional management. The bulked F2 seed was increased in a yield-sized plot (3.3 m2) grown at the University of Manitoba Point land, Winnipeg, MB, again under conventional management. The population was exposed to oat loose smut (Ustilago avenae (Pers.) Rostr.) and OCR and OSR through artificial inoculations with each pathogen. A subsample of this bulk was then advanced in a large F3 bulk plot (12 rows, 5 m long), grown under organic management, at the University of Manitoba Organic site at Glenlea, MB during the 2010 growing season. Any diseases encountered in this nursery were from natural inoculum or artificially inoculated nurseries (OCR, OSR, or Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV)) from the AAFC disease nurseries located to the east. The harvested seed from this bulk plot was sieved to obtain the plumpest filled seed for planting a bulk F4 plot the following generation in 2011, at the University of Manitoba organic site near Carman, MB. An F5 bulk population was grown the following year at the Carman, MB site, from which about 50 panicles were collected randomly, threshed, and the seed was sent to the 2012–2013 winter nursery near Palmerston North, New Zealand. Forty-eight lines, each planted in two multiseed hills (at least 10 seeds per hill, nonreplicated), was evaluated for resistance to lodging, and for resistance or tolerance to the native disease inoculum of oat crown and stem rusts, and BYDV.
Twelve out of sixteen selected lines from this nursery produced enough seed (>220 g) and were planted in the 2013 Preliminary Organic Oat Trial (Prelim O), grown at two organically managed sites (Carman and Glenlea, MB), as well as at two conventionally managed sites (Portage la Prairie, MB and Lacombe, AB) with one replication per location. The plot size was approximately 3.3 m2 and the trial design was a randomized complete block design. Lines grown under organic management were exposed to natural disease infections of OCR and OSR, as well as competitive pressure from various weeds. Disease reaction nurseries were conducted concurrently on conventionally managed land, grown as hill plots at the University of Manitoba Point land in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Seed planted in these hill plots was artificially inoculated prior to planting with loose smut, and seedlings were inoculated in early growth stages with OCR and OSR in separate nurseries. Each year the crown rust inoculum was a composite of all the races collected from the annual survey in previous years. For OSR, an epidemic mixture of races FDJ, NGB, TDD, TGB, TGL, and TJJ increased in a greenhouse was used. As well, a BYDV nursery was grown under conventional management at AAFC-CRC Glenlea, MB where virulent Rhopalosiphum padi L. (oat bird-cherry aphid) nonspecific isolate Y9301 (PAV-like) was used to infect the young plants.
Agronomically superior lines with resistance to diseases were evaluated using near-infrared reflectance spectrophotometry (NIRS) on whole oat to identify lines with superior nutritional quality traits such as lower hull content, higher % protein and β-glucan, and lower oil content. Superior lines, including 08P14A-OA23, were selected for advancement to the 2014 B Organic Trial (BORG), grown at eight organically (or no inputs) managed locations across western Canada, where it was tested as 14BORG25 (Carman and Roblin, MB, Saskatoon and Swift Current, SK, Edmonton, Lamont and Fort Vermilion, AB, and Dawson Creek, BC). This trial attempted to target a seeding rate of over 23 plants/ft2 in each of three replicated plots per location (plot size varied over locations). The trial design was a 5 × 5 lattice. The checks matched those included in the western oat registration trial (CDC Dancer, Morgan, and Leggett). Concurrent disease nurseries were grown at Morden, MB under conventional management to evaluate reactions to smut, rusts, and BYDV. Seedling reactions to selected races of OSR were carried out under greenhouse conditions. Selections for advancement to the next year of testing were based on agronomic merit compared to the check cultivars, disease resistance, and NIRS quality evaluations, including oil, protein, and β-glucan contents, performed on dehulled ground groats.
The selected line, 08P14A-OA23, was labelled as OT8006 and entered into the first year of testing in the Western Cooperative Oat Registration Trial (WCORT) in 2015, and was tested at 13 conventionally managed sites in western Canada and 3 in eastern Canada. In 2016, OT8006 was selected for a second year of testing in the WCORT, as well as in the 2016 BORG, again at organically managed sites across western Canada. Disease reaction nurseries with artificial inoculations were conducted in 2013–2016 on conventionally managed land, including evaluations for BYDV in 2016 at the University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA. Fusarium head blight (FHB) reactions were evaluated in nurseries infected with Fusarium graminearum-infested corn at Morden, MB, and at Harrington, PE. Deoxynivalenol (DON) data from ground whole oat were provided by AAFC Ottawa Research and Development Centre, Ottawa, ON.
Breeder Seed of AAC Kongsore was developed by collecting 250 panicles from a rogued increase grown at Lacombe, AB in 2014. An isolation of 220 1 m long rows was grown at Brandon, MB in 2015, separated from each other adjacently by fall cereal, and isolated from other cereals by at least 10 m. The isolation rows were visually evaluated and selected for uniformity. One hundred fifty-two 15 m rows were planted in 2016 in Indian Head, Saskatchewan from rows selected from the isolation. Twelve nonuniform lines were discarded from this increase. One hundred forty rows were used to produce approximately 260 kg of Breeder Seed.
Area of adaptation
Grown under organic management systems, AAC Kongsore had high yields, significantly higher than AAC Oravena (Mitchell Fetch et al. 2022), except in the Black and Grey soil zone (Table 1). AAC Kongsore had the highest mean yield compared to the checks in the Brown soil zone, but similar to AC Morgan and CDC Dancer across all of the testing zones in 2014 and 2016 (Table 1). Means for agronomic, physical quality, and milling quality traits are presented in Table 2. The mean height of AAC Kongsore was taller than the conventionally developed checks, but significantly shorter than AAC Oravena, the organically developed check cultivar in the test. Lodging resistance was good, similar to AC Morgan, the lodging resistant check. Test weight was higher than all of the checks, as well as thousand kernel weight. Percent plump kernels was significantly higher than that of AAC Oravena (Table 2). Mean kernel protein content for AAC Kongsore was higher than the checks, while β-glucan content was similar to or significantly higher than the conventionally developed checks. Oil content was significantly higher than all the checks.
Grain yield (kg·ha−1) of AAC Kongsore (OT8006) and check cultivars in the “B” Organic Yield Trial (BORG) for 2014 and 2016 in western Canada by soil zones.
Summary of agronomic data for AAC Kongsore (OT8006) and check cultivars in the “B” Organic Test (BORG) for 2014 and 2016 in western Canada.
Under conventional management during testing in the 2015 and 2016 WCORT, AAC Kongsore yielded comparably to AC Morgan in all soil and climactic zones (Table 3), but significantly outyielded Leggett (Mitchell Fetch et al. 2007) and CDC Dancer when averaged across years and zones. The mean test weight of AAC Kongsore was higher than the checks in conventional production systems (Table 4). Thousand kernel weight was significantly higher than the checks (Table 4).
Grain yield (kg·ha−1) of AAC Kongsore (OT8006) and check cultivars in the Western Cooperative Oat Registration Yield Trial (WCORT) for 2015 and 2016 by soil zones.
Summary of agronomic data for AAC Kongsore (OT8006) and check cultivars in the Western Cooperative Oat Registration Trial (WCORT) for 2015 and 2016 in western Canada.
Under both types of production management, heading and maturity were significantly later than the checks (Tables 2 and 4), height was taller than the checks, but lodging resistance was similar to the checks. Mean % plump seeds and protein content were high under both types of management, and β-glucan and total dietary fibre (Table 4) content was suitable for milling. Oil content was significantly higher than the checks, but may be well-suited for cosmetic production or feeding end uses (Tables 2 and 4).
AAC Kongsore showed a moderately susceptible to susceptible reaction to BYDV when tested in Canada (2013–2014; data not presented) but was resistant compared to the check cultivars in the Illinois nursery in 2016 (Table 5), possibly due to the presence of different viral races, or environmental conditions during screening. AAC Kongsore was consistently resistant to loose smut.
Summary of disease reactions for AAC Kongsore (OT8006) and check cultivars in the Western Cooperative Oat Registration Test 2015–2016.
AAC Kongsore had a moderately resistant to moderately susceptible field rating to OCR, but was resistant to the individual races of OCR applied at the seedling stage, except for LQCB-91 (CR259), indicating it may carry the single gene, Pc91, for resistance (Table 5). This gene has been recently reduced in resistance capacity due to changes in the pathogen populations in the eastern prairies of Canada (Menzies et al. 2019). The gene was effective until 2011, when changes began to occur in the prevalent crown rust pathogen population, with virulence to Pc91 increasing. By 2015, when AAC Kongsore was being tested in the WCORT, more than 67% of the isolates in the rust population were virulent to Pc91. AAC Kongsore ranged from moderately susceptible to intermediate with low severity in field reactions to OSR, which is similar to the checks, and it is resistant to the individual races of OSR, including TJJ (NA67) (Table 5).
AAC Kongsore had higher DON levels compared to the checks in the 2015 and 2016 WCORT (Table 5).
COLEOPTILE COLOUR: Green
JUVENILE GROWTH HABIT: Erect
SEEDLING LEAVES: Leaf blade and sheath are pubescent
Adult plant characteristics
FLAG LEAF: Short to medium length, medium width, erect
LEAF MARGIN: Glabrous
PLANT HEIGHT: 3–6 cm taller than AC Morgan
DENSITY: Lax to Intermediate
PANICLE BRANCHES: Semi-erect to horizontal, 6 whorls, attached at angle > 45°
RACHILLA: Glabrous; medium long
NUMBER OF FLORETS: Two or less
SPIKELET SEPARATION: Semi-abscission
GLUMES: Yellow at maturity
Maintenance and distribution of pedigreed seed stocks
Breeder Seed of AAC Kongsore will be maintained by the Seed Increase Unit, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Farm, Indian Head, Saskatchewan, Canada, S0G 2K0. Multiplication and distribution of pedigreed seed will be through Grain Millers Inc., 1 Grain Millers Drive, Yorkton, SK S3N 3Z4.
We gratefully acknowledge funding and research grants provided by AAFC, the Organic Science Clusters (Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada and the Organic Federation of Canada), Prairie Oat Growers Association (POGA), and the Prairie Oat Breeding Consortium (POBC). Gratitude is also extended to Dr. Fred Kolb for BYDV testing, Dr. Richard Martin and Dr. Barbara Blackwell for providing data regarding FHB reactions. Thanks to the technical staff at all of the trial locations for their support in developing this cultivar.